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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *zV
Meaning: I
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *zō
Sino-Tibetan: *CVŋ (?)
Yenisseian: *ʔaʒ
Burushaski: *ʒ́a
Comments and references : HGC 20.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *zō
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I
Proto-Nakh: *sō
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *di-n
Proto-Tsezian: *dǝ
Proto-Lak: t:u-
Proto-Dargwa: *du
Proto-Lezghian: *zo-n
Proto-Khinalug:
Proto-West Caucasian: *sA
Notes:

    Cf. also the HU evidence: HU *(j)es- (nom./erg. > Hurr. iš-te nom.,
iža-š erg., Ur. ješǝ), *so- (obl. > Hurr. žo-/žu-, Ur. šo-).

    The PNC 1-st p. pronoun needs some comments. Like other personal
pronouns, it is characterized by unique phonetic features (voiced fricative in
PNC, the development *z > *d in Av.-And.-Tsez., Darg. and Lak. /where *d >
t:/). However, forms with *d- certainly can not be kept apart from forms with
*z, since morphologically they match each other very well.

    The direct stem may be safely reconstructed as *zō,
sporadically with a pronominal suffix *-n - *zōn (cf. PA
*di-n, PL *zo-n; on Lak. nu and Darg. nu see *nV). A possible
trace of *-n is also the -ǝ vowel in PC: it probably reflects
*-ǝ̃ < *-ō-n with loss of nasalization (without it *-ɨ would be
expected in PC). The vowel -u- in Av. (du-n) and Darg. (du)
should best be explained by the influence of the 2-d p. pro-
noun q.v.

    The evidence of PN, PHU, PL and Khin. allows to recons-
truct three different oblique stems for the 1-st p. pronoun.
The one is *zā- /PL *za- = PN *sa-(*sā-)/, the other - *ʔez(V)
/PL *-ez = PHU *(j)es- = PN *ʔas = Khin. as/; finally, the
third is *ʔiz(V) /PL gen. *-iz = Khin. i/e/. It is most pro-
bable that the third stem is reflected in Darg. *di-, PC *di-,
PA *di- (where it lost the initial vowel and became the gene-
ral oblique stem). In Lak. and HU, where the obl. stem is t:u-
and *so- respectively, it is probably due to a merger of PEC
dir. *zō- and obl. *zā-.

    We may present the following solution for this very complicated
picture. The original ergative was *ʔez(V), preserved in PN as *ʔas; in
PHU it became also nominative (merging of erg./nom. in pronouns is rather usual
in ergative languages). In PL and Khin. this stem shifted to dative - which is
parallel to the general shift of the PEC ergative case in *-s_V > PL dative
*-s: (note, however, that in Khin. the erg. form probably still reflects
the same stem *ʔez(V)). The obl. stem *zā- then took upon itself
ergative functions in PL. Finally, the original genitive stem *ʔiz(V) was
preserved as such in PL, Khin and (with vowel loss) in PD, PA and PC; in all
other languages it was superseded by the general oblique stem *zā-
(sometimes even by the dir. stem *zō-).

    To sum up: PEC (PNC) dir. stem *zō(-n); erg. stem *ʔez(V); gen.
stem *ʔiz(V); general oblique stem *zā-.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 273; Abdokov 1983, 137.



caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *sō
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I
Chechen: so
Ingush: so
Batsbi: so
Comments: The PN paradigm is *sō (nom.), *sa- (gen., cf. Chech. sa-n, Bacb. sa-jĩ), *ʔas (erg., cf. Chech. as, Ing. az). The length in *sō is regularly shortened, but has been preserved in derivate forms like *sō-nu (dat.) > Chech. sū-na.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *di-n
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I (1st p. pr.)
Avar: dun
Chadakolob: dun
Andian language: din
Akhvakh: dene
Chamalal: dī̃
Tindi: de
Karata: den
Botlikh: den(i)
Bagvalal: dẽ
Godoberi: den
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *dǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I (1st ps. pronoun)
Tsezi: di
Ginukh: de
Khvarshi: da
Inkhokvari: do
Bezhta: do
Gunzib:
Comments: The paradigm of PTs 1st person pronoun is dir. (nom., erg.) *dǝ, obl. *di-: cf. Tsez. di, de-, Gin. de, di- (*de-ji-), Inkh. do, di-, Gunz. dǝ, di-, Bezht. do, di-.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: t:u-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I (obl. base)
Lak form: t:u-
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *du
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I (1st p. pr.)
Chiragh: du
Comments: Cf. also Tsud., Sirg., Kait., Kub. du. A different phonetic development (*-z > -s) is probably witnessed in the lit. 1st person future ending -s.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *zo-n
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I (1-t p.pr.)
Lezghian: zun
Tabasaran: uzu
Agul: zun
Rutul:
Tsakhur: zu
Kryz: zɨn
Budukh: zɨn
Archi: zon
Udi: zu
Comment: The paradigm of PL *zo-n is: dir. *zo(n), obl. *za-, gen. *=iz. Cf. Lezg. zun, za, gen. zi(n); Tab. uzu, gen. jiz; Ag. zun, za-, gen. jaz; Rut. zɨ, za, gen. iz-dɨ; Tsakh. zɨ, za-, gen. jiz-ɨn; Arch. zon, za-, gen. -is: (with a specific phonetic development); Kryz. zɨn, zä-; Bud. zɨn, zǝ-; Ud. zu, za-, gen. bezi.

    Another archaic PL stem, dative *=ez, has been preserved only in Arch. (as =ez) (although it is possible that Ud. gen. b-ezi is a result of merger of PL *=iz and *=ez).

    Cf. Лексика 1971, 228; Гигинейшвили 1977, 70.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root:
North Caucasian etymology: 2283
Meaning: I
Khinalug form:
Comments: The pronoun has a specific paradigm: nom. zɨ, erg. jä, gen. i/e, dat. as. It is most probable that the erg. form was *jäz and gen. - *iz/*ez with loss of the rare Auslaut *-z (dat. as should be treated as *az + dat. marker *-s).
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *sA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I (1st p. pr.)
Abkhaz: sa-rá
Abaza: sa-ra
Adyghe: sa
Kabardian: sa
Ubykh: sǝ-ʁʷá
Comments: PAT *sa(-ra) (cf. also Bz. sa-rá), PAK *sa. The root (in the Ablaut grade *s(ǝ)) is used in all languages as a pronoun prefix of the 1st person sing.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *CVŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I, we
Comments: A relic pronoun, preserved in: Motuo-Monpa ʒ́aŋ 'I', Bodo *sǝʔŋ 'we' and perhaps Qiang cǝ-χa, Taraon ŋ.1 ću.3 'we'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-comments,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔaʒ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: I
Ket: āt "I"; ъ̄t (South. ъ̄t / ъ̄tn1) "we"; ъ̄tna, ъ̄ta "our"
Yug: at "I"; ъtn "we"; ъtna "our"
Kottish: ai, pl. ajoŋ "I"; Ass. ajun (М., Сл., Кл.) "we", aj (М., Сл., Кл.), ja (Кл.) "I"
Arin: aj (М., Сл., Кл.), ä (Кл.,) "I"; aiŋ (М., Сл., Кл.) "we"
Pumpokol: ádɨŋ (Сл.) "we"; ad (Кл.,) "I"
Comments: ССЕ 185. Pump. (Срсл., Кл.) etnɨn "we" is in reality Yug. Werner 1, 72 <*ad(ǝ) / *ad'(ǝ)>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-pum,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *ʒ́a
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: I
Yasin: ʒ́a
Hunza: ʒ́e
Nagar: ʒ́e
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CV
Meaning : I [1st p. pronoun]
Sino-Caucasian : *zV
Austric : PAA *cVj 'I, me' (only Viet.), *ʒʔi 'we, us'
Amerind (misc.) : *ʔis ~ *seʔ 'we inclusive' (R 838)
Notes : NC has a distinction *zō 'I' - *ži 'we (excl.)' - perhaps archaic, but hardly discoverable elsewhere. No trace of this pronoun in Nostr.; but cf. Ainu *ci- 'we'.
globet-meaning,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-notes,

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