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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʒ́ǝ̆ / *ć̣ǝ̆
Meaning: negative particle
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʒ́ǝ̆ / *ć̣ǝ̆
Basque: *ese
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-basq,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʒ́ǝ̆ / *ć̣ǝ̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: a negative particle
Proto-Nakh: *ca
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *-č̣i
Proto-Tsezian: *-č̣
Proto-Lezghian: *č:V
Notes: A common EC negative particle; it is still used as a separate word in Nakh, but mostly as a suffix (or in conjunction with other negative particles) in other EC languages. A certain instability of laryngeal features is characteristic for auxiliary morphemes.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ca
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Chechen: ca
Ingush: ca
Batsbi: ca
Comments: Cf. also Chech. -za 'negative participle'.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *-č̣i
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Avar: -č̣o
Andian language: -č̣i
Karata: -č̣e
Botlikh: -č̣-
Bagvalal: -č̣e
Godoberi: -č̣i, -ič̣a
Comments: One of PA negative particles. In Av. it is used in the past tense (and as a general negative in the compound -he-č̣o); in Andian it is rather rare, but it is the most common negative particle in Botl., God., Bagv. and Kar.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-č̣
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Tsezi: -č̣
Khvarshi: -č̣
Bezhta: -eč̣e
Gunzib: gɔ-č̣
Comments: PTsKh *-č̣ (used only together with other negative particles). In Gunz. and Bezht. the morpheme is used only within the negative predicate "is not" (cf. also Khv. go-b-č̣i id.).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-khv,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *č:V
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not (negative particle)
Lezghian:
Rutul: ǯ-
Archi: -ču-gu
Comment: This particle forms the negative past in Lezg., general negative in Rut. and dubitative (in conjunction with another particle -gu) in Arch.

    See Aлексеев 1985, 101.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-rut,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ese
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: not
Araban: ez
Bizkaian: ez, (arc, Bermeo, Gernika, Mundaka, Plentzia) ze
Gipuzkoan: ez
High Navarrese: ez
Low Navarrese: ez
Salazarese: ez
Lapurdian: ez
Baztanese: ez
Aezkoan: ez
Zuberoan: ez
Roncalese: ez
Comments: In archaic B ze was used when followed by subjunctive or imperative verb forms. In Azkue’s time (~ 1900) this usage of ze was still current in Bermeo, Gernika, Mundaka, and Plentzia. Mitxelena proposed *eze (our *ese), Trask *eza ~ *eze, with the variants ze ~ ez arising from different accentuations of phrases.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CV
Meaning : negative particle
Afroasiatic : Chad. *sV ?
Sino-Caucasian : *ʒ́ǝ̆ / *ć̣ǝ̆
Austric : PAN *ejaʔ 'vetative, don't', *qazi 'no, not'
globet-meaning,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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