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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ĉahar-
Meaning: star, moon
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ŝahr- 'new moon'
Western Chadic: *ĉaHar- 'star'
Central Chadic: *-ŝVr-/ *hwurŝ- ,? met. < *ĉ[a]hur-
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 906
Proto-Semitic: *ŝahr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'new moon'
Aramaic: sahar-
Mandaic Aramaic: sira
Arabic: šahr-
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ŝahr
Jibbali: ŝehǝr
Soqotri: ŝeher
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-arm,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-jib,semet-soq,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ĉaHar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'star'
Ankwe=Goemai: sum-šar [Fp}
Guruntum: saar [Sm]
Tule: ŝāŝûr [Sm]
Zakshi: čā̀zur [Sm]
Boot: ŝaàr [Sm ]
Guus: tyā-ŝer [Sm]
Kulere: sísíri [JgR]̣
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-ank,wchet-grn,wchet-tul,wchet-zak,wchet-bot,wchet-buu,wchet-klr,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *-ŝVr- / *hwurŝ- ,? met. < *ĉ[a]hur-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: star
Mbara: mi-ẑèr [TrMba]
Mofu-Gudur: wurẑa [BaMof]
Gisiga: wurẑa [Luk]
Gudu: ̀
Fali Jilvu: xùraŝu-mùk[Kr]
Fali Muchella: xùraŝiyà [Kr]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mba,cchet-mof,cchet-gis,cchet-gdu,cchet-faj,cchet-fam,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVCRV
Meaning : star, shine
Eurasiatic : *HVźVrV
Afroasiatic : *ĉahar- 'moon'; + *zVhr- 'shine' (Sem., Berb.)
Sino-Caucasian : *ʒwhắrī
Reference : ND 2679.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *HVzwVrV
Meaning: star, luminary
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *Haster-
Altaic: *zēra
Dravidian: *sār-i ?
References: [Dolg.'s etymology in 2441 *[ṭ]Uŕi 'moon, star' is a complete mess!]. ND 2679 *źahrV 'to shine, be bright, light', 2701 *ẑeh[a]Ra 'moon' - with a whole lot of confusion.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *(a)ster- <PIH *H->
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: star
Hittite: haster- c. 'Stern' (Tischler 204ff); astira- c. 'Stern?' (Tischler 86)
Tokharian: A śre (pl. śreñ), B śćirye (PT *śćäriye) 'star' (Adams 640)
Old Indian: pl. nom. str̥ṇas, tāras, gen. str̥ṇām, instr. stŕ̥bhiṣ m. `star'; tarā f. Stern }
Avestan: acc. stā̆rǝm, gen. stārō, pl. staras-ča, stārō, acc. strǝ̄us, gen. strǝ̄n, dat. stǝrǝbyō 'Stern'
Armenian: astɫ, gen. asteɫ `Stern, Gestirn'
Old Greek: astḗr, -éros, pl. ástra `Stern'; asteropǟ́ f. `Blitz', steropǟ́, astrapǟ́ `id.'
Germanic: *stir-n-a- m., *stir-n-ōn- f., -an- m.; *stirr-ōn- f., -an- m.
Latin: stēlla f. `Stern'
Celtic: Bret sterenn, Corn sterenn (pl. steyr), Cymr seren `Stern'
Russ. meaning: звезда
References: WP II 635 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *stirna-z, *stirnōn, -ēn; *stirrōn, -ēn
Meaning: star
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: stɛrnō f. (n) `star', CrimGot *stern `stella'
Old Norse: stjarna f. `Stern'
Norwegian: stjerna
Swedish: stjärna
Danish: stjerne
Old English: steorra, -an m. `star'
English: star
Old Frisian: stēra
Old Saxon: sterro
Middle Dutch: sterre, starre, sterne, steerne f., m.
Dutch: ster, star f., dial. steern
Middle Low German: stērne m., f., stērn m.; sterre
Old High German: sterno (8.Jh.); { stern }; sterro (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: stërne, stërre wk. m., stërn st. m. 'stern'
German: Stern m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1891
Root: stē̆r-2
English meaning: star
German meaning: `Stern'
Derivatives: Kollektiv ster-ā, Gen. str-ās, dehnstufig stēr-ā `Gestirn, Stern', ster-nā ds.; daneben tērā, teros-, terǝs ds.
Material: Ai. Instr. Pl. stŕ̥bhiḥ, Nom. Pl. tāraḥ m. `Sterne', tarā f. `Stern', av. Akk. Sg. stā̆rǝm, Gen. stārō, Pl. Nom. staras-ča, stārō, Akk. strǝ̄uš, Gen. strǝ̄m, Dat. stǝrǝbyō `Stern'; arm. astɫ, Gen.asteɫ `Stern, Gestirn'; gr. ἀστήρ, -έρος `Stern', kollekt. ἄστρα `jünger' ἄστρον `Stern, Gestirn' (daraus lat. astrum), wozu wohl mit (ὠπ-)ὀπ-: (ἀ)στεροπή, ἀστραπή `Blitz, Wetterleuchten', στέροψ `flimmernd', (ἀ)στράπτω `blitzen, funkeln', ἀστεροπητής, ἀστεροπαι̃ος `Blitzeschleuderer(Zeus)'; ohne anl. s- (wie ai. tāraḥ, tarā) τερέων Gen. Pl., mit metr. Dehnung τείρεα, τείρεσιν `Gestirne'; lat. stēlla `Stern' (*stēr-[o], Deminutiv); bret. sterenn, corn. sterenn (Pl. steyr), cymr.seren `Stern' (Pl. ser), mir. ser `Stern' (ZfcPh. 19, 200); dazu dehnstufig gall. GN Dɦirona, Sirona; got. staírnō, ahd. sterno, anord. stjarna `Stern' und ahd. as. sterro, ags. steorra `Stern' (*sters- zum s-St. *steros?), afries. stēra `Stern' (oder stēre f.).
References: WP. II 635 f., WH. II 587 f., Scherer Gestirnnamen 18 ff., Frisk Gr. Et. Wb. 170 f.
Pages: 1027-1028
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *zēra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: light; moon, moon cycle (year)
Russian meaning: свет, светлый; луна
Turkic: *jar-
Mongolian: *sara
Tungus-Manchu: *sē
Korean: *sǝ̄r / *săr
Japanese: *sátúkúi
Comments: Lee 1958, 116 (Kor.-TM), АПиПЯЯ 294. Mong. jara- 'to shine, glimmer', which is usually compared with the PT form (see KW 216, Владимирцов 317, VEWT 189) is an obvious loanword from Turkic. Illich-Svitych (ОСНЯ 1, ХV) regards Mong. sara as a prosodic variant of sira- 'yellow', which is hardly the case. Jpn. tone seems to contradict TM length, but the root is only attested in compounds and may be itself a contraction (see below), so the tone may well have been displaced. If the Jpn. word is indeed to be analysed as *sa- 'early spring' (+ *tukui 'month', 'moon'), then its original meaning must have been '(beginning of a new) moon cycle, season' - cf. the meaning 'season' in Kor. and TM, and especially 'beginning of the year' in Kor. (note that TM *sē biaga has also the meaning 'first month of the year' > Manchu se-bija, Jurch. sei-bi(a)ha, see the discussion in Lee 1958). The form *sa itself has to be explained as reflecting a suffixed *zēr(a)-gV or *zēr(a)-ŋV - cf. Jurch. sejŋe-r and Mong. *sara-ɣu-l.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jar-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to shine 2 to dawn 3 light 4 candle
Russian meaning: 1 светить 2 рассветать 3 свет 4 свеча
Old Turkic: jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: jaru- 1, jaruq 3 (MK)
Turkish: jarɨk 3 (dial.)
Tatar: jarɨq 3 (dial.)
Middle Turkic: jarɨ- (AH), jaru- (Abush.) 1, jaruq 3 (Бор. Бад., Abush.)
Uzbek: jɔri- 1, jɔruɣ 3
Uighur: joru- 1, joruq 3
Turkmen: jarɨq 3 (dial.)
Khakassian: čarɨ- 1, čarɨx 3
Shor: čar-, čarɨ- 1
Oyrat: jar-, d́arɨ- 1, d́arɨq 3
Chuvash: śor-da 4
Yakut: sarā- 2 (but also sɨrdā-)
Dolgan: hɨrdā- 2
Tuva: čɨrɨ- 1, čarɨq 3
Kirghiz: ǯar-, ǯarɨ- 1, ǯarɨq 3
Kazakh: žarɨq 3
Noghai: jarɨq 3
Bashkir: jarɨq 3 (dial.)
Balkar: ǯarɨq 3
Karaim: jarɨ- 1, jarɨq, jarɨx 3
Karakalpak: žarɨq 3
Salar: jarux 3
Kumyk: jarɨq 3
Comments: EDT 956, 962, 963, ЭСТЯ 4, 134-135, VEWT 189 (there are hardly reasons to consider the Chuv. word a borrowing), Федотов 2, 145, Stachowski 119. Turk. (Bulg.?) > Hung. gyertya 'candle', see Gombocz 1912.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *sara
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: moon
Russian meaning: луна
Written Mongolian: sara(n) (L 674)
Middle Mongolian: sara (HY 1, SH), ṣarā, saran (IM), sara (MA)
Khalkha: sar
Buriat: hara
Kalmuck: sarǝ
Ordos: sara(n)
Dongxian: sara
Baoan: sare, sera
Dagur: sarūl 'moon', sar 'month' (Тод. Даг. 162), sare 'month', sareule 'moon' (MD 206)
Shary-Yoghur: sara
Monguor: sara (SM 326)
Comments: KW 313, MGCD 593.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *sē
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: year, age
Russian meaning: год, возраст
Spoken Manchu: (2725)
Literary Manchu: se
Jurchen: sejŋ-ŋer (82)
Ulcha:
Nanai:
Oroch:
Udighe: se
Comments: ТМС 2, 133.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sǝ̄r / *sằr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: year, age
Russian meaning: год, возраст
Modern Korean: sal; sǝ̄l 'beginning of the year'
Middle Korean: sǝ̄r / săr
Comments: Nam 290, 300, KED 896, 950.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sátúkúi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: fifth month of the moon calendar
Russian meaning: пятый месяц лунного календаря
Old Japanese: satuki
Middle Japanese: satuki
Tokyo: sàtsuki
Kyoto: sátsúkí
Kagoshima: satsúki
Comments: sa- is treated as a bound noun 'early (spring)' in JLTT 515.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *sār-i
Meaning : time, turn
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *sār-i (*c-)
Proto-Telugu : *sār-i
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *sār-i
Meaning : time, turn
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : cāri
Tamil meaning : time, turn
Malayalam : sāri
Malayalam meaning : time, turn
Kannada : sāri, sāre
Kannada meaning : time, turn
Tulu : sāri, sarti
Tulu meaning : time, turn
Number in DED : 2464
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *sār-i
Meaning : time, turn, repetition, occasion
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : sāri
Number in DED : 2464
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʒwhắrī
Meaning: star, shine
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʒ_whărī / *ʒ_wăhrī (~ -ē)
Sino-Tibetan: *cer (~-iǝ-)
Basque: *i=sar̄
Comments and references : NSC 64 *ʒwArHV.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʒ_whărī / *ʒ_wăhrī (~ -ē)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Proto-Nakh: *ṭɦari (~-ā-,-ē-,-e)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣:ʷarhi
Proto-Tsezian: *cʷã
Proto-Lak: c̣u-ku
Proto-Dargwa: *zuri
Proto-West Caucasian: *c̣ʷa (/*cʷa)
Notes: One of the most widely spread common NC roots. Despite some variation of the place of the laryngeal, correspondences are basically regular.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 275, Abdokov 1983, 103.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ṭɦari (~-ā-,-ē-,-e)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Batsbi: ṭʕejrĭ
Comments: The root is preserved only in Bacbi, but is no doubt archaic.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣:ʷarhi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Avar: c̣:ʷa
Chadakolob: c̣ʷa
Andian language: c̣:a
Akhvakh: c̣:ʷari
Chamalal: ṣā
Tindi: c:aru
Karata: c̣:ʷaj
Botlikh: c̣:aj
Bagvalal: c̣:ʷara
Godoberi: c:aji
Comments: Av. paradigm B (c̣:ʷají-l/c̣:ʷa-dú-l, c̣:ʷa-bí).Cf. also Cham. Gad. c̣:ā.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *cʷã
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Tsezi: ca
Ginukh: cʷa
Khvarshi: ca
Inkhokvari: cã
Bezhta: cã
Gunzib: ca
Comments: PTsKh *cʷã; PGB *cã.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: c̣u-ku
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Lak form: c̣uku
Comments: 3d class. The root is c̣u(r)-, as is clearly seen from the plural form c̣ur-t:i. The final -ku may be regarded either as an old diminutive suffix, or as a result of contamination with the PEC root *c̣_wɨko 'brilliance, spark' q.v.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *zuri
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Akusha: urʔi
Chiragh: zure
Comments: Cf. also Ur., Kad. urʔi, Sirg., Kait., Tsud. zuri, Kub. dī/diʔi.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *c̣ʷa (/*cʷa)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 star 2 sky
Abkhaz: á-ječ̣̌a 1
Abaza: jač̣ʷa 1
Adyghe: wā-ša 2
Kabardian: wā-fa 2
Ubykh: c̣wa(n)ḳ́ 1
Comments: PAT *ja-c̣ʷa; Ub. c̣ʷa(n)-ḳ́ with the old singulative suffix *-ḳǝ (q.v.). Vogt lists also the variant jacʷa (with secondary loss of glottalisation). In PAK the roots 'star' and 'sky' (*zʷA q.v.) had "changed places": *-sʷa (going back to *cʷa with loss of glottalization like in Ub.) meant originally 'star', but lost this meaning in the compound *wa-sʷá (where *wa- means 'sky' by itself, see *wa).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *cer (~-iǝ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: shine, sunshine
Tibetan: ãcher to shine, to glitter; zer, gzer 'ray'
Burmese: ćańʔ glaze; glitter.
Kachin: ǯan1 the sun.
Lepcha: čir to sparkle, to radiate, to shine, to glitter, to gleam, to glisten; ǯár-ră ǯár-ră flashy, showy, splendid, sparkling, magnificent; ǯir-ră ǯir-ră, ǯŭr-ră ǯŭr-ră shining, glittering, dazzling, sparkling
Comments: BG: Garo sāl, Dimasa sain; Namsangia sān; Moshang -śār sun; Bahing tśyar to shine. Sh. 436; Ben. 47. Here obviously Kham sorō, PG *sar(a) 'star', Karen *cha.3L 'star'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *i=sar̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: star
Bizkaian: izar
Gipuzkoan: izar
High Navarrese: izar
Low Navarrese: izar
Salazarese: izar
Lapurdian: izar
Baztanese: izar
Aezkoan: izar
Zuberoan: izar
Roncalese: izar
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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