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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *[ź]V
Meaning: demonstrative stem
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: PEC *še (dem. stem) [perhaps *źwV?]
Sino-Tibetan: *śĕ-
Yenisseian: *si- / *su-
Burushaski: *se
Comments and references : [Entries in NCED are to be rewritten; for *źwV consider also PST *ćhā ( ~ ʒ́h-) 'thing']. HGC 36, NSC 64 *šV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian:
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Proto-Lezghian: *šä- ?
caucet-prnum,caucet-lezg,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *šV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: that
Tsakhur: šen
Udi: šo
Comment: A Tsakh.-Udi isogloss, with uncertain further etymology.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-cak,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *śĕ-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: this, that
Chinese: *se this.
Burmese: sań this, that.
Kachin: šiŋ2 thus or this; ši1 he, she, it.
Comments: Mat. 168. Cf. also *ś[ua] 'other'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: sī
Preclassic Old Chinese: se
Classic Old Chinese: se
Western Han Chinese: se
Eastern Han Chinese: sje
Early Postclassic Chinese: sje
Middle Postclassic Chinese: sje
Late Postclassic Chinese: sje
Middle Chinese: sje
English meaning : a near demonstrative: this, he, she, it, they
Shuowen gloss: 析也.從斤.其聲.詩曰.斧以斯之. [717]
Comments: The basic meaning of the character is 'to lop off' (thus in Shi 141,1), but it is much more commonly used for the homonymous pronoun *se 'this'; later also for *se-s, MC sjè, Pek. sì 'completely'. OC *se is also rather frequently used as a prosodic syllable or word extender (see Schüssler 577-8). Shuowen's considering 其 *gǝ as phonetic is quite erroneous.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 0
Four-angle index: 0
Karlgren code: 0869 a-b
Shijing occurrences: 5.1, 19.1, 19.2, 19.3
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1404
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三平支心
ZIHUI: 2448 0425
Beijing: si_ 11
Jinan: si_ 11
Xi'an: si_ 11
Taiyuan: si_ 1
Hankou: si_ 11
Chengdu: si_ 11
Yangzhou: si_ 11
Suzhou: si_ 11
Wenzhou: si_ 11
Changsha: si_ 11
Shuangfeng: si_ 11
Nanchang: si_ 11
Meixian: si_ 11
Guangzhou: ši 11
Xiamen: su 11
Chaozhou: si_ 11
Fuzhou: sy 11
Shanghai: si_ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: si_ 1
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *si- / *su-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stem of demonstrative pronouns
Ket: śi:ŋ // śīŋ 'here', Kur. śūŋ 'there' (Werner 2, 209: śɔ:ŋ3 / su:ŋ3 'there', śɛ:ŋ3 / śi:ŋ3 'here')
Comments: ССЕ 273. Werner 2, 209 *si-, *se- / *sǝ-, *so- / *su-.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *se
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: that
Yasin: se, esé
Hunza: isé, es
Nagar: isé, es
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CV
Meaning : demonstrative pronoun
Eurasiatic : *sV
Afroasiatic : *šV 'he, that' (Sem., Eg., Cush.) + Eg. sw 'he, him', ECush *ʔis- 'self, oneself'
Sino-Caucasian : *[ź]V
Austric : PAN *si ia 'this, that'
Amerind (misc.) : *sa 'that' (R 740) [+ A]
Reference : ND 2006, 2135.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *sV
Meaning: 3rd person pronoun
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *so-; *swe-
Altaic: *sV́ ( ~ *š-)
Uralic: *sE (also *s/šEwV)
Kartvelian: *ś-
References: ND 2006 *sE 'he/she'; 2135 *s/šEwV 'oneself, self' (hardly distinct).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *so-
Meaning: pron. dem.
Hittite: a-si 'der betreffende', h.l. asi- (aśi-) (Tischler 80-81), si- (sa-) 'er', -si- 'sein, ihr', -si 'ihm, ihr, sich' (Friedrich 192)
Tokharian: B ṣañ 'own' (Adams 646); B samp 'that (one)' (676); A sa-, B se 'this' (PT *se) (698)
Old Indian: sá, sáḥ, f. sā 'this'; m. syáḥ, f. syā́ 'this' (acc. sīm)
Avestan: ha, hō, f. hā 'dieser, diese'; acc. hīm
Other Iranian: OPers m. hyah, f. hyā 'dies'; acc. OPers šim
Old Greek: ho, hǟ Artikel; hó- 'dieser'; Soph. hī́ 'sie'
Germanic: Got sa, sō usw.; Got si, OHG sī, si 'sie'
Latin: sapsa (OLat) 'ipsa', sum, sam, sōs, sās 'eum, eam, eos, eas'
Other Italic: Osk exo- 'hic'
Celtic: Gaul so-sin nemeton 'hoc sacellum', OIr (s)a n- neutr. des Artikels und Relativpron., -s- infigiertes pron. des 3. sg. f. und 3. pl.; OIr se 'dies', se, sa particula agentis der 1. sg.; OIr sī 'sie'
References: WP II 509
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-refer,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1817
Root: so(s),
English meaning: dem. stem; he, she
German meaning: "ὁ, ἡ"
Grammatical comments: ursprünglich nur Nom. Sg. m. f., die andern Kasus vom Stamme to-; fem. auch
Material: Ai. sá und saḥ (*sos), f. sā́, av. ha und , f. (auch in ai. ē-ṣá, av. -ša `dieser'; mit Partikel -u ai. a-sāu, av. hāu, ap. hauv m. f. `dieser, diese', vgl. gr. οὗ[ιος]);

    gr. ὁ, ἡ (dor. ἁ:) Artikel (att. usw. auch Pl. οἱ, αἱ gegenüber älterem dor. τοί, ταί); substantivisch ὅς (καὶ ὅς, ἦδ'ὅς) aus *sos (oder si̯os), wozu sich n. ὅ, Akk. ὅν, ἥν usw. gesellte; ferner das mit den το-Formen als Relativum gebrauchte ὅς bei Herodot; *so-u-, -u in οὗ[τος], αὕ[τη]; ὅ-δε `dieser';

    alb. *so, * in k-ü `dieser', këjó `diese' (*ke-o) und a-ǘ `ille', a-jó `illa'; alat. sa-psa `ipsa', sum, sam, sōs, sās `eum, eam, eos, eas'; *so- in osk. exo- `hic' (z. B. Abl. f. exac) aus *e-ke-so- (zum Vorderglied s. ko- `dieser');

    gall. so-sin, so-sio Akk. Sg. n., air. (s)a n- Neutr. des Artikels, und Relativpronomen, s infigiertes Pron. der 3. Sg. f. und 3. Pl. (impu `circum eos' imb + ṡu aus *sōns) usw.; air. Demonstrativ -so (*sos) `dieser, -e, -es'; bret. ho-n `unser', ho-z `euer';

    got. sa, , aisl. , ; ags. sē̆ m.;

    toch. A m. sǝ-m, f. -m, n. tǝ-m; toch. В m. se (*so), f. , n. te;

    zum anaphorischen so gehört auch gthav. hōi, jav. , šē, ap. šaiy, gr. οἱ `ihm';

    daneben ein erweit. St. s(i)i̯o-, s(i)i̯ā-: ai. syáḥ und (nach sá) syá m. syā́ f., ap. hyah m., hyā f.; vielleicht air. se `dies' aus *si̯od, und -se, -sa particula augens der 1. Sg.; sehr unsicher ist Zurückführung von aisl. siā `dieser' auf ein altes *si̯o.

    Fem. *: gr. `sie' (Soph.), air. `sie', got. si, ahd. , si `sie'; dazu nach Rosenfeld, Forsch. u. Fortschr. 29, 176 schwachtonig si in urnord. si-ainaR `jener', sa-si `dieser', su-si `diese', þat-si `dieses'; genus-indifferent sind Akk. ai. sīm, av. hīm, ap. šim.

References: WP. II 509, Wackernagel-Debrunner III 536 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. 1, 610 f., Pedersen Toch. 1113 f.
Pages: 978-979
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sV́ ( ~ *š-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: this, that (3d pers. pronoun)
Russian meaning: этот,тот (мест. 3-го л.)
Turkic: *-sɨ/-si
Japanese: *sǝ́-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 277. The root is rare in Altaic, but has reliable external parallels (see МССНЯ, 1, 7). It may also be represented in Turk. *sajɨ- 'each, every', Mong. sajiki 'the same').
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *-sɨ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: possess. suffix (3d person)
Russian meaning: притяжательный суффикс 3-го лица
Old Turkic: -sɨ
Karakhanid: -sɨ
Turkish: -sɨ
Tatar: -sɨ
Middle Turkic: -sɨ
Uzbek: -sɨ
Uighur: -sɨ
Sary-Yughur: -sɨ
Azerbaidzhan: -sɨ
Turkmen: -sɨ
Khakassian: -sɨ
Shor: -sɨ
Oyrat: -sɨ
Chuvash: -šǝ
Yakut: -ta
Tuva: -zɨ
Tofalar: -zɨ
Kirghiz: -sɨ
Kazakh: -sɨ
Noghai: -sɨ
Bashkir: -hɨ
Balkar: -sɨ
Gagauz: -sɨ
Karaim: -sɨ
Karakalpak: -sɨ
Salar: -sɨ
Kumyk: -sɨ
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sǝ́-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: a deictic root (this)
Russian meaning: дейктическая основа (этот)
Old Japanese: so-
Middle Japanese: só-
Tokyo: sò-re
Kyoto: só-ré
Kagoshima: sói
Comments: JLTT 529. Cf. also the widely used OJ deictic / emphatic particle and pronoun si.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 931
Proto: *sE
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: he, she, it
German meaning: er, sie, es
Finnish: hän 'er, sie, es'
Estonian: en-d, en-nast, en-da, ene-se 'mich, dich usw.'
Saam (Lapp): sǭn (sū-), sǫn (su-) (N) 'he, she', sån (L), sonn, son (T Kld. Not. A) 'er, sie, es'
Mordovian: son (E M)
Udmurt (Votyak): so (S G) 'jene(r), er, sie, es' ?
Komi (Zyrian): si̮ (S P) 'er, sie, es' (in combinations); sije̮ (S), sija (P) 'er, sie, es, jene(r)', si.da (PO) 'er, der, dieser, jener' ?
Khanty (Ostyak): lö̆ɣ (V), jö̆ɣ (Vj.), tĕw (DN), luw (O) 'er'
Mansi (Vogul): tüw (TJ), täw (KU P), taw (So.)
Hungarian: ő 'er, sie, es'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ś-
Russian meaning: местоименная основа
English meaning: pronominal stem
Georgian: e-s-e 'this', i-s-i 'that', e-s-re 'so'
Megrel: a-š-i, ta-š-i, e-š-i, te-š-i
Megrel meaning (Rus.): так
Megrel meaning (Eng.): so
Svan: e-š-i
Svan meaning (Rus.): несмотря на
Svan meaning (Eng.): despite
Laz: a-š-o, e-š-o
Laz meaning (Rus.): так
Laz meaning (Eng.): so
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 173, EWK 310. Ср. ПИЕ *so- 'этот, тот', ПФУ *sä 'он, она' (см. Бомхард 1996, 163); ср. также алт. *sV 'тот'.
kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-mgmean,kartet-emgmean,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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