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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *sV́QV̆
Meaning: to live, breathe
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *săk
Yenisseian: *dǝʔq-
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *sǝ̆k
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: breathe
Chinese: *sǝk breath, sigh; rest.
Burmese: ǝsak breath, LB *sakx.
Kachin: saʔ3 to breathe, nsaʔ2 air, gas.
Kiranti: *sǝk
Comments: PG *sàk breath; Rawang sa breath of life; Kham sā̀. Sh. 52; Ben. 146; Mat. 202. Luce 69 compares also Tib. srog life.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: xí
Preclassic Old Chinese: sǝk
Classic Old Chinese: sǝk
Western Han Chinese: sǝk
Eastern Han Chinese: sjǝk
Early Postclassic Chinese: sjɨk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: sjɨk
Late Postclassic Chinese: sjɨk
Middle Chinese: sjɨk
English meaning : to rest
Russian meaning[s]: 1) дышать; дыхание; перевести дух; отдыхать; отдых; 2) прекратить(ся); остановить(ся); перестать; погасить; погаснуть (об огне); 3) утихомирить, успокоить; уладить (инцидент); 4) прибавление, наращение; 5) дети; потомство; 6) проценты на капитал; 7) новость, известие; 8) счетный суффикс для мыслей
Shuowen gloss: 喘也.從心自. [502]
Comments: The original and more common now meaning is 'to breathe'; but during Early Zhou the word is attested only with the meaning 'to rest'. In Shi 9,1 息 is obviously a miswriting of 思 (*sǝ, as a final particle) under the influence of the preceding character 休 'to rest'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 61
Four-angle index: 8382
Karlgren code: 0925 a
Shijing occurrences: 9.1, 19.2_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 933
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 曾開三入職心
ZIHUI: 1873 0692
Beijing: śi 11
Jinan: śi 11
Xi'an: śi 11
Taiyuan: śiǝʔ 41
Hankou: śi 12
Chengdu: śi 12
Yangzhou: śiǝʔ 4
Suzhou: siôʔ 41
Wenzhou: sei 41
Changsha: si 4
Shuangfeng: śi 12
Nanchang: śit 41
Meixian: sit 41
Guangzhou: šîk 41
Xiamen: sîk 41 (lit.); sit 41
Chaozhou: sek 41
Fuzhou: seiʔ 41
Shanghai: sîʔ 4
Zhongyuan yinyun: si 42
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *sǝk
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: breathe, breath
Limbu: sɔkma
Dumi: sōʔmkaʔhim
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: sɔkma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: breath
Comments: vide hikmaʔ, ho:pmaʔ, so:mmaʔ, uNmaʔ.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: so:ʔmkaʔhim
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: adj.
Meaning: breathing, respiring, animate.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *dǝʔq-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to live, life
Ket: dʌʔq
Yug: dʌʔx // dʌʔq
Comments: ССЕ 221. Werner 1, 215.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVHV
Meaning : blood, breath
Eurasiatic : *ʔVsxV
Sino-Caucasian : *sV́QV̆
Amerind (misc.) : *ʔita (rather: *ʔica) 'blood' (R 71) ?
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔVsxV
Meaning: blood
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *esH-r
Altaic: *sḕga
Uralic: ? *śakśa 'fat, grease'; + ObU *čōkǝs 'bear's blood'; ? Mari KB šäkš, U B šekš, M śekś 'Galle'
Kartvelian: *zisxL-
References: МССНЯ 345; ND 2694 *že[ś]χ/qV 'blood' (Kartv., FU, TM + Eg.?).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *as-er/n-, *es-er/n- <PIH *esH-er/n->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: blood
Hittite: eshar, ishar gen. e/ishanas (Tischler 112ff)
Tokharian: A ysār, B yasar `Blut' (PT *yäsār) (Adams 487)
Old Indian: ásr̥k, instr. asr̥jā, gen. asnáḥ `blood'; postved. asra- n. id.
Armenian: ariun `Blut'
Old Greek: éar, ẹ̄̂ar, ē̂ar n. `Blut' (Lehnw. < anat. íkhōr)
Baltic: *asen-i-, *asin-i- c.
Latin: aser, OLat assyr n. `Blut', assarātum `ein Trank aus Wein und Blut gemischt' [sanguis - most probably also here < *asen-gʷ-]
Russ. meaning: кровь
References: WP I 162
Comments: Cf. also *sān- 'blood; health'.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *asen-i-, *asin-i- c.
Meaning: blood
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lettish: asins (gen. -s, dial. asin̨a/asina; pl. asinis, gen. asin̨u/asinu) f./m., dial. asnis f.; asens m.; pl. asin̨i, asen̨i, ašn̨i (veraltet) `Blut'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lett,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 521
Root: ē̆s-r̥(gʷ), Gen. es-n-és
English meaning: blood
German meaning: `Blut'
Grammatical comments: alter r/n-Stamm
Material: Ai. ásr̥k, ásr̥t, Gen. asnáḥ `Blut', asr̥jā RV. 3, 8, 4, nachved. asra- n. ds.;

    arm. ariun `Blut' (*esr̥-);

    gr. poet. ἔαρ, εἰ̃αρ (ἦαρ Hes.) `Blut' (wohl urgr. *ἦαρ mit ders. Dehnstufe wie ἦπαρ; s.Schulze Qu. ep. 165 f.);

    alat. aser (asser), assyr `Blut', assarātum `Trank aus Wein und Blut gemischt' (wohl aser mit einfachem s; vgl. WH. I 72);

    lett. asins `Blut' (*esen-?), Pl. asinis; vgl. dazu Trautmann Bsl. Wb. 14, Mühlenbach-Endzelin Lett.-D. Wb. I 143;

    toch. A ysār;

    hitt. e-eš-ḫar (esḫar), Gen. esḫanas.

References: WP. I 162, WH. I 72, 849, Meillet Esquisse2 39.
Pages: 343
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-grammar,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sḕgù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: healthy; blood
Russian meaning: здоровый; кровь
Turkic: *sạg
Mongolian: *saji(n)
Tungus-Manchu: *sēgV-
Korean: *sà'ó-náb-
Japanese: *sùkù-jaka
Comments: EAS 85, KW 319, Владимирцов 266-267, Poppe 29 (Turk.-Mong.; Doerfer TMN 1, 372 refutes the match for absolutely unclear reasons), АПиПЯЯ 289, Мудрак Дисс. 182. The semantic correlation 'blood': 'health, healthy' is rather usual, thus the TM form belongs here with great probability. Kor. has a usual verbal low tone.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *sạg
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: healthy
Russian meaning: здоровый
Old Turkic: saɣ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: saɣ (MK)
Turkish: saɣ,
Tatar: saw
Middle Turkic: saɣ (Pav. C., AH)
Uzbek: sɔɣ
Uighur: saɣ
Sary-Yughur: saɣ
Azerbaidzhan: saɣ
Turkmen: saG
Shor: saɣ
Oyrat: sū, su
Halaj: sāɣ
Chuvash: sɨvъ
Kirghiz:
Kazakh: saw
Noghai: saw; sawlaj 'whole, all'
Bashkir: haw
Balkar: sav, sau
Gagauz:
Karaim: saw
Karakalpak: saw
Salar: sax 'right' (ССЯ)
Kumyk: saw
Comments: TMN 3, 334-5, EDT 803, ЭСТЯ 7.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *saji(n)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 good 2 beautiful
Russian meaning: 1 хороший 2 красивый
Written Mongolian: sajin 1 (L 660), sajiqan 2 (L 661)
Middle Mongolian: sajin (HY 55, SH), ṣājn 'healthy' (IM), sajn (MA)
Khalkha: sajn 1, sajxan 2
Buriat: hajn 1 hajxa(n) 2
Kalmuck: sǟn 1
Ordos: sǟn
Dongxian: sain 1, saiGan 2
Baoan: saŋ 1, sexaŋ 2
Dagur: sain 1, saixan (saikan) 2 (Тод. Даг. 161, (MD 204, 205)
Shary-Yoghur: sain 1, saiχGan 2
Monguor: sǝ̄n (SM 343), (MGCD: sain ) 1; sǝ̄Gan (SM 341) (MGCD saixan) 2
Mogol: sōīn
Comments: KW 319, MGCD 588, 589, TMN 1, 371. Mong. > Manchu, Jurchen sain (see Rozycki 173); > Chuv. sajъ (Róna-Tas KM).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *sēgV-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 blood 2 red
Russian meaning: 1 кровь 2 красный (*sēgǯe-)
Evenki: sēkse 1, (dial.) segǯen 2
Even: hēs 1
Negidal: sēkse 1
Spoken Manchu: šiŋǝ 1 (165)
Literary Manchu: seŋgi 1
Jurchen: sei̯ŋ-ŋi (512) 1
Ulcha: sēkse 1, segǯe(n) 2
Orok: sekse 1, sēgde(n) 2
Nanai: sēkse 1, sēgǯẽ 2
Oroch: sēkse 1, segǯe 2
Udighe: sakeä 1
Solon: sēkče 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 136, 138-139. The pure root is preserved in Evk. sēɣī-, Neg. sē- 'to bleed, flow (of blood)'.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sà'ó-náb-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: strong, tough
Russian meaning: сильный, крепкий
Modern Korean: sānap- (-w-) 'rough, fierce, violent'
Middle Korean: sà'ó-náp- (-b-)
Comments: Nam 284, KED 869.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sùkù-jaka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: healthy
Russian meaning: здоровый
Middle Japanese: sukujaka, sùkùjókà
Tokyo: sukóyaka
Kyoto: sùkóyákà
Kagoshima: sukoyaká
Comments: JLTT 533.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 938
Proto: *śakśa
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: fat, grease
German meaning: Speck, Griebe, Fett
Saam (Lapp): (cævca (N) 'lardum phocae in frustula tenuia dissectum, quo facilius pingue liquescat' - rejected by Redei)
Udmurt (Votyak): (či̮ži̮ 'Griebe, Speckgriebe' - rejected by Redei)
Khanty (Ostyak): săχsǝ (DN Ni.) 'Fischfett; (Kuh)Butter; Dickmilch, Sahne; Talg, Fett', săɣsaŋ (Vj.) 'fett (Fleisch)'
Nenets (Yurak): (śāńćū (O) 'aus Rentierknochen gekochtes, geronnenes Fett' - rejected by Redei)
Addenda: Kar. č́akšu 'Griebe von geschmolzener Butter', č́ikšu 'масленные одойки; Merondahine'; Olon. šakšu; Lüd. šakšu 'Grieben, die sich beim Schmelzen von schlechter Butter auf dem Boden des Fasses häufen' (Kar. or Lüd. > Veps. šakš 'Griebe'; Veps. or Kar. > Komi šakša 'Griebenreste')
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-saa,uralet-udm,uralet-khn,uralet-nen,uralet-add,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *zisxL-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: кровь
English meaning: blood
Georgian: sisxl-
Georgian meaning (Rus.): кpовь, диал. zisxa 'дизентерия'
Georgian meaning (Engl.): blood, dial. zisxa 'dysentery'
Megrel: zisxǝr-, zisxir-, zisxer-
Svan: zisx-
Laz: di(n)cxir-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 87, EWK 144-145.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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