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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *sV (*sV́-jV)
Meaning: interrogative stem
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *s_āj
Sino-Tibetan: *su (~-o(w))
Yenisseian: *ʔa(ʔ)s- / *sV(ʔ)-
Burushaski: *-sa- / *-se
Basque: *se, *se-r
Comments and references : HGC 23, MCGD 10-11, BCD 32. PY may also correspond to PNC *š_i.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *s_āj
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative pronoun (what)
Proto-Nakh: *sṭē-n-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *s:u-n-
Proto-Tsezian: *s(:)V- (~z-)
Proto-Lak: s:a-
Proto-Dargwa: *s(:)e
Proto-West Caucasian: *sA (~ *š-)
Notes: The common NC inanimate interrogative pronoun. Its usage in most EC language shows that it was originally used only as the oblique base.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 274, Абдоков 1983, 139.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *sṭē-n-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what (interrogative pronoun)
Chechen: stē(n)-
Ingush: se
Batsbi: sṭen-
Comments: The basic form is ergative: Chech. sten, Ing. se, Bacb. sṭẽ (cf. also Cheb. stjē̃, Shar., Khild. sjẽ etc.). For the vowel length cf. also Chech. gen. stēna-n; sten-ga 'where' etc.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *s:u-n-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 what (obl. base) 2 who, what (obl. base)
Avar: s:un- 1
Chadakolob: sun- 1
Akhvakh: s:un- 1,2
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-akv,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *s:V- (~s-,z-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: an interrogative stem
Bezhta: suḳo
Gunzib: suḳu
Comments: The root is present only in PGB (NB: Gin. se 'what' comes from *š:i). The direct base of it had been influenced by PGB *suḳu 'man, person' and coincided with it phonetically. The pure stem is, however, preserved in the oblique base Gunz. si- ('what'), se- ('who') (cf. also su-rba 'why'). Cf. also the derived Bezht. pronoun suḳo-nazu 'all' ("whoever").
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: s:a-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what (obl. base)
Lak form: s:a-
Comments: Cf. gen./erg. s:a-l, dat. s:a-n etc.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *s(:)e
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what
Akusha: se
Chiragh: ce
Comments: The Chir. form has a secondary affricate (either under influence of ča 'who', or under influence of Lak. ci 'what'), thus the intensity of PD *s(:)- can not be established.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *sA (~ *š-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what
Adyghe: sǝd(ā)
Kabardian: sǝt
Ubykh: sa
Comments: PAK *sǝ- (the Bzhed. and Shaps. variant śǝ-d is still unexplained). The second part of the stem (Ad. -d, Kab. -t) raises some problems. In Kab. -t could have been obtained under influence of xa-t 'who' (q.v.); thus we should probably reconstruct *-dA for PAK. The precise nature of this *-dA is not clear (perhaps it reflects the PWC demonstrative *da).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *su ( ~ -ǝw, -iw)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: who, interrogative pronoun
Tibetan: su who?
Burmese: ǝsu who, LB *su
Lepcha: šu who, what
Kiranti: *su
Comments: PG *su who; Kham sū̀; Kanauri su. Sh. 135; Luce 35.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *su
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: who
Sunwar: 'su
Tulung:
Kaling: (CSDF 'sü)
Limbu: ā-sāt (?<*ā-su-āt)
Kulung: as-
Yamphu: asa:
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-sun,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: as-e
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: pron.
Meaning: who (abs)
Nepali: ko.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: asa:
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: interrog.
Meaning: who; asäʔ ergative
Comments: as.ät.te i:s.w.e? (who.ERG.ISF say.о3.FCT) Who said that? asa:.ji.de? (who.NS.ISF) Who are there? asa:.de häŋ? (who.ISF you) Who are you?
Nepali: ko
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-comments,yamet-nepali,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔas- / *sV-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: interrogative stem
Ket: aks (Донн.) "what?"; akśej5, akśejśaŋ5 'why', aśeś5 'which', aśka6 'when'
Yug: assa (Донн.) "what?"; (Кастр.) assa id., ases "what a"; asesaŋ5 / asejsaŋ5 'why', asejs3 'which', asera5 'who (of a woman)', āskej1 / āskejsit1 'when'
Kottish: šina, šena, g. šinai "what"; ašix 'which, who'
Comments: ССЕ 183-184. Pump. (Срсл.) jasgej 'when' is in reality Yug. Werner 1, 66.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-sa- / *-se
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 what, which 2 why
Yasin: bé-sa, bé-se 2
Hunza: bé-sa-n 1, bé-se 2
Nagar: bé-sa-n 1, bé-se 2
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *se-r
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: what
Bizkaian: zer, ze
Gipuzkoan: zer, ze
High Navarrese: zer, ze
Low Navarrese: zer
Salazarese: zer
Lapurdian: zer
Baztanese: zer
Aezkoan: zer
Zuberoan: zer, ze
Roncalese: zer
Comments: The short form *se is used in certain situations (see Azkue). From this stem *se- other interrogative forms are derived, such as (c) zein 'which', ze-la 'how', etc.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CV
Meaning : who
Eurasiatic : *CV
Sino-Caucasian : *sV (*sV́-jV)
Austric : PAN *sai 'who', MY *ći what etc.
Amerind (misc.) : *si 'interrogative' (R 401)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *CV
Meaning: what
Altaic: ? Jap. *tá who
Eskimo-Aleut: *ca-ŋu- (-ra, -na)
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: Chuk. *še-q what, Itelm. *sa-q 'what for'
Comments: Basically a Siberian root.
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-esk,nostret-chuk,nostret-notes,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: ? *ta- ~ *ča
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: who
Russian meaning: кто
Japanese: *tá
Comments: An isolated Japanese pronominal stem. [Cf. the PA demonstrative ??]
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tá
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: who
Russian meaning: кто
Old Japanese: ta(re)
Middle Japanese: tá(ré)
Tokyo: dáre
Kyoto: dáré
Kagoshima: dái
Nase: tàrú
Shuri: tā́
Hateruma: tā̀
Yonakuni: tā́
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-hat,japet-yon,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *ca-ŋu- (-ra, -na)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: interrog. pron. "what", "what to do"
Russian meaning: вопр. мест. "что", "что делать"
Proto-Yupik: *ca-ŋu-ra (-na), *ca-
Proto-Inupik: *cu-na, cu-a, *cu-(r-)
Comments: Cf. PCh *šǝn, *šeq- id. < KCh *'nǝ-qǝ.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 90
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *ca-ŋú-ra (-na), *ca-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: interrog. pron. what 1, why 2, what to do 3
Russian Meaning: вопр. мест. что 1, почему, зачем 2, что делать 3
Sirenik: saŋǝ̄́ca (saŋǝ́cij pl., sam rel., sáŋǝn instr.) 1, saŋā́mi 2, sacǝ́qǝχtǝ́χ 3
Chaplino: saŋwá (saŋwat, sāt pl., sam rel.) 1, saŋámi 2
Naukan: súná (sat pl., sam, saɣ rel.) 1, sími, sáŋʁanun, sámǝŋ 2, sanāqa, sāqa 3
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: cacaq, ca- 1, cin 2, ca- 3
Chugach (Birket-Smith): caca 1, cacaq 'thing'
Central Alaskan Yupik: ca- (cat pl., cam rel.) 1, cīn 2, ca- 3, castun 'how'
Nunivak (Peripheral): tcauna* 1, tcaʎʎiox* 3, caluni 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 90
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-nun,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *cu-na, cu-a, *cu-(r-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: interrog. pron. what 1, why 2, what to do 3
Russian meaning: вопр. мест. что 1, почему, зачем 2, что делать 3
Seward Peninsula Inupik: suna (sut pl., sum rel.), suami 2, su- 3
SPI Dialects: Imaq súna (sutkō pl., sum rel.) 1, sōmi 2, súraʁā 3, W suna*, sua* 1
North Alaskan Inupik: suna (sut pl., sum rel.) 1, su- 3
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl suna*, sua* 1, Qaw, Mal sua 1
Western Canadian Inupik: suna 1, su- 3
WCI Dialects: Cor x́una*, hu(n)a*, M su(n)a*, Cop hunat pl. 1, Sig sut pl. 1
Eastern Canadian Inupik: suna, sua (sunait pl.) 1, su- 3
Greenlandic Inupik: suna (sūt pl., sūm rel.), so*, suna* 1, su- 2
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 90
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'nǝ-qǝ
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вопр. местоимение что
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *šeq, *šǝn-
Proto-Itelmen: *'ăŋqa
Comments: Ср. камч. *sa-q 'что за, какой' (479).
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,kamet-comments,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *šǝn, *šeq-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вопрос. мест. "что"
Chukchee: rʔɛnut sg., rʔɛnutet pl., rʔɛ́-, rɛ́q-
Koryak: jǝ̀nnǝ, jeq- (I), jǝn-
Palan: tǝ̀nnǝ/e, taq- (I)
Alutor: tinɣa, taq-
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *'ăŋqa
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): мест. вопр. что
Itelmen: 'ăŋqa
Itelmen meaning: что (чем, каким образом; почему, зачем; зачем, для чего) 1, что-то 2, столько 3
South Itelmen: nakoj (skizɨzkik) 1, 'ańka-zkak 2
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): quid (olet) 1, ideerat, defuit 2
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): co (pachnie) 1, nie byɫ, nie byɫo 2
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *ʔcV(j)
Meaning: what, who
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *cV
Austroasiatic meaning: what
Miao-Yao parallels: *ćiB what
Proto-Austronesian: *[s]aji
Austronesian meaning: who
Proto-Thai: *saŋA what
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-myao,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: cV
Meaning: what
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Bahnaric: TAR cɛ
Proto-Vietic: *ʒi
Proto-Palaungic: PRDE *si
Proto-Khmu: *cV-
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-bah,aaet-vim,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric:
Meaning: what
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Northwest-Bahnaric: TAR cɛ
banet-meaning,banet-prnum,banet-nwb,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong: *ʒi
Meaning: what
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: gì
Thomon: ci.43
Tum: ci.45
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-thm,vimet-tum,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa:
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-De'ang: *si
pawaet-prnum,pawaet-prde,

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De'ang etymology :

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Proto-De'ang: *si
Meaning: what, who
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
De'ang: si
Rumai: si.55
prdeet-meaning,prdeet-prnum,prdeet-dea,prdeet-rum,

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