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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *k`VSV
Meaning: hair ?
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kAs-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: PCKor *ǝkšǝ-, *kǝš- 'hair'
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-chuk,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kAs-
Meaning: plait, woman's hair
Slavic: *kosā́ (волосы); *kosmъ
Baltic: *kas-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *xazd-a- m., *xizd-ōn- f.
Celtic: Ir cass 'gelocktes Haar'
Russ. meaning: коса, женские волосы
References: WP I 449 f
Comments: Not quite clear is the relationship to *kes- 'to comb, scratch'.
piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,piet-comment,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: коса́
Near etymology: I. (напр., волос), укр. коса́, цслав. коса, болг. коса́ "волосы", сербохорв. ко̀са, вин. ко̏су, др.-чеш. kоsа, слвц., польск. kosa "коса".
Further etymology: Родственно лит. kasà "коса (волосы)", др.-исл. haddr (прагерм. *hazda-) "волосы на голове у женщины", ср.-ирл. сír "гребень" (из *kēsrā), связано чередованием гласных с чеса́ть, чешу́; ср. далее лит. kasýti "почесывать", лтш. kasît "скрести, чесать", др.-инд. kacchuṣ "чесотка", авест. kasvīš "сыпь на коже", греч. κεσκέον "пакля"; см. М.--Э. 2, 170; Траутман, ВSW 120; Бернекер 1, 580 и сл.; Мейе, МSL 14, 338; Ét. 252; Гофман, Gr. Wb. 141. Ср. косма́.
Pages: 2,344-345
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *kas-ā̂ f.
Meaning: plait
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: kasà `Haarflechte, Zopf'
Lettish: kasa `Haarflechte'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xazda-z, *xizdōn
Meaning: long hair
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: hadd-r m. `Kopfhaar der Frau'
Swedish: hadd `Eriophorum vaginatum'
Old English: heord `Haar', pl. heordan `Werg'
Middle Dutch: herde `Flachsfaser'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-mdutch,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 946
Root: kes-
English meaning: to scratch, itch
German meaning: `kratzen, kämmen'
Derivatives: ksu-ro- `Schermesser'
Material: Gr. κεσκέον (zur Form κεσκίον s. Boisacq) `Werg' (*kes-kes-);

    mir. cīr f. `Kamm' (*kēs-rā);

    anord. haddr m. `Kopfhaar der Frau' (*hazda-z); ags. heord f. `Haar' (*hezdā), dazu heordan Pl. `Werg', engl. hards, mnd. herde `Flachsfaser'; hēde, mnd. hēde, heide (ndl. nhd. Hede) `Werg';

    lit. kasà `Haarflechte, Zopf', kasaũ, -ýti `fortgesetzt gelinde kratzen', kasù, kàsti `umgraben', lett. kast `harken', kasît `schaben, scharren, harken, kratzen', dazu kasa f., kasus m. kašḱis m., `Krätze'; apr. kexti f. `Zopfhaar, (entw. von einem Partiz. *kestas oder einem *koz-dho- = germ. *hazda-);

    aksl. češǫ, česati `kämmen; streifen, abstreifen (z. B. Beeren)', bulg. (usw.) čéšel `Kamm', čech. pa-čes m. `Hede, Werg', russ. čëska `Hede, Werg', češujá `Schuppe', česotka `Krätze'; ksl. kosa `Haar', russ. (usw.) kosá `Flechte, Zopf', ksl. kosmъ `Haar'; aksl. kosnąti `berühren, anrühren', kasati sę `berühren' (aus `zupfen'), serb. kȍsīm, -iti `lacerare, vellere' wohl Iterativ zu česati; čech. (usw.) kochati `ergötzen, liebkosen, lieben' (zu kosnąti als `liebkosend, zärtlich berühren', vielleicht `krauen'; vgl. Berneker 152, 491, 538, 580 ff.).

    Wurzelerweiterungen:

    ks-en- in gr. ξαίνω (*ksn̥i̯ō) `kratze, kämme; walke, prügle', ξάνιον `Kamm zum Wollekrempeln', ξάσμα `gekrempelte Wolle', ἐπίξηνον `Klotz, Haublock';

    lat. sentis (*ksen-tis) `Dornstrauch', sentus `horridus' (bei Prudentius `dornig');

    ks-n-eu- in:

    ai. kṣṇāuti `schleift, wetzt, reibt', kṣṇṓtra- n. `Schleifstein', Partiz. kṣṇutá- av. hu-xšnuta- `gut geschärft';

    lat. novācula `Schermesser, Rasiermesser' (auf Grund eines Verbums *novāre aus *ksneu̯ā-);

    anord. snøggr `kurzgeschoren', snoðenn `kahl geschoren'; snauðr `unverhüllt, arm', ags.besnyððan `berauben', mhd. besnoten `spärlich, arm', snæde `gering, schwach', nhd. schnöde.

    ks-es- in: gr. ξέω (*ks-es-ō), Aor. ξέσσαι `schaben, glätten', ξεστός `geschabt';

    ks-eu- in:

    ai. kṣurá- m. `Schermesser, Dornpflanze'; npers. šor `salzig', kurd. śūr ds.;

    gr. ξύ̄ω `schabe, reibe, glätte', Partiz. ξυστός `geschabt, geglättet', -όν `(geglätteter) Speerschaft', ξύσμα `Abschabsel', ξύστρα `Striegel', ξυστήρ `Schabeisen', ξυρόν (: ai. kṣurá-) `Schermesser', ξυρόν τομόν, ἰσχνόν, ὀξύ Hes.; ξόανον (*ks-ou̯-enom) `alles Geschnitzte', bes. `Götterbild';

    gr. ξώστρα ψηκτρίς, ψήκτρια Hes. (`Striegel'), eher mit ksō[u]- hierher, als mit *ksōs- zur Wurzelf. ks-es-;

    hierher wohl mit Metathese balt. *skuu̯ō `rasiere' in lett. skuvu, skũt, lit. skutù, skùsti ds.

References: WP. I 449 ff., WH. I 178 f., Trautmann 119 f., 268, Specht Idg. Dekl. 239, 250, Kuiper Nasalpräs. 851.
Pages: 585-586
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVCV
Meaning : hair
Eurasiatic : *k`VSV
Sino-Caucasian : *k(w)iśwɨ́
Austric : Cf. Austric: PAA *sok 'hair', PAN *buSek / *buSuk / *bukeS 'head hair'
Notes : Cf. CVKV
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *k(w)iśwɨ́
Meaning: plait
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *k(w)iśwɨ (~-ǝ,-a)
Yenisseian: Ket. kūś 'Flechte'
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *k(w)iśwɨ (~-ǝ,-a)
Meaning: mane, plait, hair
Proto-Nakh: *kars (~ -ā-)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *kʷVšV (~-s-)
Proto-Tsezian: *kʷVs (~- ̃-,-s:)
Proto-Dargwa: *kusala
Proto-Lezghian: *kišʷ
Proto-West Caucasian: *kʷǝš(ʷ)V (~ *ḱʷ-)
Notes: The etymology is plausible both semantically and phonetically. Medial *-r- in PN is probably secondary (from a former obl. stem - *kars < *kas-rV-).
caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *kars (~ -ā-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 rope of horse's hair 2 rope of goat's wool
Chechen: kars 1
Ingush: kars 1
Batsbi: karsã 2
Comments: 4th class in all languages. There is not enough information to establish the PN vowel length.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *kʷVšV (~-s-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: wool
Avar: kʷas
Chadakolob: kʷaš
Comments: Av. paradigm B or C (gen. kʷasú-l, Chad. kʷašú-l/kʷaší-l).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *kʷVs (~- ̃-,-s:)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cock's comb
Tsezi: kos
Comments: Isolated in Tsez., but having probable external cognates.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *kusala
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: wing
Chiragh: kusala
Comments: Cf. also Sirg. kusala, Kub. kuṭala (Magomedov's notation; regularly *kutala would be expected).
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *kišʷ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: plait
Lezghian: kif
Tabasaran: kuš
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. kuš 'plait, long hair', Lezg. Khl. küš 'plait' (erg. küšʷ-éni). A dialectal variant of the same root is probably Lezg. kuš 'flax'.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *kʷǝš(ʷ)V (~ *ḱʷ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 mane 2 head's crown
Abkhaz: a-kʷǝ́š̌ 2
Adyghe: sakʷ 1
Kabardian: sokʷ 1
Comments: PAK *sákʷǝ. For PWC also *s may be reconstructed (since there are no Bzyb. data available).

    Despite Shagirov (1977) PAK *sákʷǝ can not have been borrowed from Ub. ša-q̇Iʷǝ 'hair on head' (for phonetic reasons); however, he must be right in considering Ub. sakʷ as a loan from Ad. The Abkh. form can be compared if we assume a metathesis - which is rather common in roots of this type.

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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