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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *cVlV
Meaning: split
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *(s)kol-
Altaic: *č`àlù
Uralic: *śale [ND 298 prefers FU > Perm. *ćaĺ- 'cut off, split off']
Kartvelian: *cal-/cel-/cil- (+ *cal- 98)
Dravidian: *sel- (here also PGnd *sal-s- 'beat'?); (AD) *Sil- 'peel off' 1462
Comments: [In Alt. cf. also *čḕlV 'split; hole, crack'; *zelo 'naked' (AD); cf. also SDr *śil- 'small hole' and Cush., Chad. *sVl- 'hole' in ND 2047a *SilV 'hole'; in Kartv. cf. Georg. šal- 'destroy, annihilate, spoil'; in FU - Perm. *šöĺ- 'split, break to pieces'; FU s'älä- (? ̃ c'älä-) 'schneiden'; in Kartv. - Georg. sx(a)l- / sxwl- 'trim (trees, vine)']. Cf. *CVlV 'bark, peel'.
References: МССНЯ 360, ОСНЯ 1, 195-196; ND 298 *ćal[Eʕ]o 'split, cut'; ND 387 *čalV 'to beat, knock down' (same Alt. + PGnd *sal-s- + Arab. ɵll- 'détruire', Kab. t_izlǝllit_ 'coup vigoureux'?); 2158 *šeĺV 'to take off, destroy, pull off' (Georg. šal- - Perm. *šöĺ- - ? SDr *ceḷ- 'to draw, pull' + Sem. *šVl- 'pull out']; 2198 *ŝäl(V)qU 'to cleave, cut asunder' (Georg. sxal- + Ur. *ŝälü + Drav. *sel- + Sem. + Alt. from *śoʎV).
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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *(s)kalǝ- / *(s)kelǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to split, to cut
Hittite: iskalla- (I/II) 'zerreißen, aufschlitzen, abreißen' (Tischler 397 ff)
Old Indian: kalā́ f. `small part, single part, portion'
Armenian: čelkhem `spalte, zerschlage'
Old Greek: keleḯs = aksínē Hsch.; skállō `scharren, hacken', skalís, -ídos f. `Hacke', skalmó-s m. `id.'
Slavic: *kólti, *kõljǫ (раскалывать), *koltъ; *skālā (щепка); *ščelь, *ščāljā
Baltic: *skel̂- vb. tr. (2), skil̂- vb. intr. (1), *skal-ā̂ f., *skal-a- c.; *skil-ia- c.
Germanic: *skil-a- vb., *skil-ō- vb., *skil-ja- vb.; *skil-i- n.
Latin: culter, -trī `Messer (Schlacht-, Küchen-, Winzermesser, Bartschere, Pflugschar)'
Celtic: *skal- > OIr erscailiud, MIr scāilim `lasse los, zerstreue, nehme auseinander', scailt `Spalte', Ir scoiltim `ich spalte'; Cymr chwalu `zerstreuen', Corn scullye, sculye `zerstreuen', Bret skul'a `zerstreuen'
Russ. meaning: раскалывать, рассекать
References: WP II 590 f
Comments: Cf. *kola- which seems to be a different root meaning rather 'to beat, break'.
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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: коло́ть,
Near etymology: колю́, укр. коло́ти, ст.-слав. колѭ, клати σφάττειν (Супр.), болг. ко́ля, сербохорв. кла̏ти, ко̀ље̑м, словен. kláti, kóljem, чеш. kláti, koli -- 1 л. ед. ч., kůleš -- 2 л. ед. ч., слвц. klаt᾽, польск. kɫóć, kɫuć, в.-луж. kɫoć, н.-луж. kɫojś. Праслав. *kolti, koljǫ.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. kálti, kalù "ударяю (молотом, топором), кую", лтш. kal̂t, -l̨u "бить, ковать", с другой ступенью вокализма: лит. kùlti "молотить", лтш. kul̂t -- то же, лат. реrсеllō, -culī. "повернуть наземь, опрокинуть; толкнуть", ирл. сеllасh "война", греч. κελεΐς ̇ ἀξίνη (Гесихий), др.-прусск. рrеiсаlis "наковальня", kalopeilis "тяпка"; далее, вероятно, лит. skélti "раскалывать"; см. М.--Э. 2, 145; Эндзелин, СБЭ 18, 193; RS 11, 37; Бернекер 1, 552; Траутман, ВSW 114 и сл.; Перссон, Beitr. 176, 961; Фортунатов, AfslPh 4, 579; Мейе, МSL 14, 374. Последний пытается разграничить две слав. семьи слов со знач. "убивать, приносить в жертву" и "колоть"; против см. Бернекер, там же; Преобр. I, 338.
Pages: 2,296
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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *skel̂- vb. tr. (2), skil̂- vb. intr. (1), *skal-ā̂ f., *skal-a- c.; *skil-ia- c.
Meaning: split
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: skélti (skẽlia, -ē) `spalten', skìlti (skį̄̃la/dial. skìlsta, skìlō) 'sich (ab)spalten, einen Spalt, einen Riss bekommen, zerspringen', skìlti (skìlia, skī́lē) 'Feuer schlagen, zum Brennen bringen bzw. zu bringen versuchen'; skalà `(Holz)span, Kienholz, -span, Schindel, eine Art Leiste, die beim Aufwickeln des Zettels auf den Weberkamm verwendet wird'
Lettish: šk̨il̃t (šk̨il̨u, šḳ̨ĩlu) 'Feuer anschlagen; Holz spalten'; skals, skala 'Lichtspan, Pergel', šk̨el̂t (šk̨el̨u, šk̨êlu) `spalten, der Länge nach teilen'; šk̨ilis `Messer zum Pergelspalten'
Old Prussian: stolwo (lies: scolwo) V. 641 'Span'
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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *skilan-, *skilōn-, *skiljan- vb.; *skili-n
Meaning: divide, limit
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *skilja m. (n) `butcher'
Old Norse: skilja `spalten, scheiden'; pl. skil n. `Unterschied; Entscheidung, Begriff'; skila wk. `scheiden, ausrichten, in Ordnung bringen'
Norwegian: skilja vb.
Old Swedish: skil
Swedish: skilja vb.
Danish: skille vb.
Old English: scielian `teilen, entfernen'; sceolu `Abteilung, Schar'; ā-scielian `scheiden'
Old Frisian: skil; skilla `twisten'
Old Saxon: scola `Abteilung, Schar'
Middle Dutch: scēlen `schelen, verschillen, mankeren, twisten'; schil
Dutch: schelen; verschillen
Middle Low German: schēlen `verschieden sein, die Grenze bilden, trennen, unterscheiden', schēle `Unterschied, Mangel, Grenze'
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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1722
Root: (s)kel-1
English meaning: to cut
German meaning: `schneiden'
General comments: nicht zuverlässig von kel- `schlagen' und kel- `stechen' (oben S. 545 f.) zu trennen.
Derivatives: kolā `Teilchen'; skēlā `Abgeschnittenes' ('Hirnschale'), skoli̯ā `Abgespaltenes', skol-mā `Schwert', (s)kōlo- `Spieß'
Material: Ai. kalā́ `kleiner Teil' (: serb. pro-kola `Teil eines gespaltenen Ganzen', das zunächst zu aksl. koljǫ `steche' und `spalte', oben S. 546);

    arm. čelk`em `spalte, zerschlage'; wohl auch k`eli `Steuerruder' (Bed. wie in ags. helma, s. unten); auf anl. sk̂- (mit sonst nirgends wiederkehrendem Palatal) wiese c̣elum `spalte';

    gr. σκάλλω `scharre, hacke, grabe', σκαλίς `Hacke, Karst'; σχαλίς `hölzerne Gabel alsStütze aufgerichteter Jagdnetze' (unter Einfluß von σχάζω `ritze, schlitze auf', σχάσμα `Einschnitt'); σκαλμός `Pflock, Ruderdolle' (vgl. thrak. σκάλμη, ahd. scalm, ags. helma, osorb. čoɫm, lit. kélmas); σκύλλω `schinde, zerreiße, plage' (*skoli̯ō), κο-σκυλ-μάτια `Lederschnitzel, Abfall von Leder', σκω̃λος `Spitzpfahl' (vgl. lit. kuõlas `Pfahl'; mit ŏ: aksl. kolъ `Pflock' oben S. 546); vielleicht ist auch κωλύω `hemme, hindre' von einem *κω̃λος `Pflock' abgeleitet (`anpflöcken'), der Ausgang -ύω nach dem begriffl. Gegensatz λύω?; σκόλυθρον `Schemel', σκολύπτειν `verstümmeln, beschneiden' Hes., ἀποσκολύπτω `kastriere'; auf eine Bed. `von der Haut sich abspaltende Schuppe' geht zurück κελεφός `Aussätziger' (vgl. mengl.scalle `Grind', nengl. scall (nord. Lw.), schwed. skål `Ausschlag am Munde');

    thrak. σκάλμη `Schwert, Messer' (*skolmā);

    alb. halë `Schuppe, Gräte, Splitter, Bart der Ähren' (*skoli̯ā = got. skalja); holë `dünn, fein, zart'; f. `Zartheit' (*skēl-); hel `Pfrieme, Ahle', hele `Bratspieß, Spieß, Lanze' (= σκω̃λος); vielleicht shtel' `öffne, mache glänzend, scharf, stecke Feuer an, entzünde' (lit. skìlti ebenfalls `Feuer anschlagen');

    lat. siliqua `Hülsenfruchtschote' (wovon silicia `foenum graecum, Bockshorn'), diss. aus *sciliqua, älter *sceliquā: aksl. skolьka `ostreum'; lat. silex, -icis `Kiesel' diss. aus *scilec- älter scelic-; vgl. mir. sce(i)llec `Fels' (Endung nach air. carraic `Felsen');

    ohne anl. s- vielleicht hierher: lat. culter, -trī `Messer' (*kel-tro-s, *kol-tro-s oder*kḷ-tros); celtis f. `Meißel' existiert nicht, s. Niedermann, Mus. Helv. 2, 123 f.;

    cymr. chwalu `zerstreuen', corn. scullye, sculye, bret. skuĺa ds.;

    mir. scoilt, scailt `Spalte', scoiltim `ich spalte', brit. mit Umstellung von sk- zu ks- (hw-): cymr. hollt `Spalte', corn. felǯa (Umlaut) `spalten', bret. faouta ds.; mir. sceillec `Fels' (s. oben); vielleicht mir. scellān `Same, Kern';

    air. colainn `Fleisch', cymr. celain `Leiche' (*kolanī); cymr. caill, Pl. ceilliau `Hode(n)', bret. kell ds.; gall. callio-marcus `Huflattich' aus älter *callio marcī `testiculus equi'; vgl. gall. ebulcalium (aus *epālo-callion) neben epo-calium (*epo-callion) `ungula caballina';

    got. skilja `Fleischer'; aisl. skilja `trennen, unterscheiden, (ent)scheiden', skil n. (i nach skilja) `Unterschied, Entscheidung, Bescheid', skila `(ent)scheiden'; ndl. verschillend `verschieden' (*skiljand); mnd. schelen `trennen, unterscheiden' (schele `Unterschied, Mangel, Grenze') = ags. scielian `teilen, entfernen' (*skelōn);

    got. skildus `Schild', aisl. skjǫldr m. (daraus mir. scell), ags. scield, as. scild, ahd. scilt ds. (-tu-St. neben lit. skìltis `abgeschnittene Scheibe'); dazu got. skillings, ahd. usw. scilling `kleine Münze, Schilling' aus skildu-lings;

    got. skalja `Ziegel', aisl. skel f. `Schale', ags. sciell f. `Hülse, Muschelschale', mnd. schelle f. `Schale, Fischschuppe'; ahd. scā̆la `Hülse, Schale', mhd. schale auch `Steinplatte', ags. scealu `Hülse, Schale'; ahd. fuaz-skal `hölzerner Pflock als Verschluß für den Fuß', nhd. Schelle `manica, compes, numella', Hand-, Fußschelle;

    aisl. skjall n. `Häutchen', ags. sceallan m. Pl. `Hoden', afries. skall ds. (: cymr. caill); aisl. skalli m. `Kahlkopf', als `abgeschnittene Hirnschale'; auch norw. schwed. skalle; ablaut. schwed. skulle `Hirnschale, Schädel', älter schwed. skolla `dünne Platte', ahd. scollo m., scolla f. `Scholle';

    mit Dehnstufe *skēl- (vgl. alb. holë): aisl. skāla f. `Trinkschale, Wagschale', ahd. as. scāla `Schale';

    as. skola, ags. scolu `Abteilung, Schar';

    ohne anlaut. s-: got. hallus m. `Fels' (*kol-nu-), aisl. hallr m. `Stein, Fels', hella f. ds., finn. Lw. kallio ds., (*hallj[ōn]). aisl. hellir `Berghöhle', schweiz. Hell `Steinplatte' usw.; s. oben S. 544;

    aisl. hold n. `Fleisch', ags. hold n. `Leichnam', ags. holdian `aufschneiden', hyldan `die Haut abziehen', aisl. hylda `aufschneiden' (beruhen auf einem Partiz. *kl̥-tó-m);

    ahd. scultirra, ags. sculdor `Schulter' (*skḷ-dhrā `Schulterblatt als Schaufel, als Grabwerkzeug');

    mit Formans -mo- und den Bed. `Schneidewerkzeug; geschnittenes Holz; ausgehöhlter Einbaum, Kahn': aisl. skǫlm f. `Zinke einer Gabel, Schote', Pl. `Schere', nd. ostfries ndl. schalm `dünnes Brett', aisl. skalma-trē `gespaltener Baum', ahd. scalm `navis'; auch wohl ahd. scalmo `Pest, Seuche, Leichnam'; mhd. schalm(e) ds.; dazu skelmo `Todeswürdiger' (*skalmian-), mhd. mnd. schelm(e) `Bösewicht'; vgl. alb. helm `Trauer, Gift'; ohne anlaut. s-: ags. helma, engl. helm `Griff des Steuerruders, Steuer', mhd. halm(e), helm `Axtstiel', ahd. helmo, halmo `Ruderpinne', ndl. helmstock ds., mnd. holm `Querbalken, Jochträger', aisl. hjǫlm f. `Steuer', hjalm-vǫlr `Ruderpinne';

    *skol-dhā `(abgeschnittene) Stange' ist wohl die Grundlage von ahd. scalta `Stoßstange, Bootshaken', scaltan `mit einer Stange schieben', nhd. schalten auch `einschalten (= dazwischen hineinstoßen)' und übertr. `walten', dial. auch `spalten', as. skaldan `ein Fahrzeug vorwärts schieben', mhd. schalte, aisl. skalda `Fähre', mhd. schalter, schelter `Riegel', nhd. Schalter `Schiebfenster, Stange, Bootshaken';

    mit Formans -go-: mnd. schalk `Sparrenstütze' ostfries. schalk `Holzklötzchen als Unterlage', bair. schalken `zerspalten'; schwed. skulk `abgesägter Stumpf';

    lit. skeliù, skélti `spalten' (der Akzent nach skílti?), skilù, skílti `sich spalten'; `Feuer schlagen' (Intonation der schweren Basis, wie kélnės); skalà `Holzspan, Lichtspan', Iterat. skéldėti `platzen, bersten'; lett. šḱel̂t `spalten', šḱēlêt ds., šḱēle `abgeschnittenes Stück', usw.; über lit. kélmas s. oben S. 546;

    aksl. skala `Fels, Stein' (die Bed. `Schale' durch Entlehnung aus ahd. scāla ds.), sloven. skála `assula tenuis; Lichtspan', russ. skalina `abgelöste Birkenrinde'; skolьka `Muschelschale' (s. oben lat. siliqua), russ. ščelь `Spalte', sloven. ščalja `Splitter', poln. skalić się `sichspalten, bersten';

    hitt. iškallāi- `zerreissen, aufschlitzen'.

    Wurzelerweiterung skel(e)-p-:

    vielleicht in ai. kálpatē `wird geordnet, wird zuteil', kalpáyati `ordnet an', kl̥ptá `fertig, gerüstet' = av. hu-kǝrǝpta- `schöngeformt', das jedoch auch zu kǝhrp- `Gestalt' (oben S. 620) gehören könnte;

    gr. σκάλοψ `Maulwurf' (als `Gräber'); σκόλοψ m. `Spitzpfahl';

    lat. scalpō, -ere `kratzen, ritzen, scharren, mit spitzem Werkzeug schneiden, meißeln' (scalprum, scalper `scharfes Werkzeug zum Schneiden, Meißeln'), sculpō, -ere (ursprüngl. in Kompositis aus scalpō) ds.;

    ahd. scelifa, mhd. nhd. dial. schelfe `häutige Schale', mnd. schelver `abgeblättertes Stück', schulvern `abblättern'; aisl. skjǫlf `Bank', ags. scielfe `Flur, Stockwerk, Bretterverschlag', scielf m. `Felsspitze', mnd. schelf `Brettgerüst, Regal';

    ohne s: got. halbs, aisl. halfr, ags. healf, as. half, ahd. nhd. halb (eig. `geteilt'); ags. hielfe `Griff, Schaft' (engl. helve), ahd. mhd. halb `Handhabe', nhd. dial. halb, helb `Stiel'; ahd. halftra `Zaum', ags. hælftre `Halfter', (aus *`Handhabe');

    lit. kálpa `Querholz am Schlitten', kìlpa `Steigbügel, Schlinge', kìlpinis `Armbrust', apr. kalpus `Rungenstock';

    lit. sklempiù, sklem̃pti `glatt behauen, polieren'.

    Wurzelerweiterung skel(e)-b-:

    aisl. skalpr `Schiff', dän. dial. skalp `Samenschote, Hülse', mnd. schulpe, scholpe `Muschel, Schuppe', dän. skulp, skulpe `Schote, Fruchtbalg', norw. skolp `Schote, Hülse', engl. skalp (nord. Lw.) `Schädel, Hirnschale', aisl. skelpa f. `Grimasse', skolpr `Hohlmeißel'; aksl. sklabiti sę `den Mund aufmachen, lächeln', čech. škleb `Zähnefletschen';

    i-Erweiterung: sklei-, sklei-d-, sklei-k-, sklei-p-:

    aisl. slīta `zerreißen, zerstören, verbringen' (slitna intr. `rumpi'), ags. slītan `zerreißen', as. slītan `schleißen, spalten', ahd. slīzan `spalten, reißen, aufbrauchen', nhd.verschleißen, schleißen, aisl. slit `Schlitz, Riß, Abnützung', ags. geslit `das Bersten', ahd. sliz, nhd. Schlitz, mhd. sleize, nhd. Schleiße `Leuchtspan'; aisl. slīðrar f. Pl., slīðrn. Pl. `Schwert- oder Messerscheide' als *s(k)lei-tro-, -trā- von der unerweit. Wzf. sklei-;

    lit. skleidžiù, skleĩsti, lett. skliêst `ausbreiten, umblättern', lit. sklaidaũ, -ýti `hin und her blättern', refl. `sich zerstreuen', iš-sklaidýti `zerstreuen, vertreiben', sklį̃sti `auseinanderfließen'; lit. sklaidùs `zerstreut', lett. sklaidis `ein Herumtreiber, Taugenichts'; ohne anlaut. s-: klaîdît `sich herumtreiben', klîstu, klîdu, klîst `irren', lit. klýstu, klýdau, klýsti `sich verirren' (ohne d: lit. klajóju, -óti `herumirren', lett. klaijât, -uôt ds. eineursprüngl. versch. Sippe?); apr. sclait, schlāit, schklait `sondern; ohne', schklāits Adv. `sonderlich, besonders; sonst', Adj. `schlicht, einfach';

    ags. slīfan `spleißen', engl. slive, ags. to-slǣfan `spalten', mnd. slēf, norw. sleiv `großer Löffel'.

References: WP. II 590 f., WH. I 165, II 536 f., Trautmann 264.
Pages: 923-927
PIE database: PIE database
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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`àlù
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sharp, to cut
Russian meaning: острый, резать
Turkic: *čal-
Mongolian: *čali
Tungus-Manchu: *čal-
Japanese: *tùrù(n)kì
Comments: KW 420, ОСНЯ 1, 196-197. KW 420, ОСНЯ 1, 196-197. The Jpn. form can be alternatively compared with PTM *dargi 'harpoon'.
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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čal-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to knock (down), hit, agitate 2 to whet 3 to slaughter 4 to mow 5 scythe 6 to sting, pierce 7 to sweep 8 to chop 9 a k. of broom 10 to sharpen, whet 11 whetstone 12 mowing, hay time 13 to trip 14 blade
Russian meaning: 1 сбивать, ударять, бить, взбалтывать 2 точить 3 убивать, закалывать 4 косить 5 коса 6 жалить, закалывать 7 подметать 8 изрубить, отрубить 9 вид метлы, веник-голик 10 точить 11 оселок 12 покос 13 дать подножку 14 острие, лезвие
Old Turkic: čal- 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čal- 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: čal- 1, čalgɨ 9, čalgɨ oraɣɨ 5
Tatar: čal- 1, 3, čalɣɨ 5
Uzbek: čal- 1, čalɣi ụrɔq 5
Uighur: čal- 1, čalɣa 5
Sary-Yughur: čal(ɨ)- 8
Azerbaidzhan: čal- 1, 6, 7, čalɣɨ 9
Turkmen: čal- 10, 7, 6, čalGɨ 5, 11
Khakassian: sal- 1
Shor: šalɣɨ 5
Oyrat: čalɣɨ 5
Halaj: čal- 1, 6
Chuvash: śol- 4, śolъk 9
Yakut: sālɨn- 'to fall abruptly'
Tuva: šalɨ- 10
Kirghiz: čal- 1, 3, čalɣɨ 5, čalɣɨn 12
Kazakh: šal- 13, šalɣɨ 5, šalɣɨn 12
Noghai: šal- 1, 3, 4, šalɣɨ 5
Bashkir: salɨ- 3
Balkar: čal- 4, čalqɨ 5
Gagauz: čalɨm 14
Karaim: cal- 1, 4, calqɨ, calɣɨ 5
Karakalpak: šal- 1, 3, 13, šalɣɨ 5, šalɣɨn 12
Kumyk: čal- 1, 4, čalɣɨ 5
Comments: VEWT 97, EDT 417-418 , Егоров 206, Федотов 2, 132, 133. The difference in length between Turkm. and Yak. allows to suppose a merger of at least two roots, perhaps originally distinguished semantically and phonetically as *čāl- 'to knock down' (reflected in Yak., not reflected in Turkm.) - *čal- 'to sharpen, whet' (reflected in Turkm., not reflected in Yak.). Since "Verba des Schlagens" are generally vague semantically, in most languages it is difficult to draw a line between them.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čali
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sharp 2 sharp instrument, crowbar
Russian meaning: 1 острый 2 острый инструмент, лом
Written Mongolian: čali 1, čalir / čaril 2 (L 163, 166)
Middle Mongolian: čalir 2 (SH)
Khalkha: calir / caril 2
Buriat: salī- 'to be sharp'
Kalmuck: caĺǝ, cäĺǝ 1, caĺr, cäĺr 2
Ordos: čalir 2
Comments: KW 420, 421.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čal-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to cut off 2 to cut, engrave 3 bed in cross-bow 4 arrow head
Russian meaning: 1 отрезать 2 резать, вырезать 3 ложе в самостреле 4 наконечник стрелы
Evenki: čalī 4
Negidal: čōlị- 1
Literary Manchu: čoli- 2
Ulcha: čālụ- 1, 2, čaɣlị, čaịlqa 3
Orok: čaɣla 3
Nanai: čālị- 1, 2
Oroch: čali 3
Comments: ТМС 2, 382, 405. Some forms reflect a PTM derivative *čal-ga (*čal-gi).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tùrù(n)kì
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sword
Russian meaning: меч
Old Japanese: turugji
Middle Japanese: tùrùgì, tùrùkì
Tokyo: tsurugí
Kyoto: tsúrùgì
Kagoshima: tsurugí
Comments: JLTT 557. Kagoshima accent is irregular.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 941
Proto: *śale
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to cut, split
German meaning: schneiden, spalten
Finnish: sali- 'spleißen', sale (gen. saleen) 'Kienholzspleiße' ( > Saam. N sāllâ- -l- 'make a line or groove in smth.') ?
Saam (Lapp): čuollâ- -l- (N) 'chop, cut', tšuo̯llα- (Ko. P) 'schlagen, hacken, hauen' ?
Khanty (Ostyak): (sålė (S) 'abgeschnittenes Stück' - doubted by Redei)
Mansi (Vogul): (sālėm (N) 'Span' - rejected by Redei)
Hungarian: szil- (dial., altung. zollot) 'schneiden, spalten, schnitzen', szilács, sziács, szíács, szijács, szivács (dial.) 'Hobelspan', szilak, szilok (dial.) 'Stück, Schnitzel'; ? culák, culáp, cúláp, szulák, szúláp (dial.) 'Holzsäule, Pfahl, Pfosten' ?
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-saa,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *cal-/cel-/cil-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: отрывать, сдирать
English meaning: to tear away, peel
Georgian: cal-, cl-, cil-
Georgian meaning (Rus.): удаляться; снимать (кожуру), сходить (о коже)
Georgian meaning (Engl.): to go away; to peel
Megrel: rc(w)-
Megrel meaning (Rus.): снимать (кожуру), сходить (о коже)
Megrel meaning (Eng.): to peel
Svan: cel-, cil-, cl-
Svan meaning (Rus.): отрывать
Svan meaning (Eng.): to tear away
Laz: prc- (?)
Laz meaning (Rus.): снимать (кожуру), сходить (о коже)
Laz meaning (Eng.): to peel
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 225; EWK 444. См. *cal- 'часть, кусок'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-meg,kartet-mgmean,kartet-emgmean,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *sel- (*c-)
Meaning : to split, crack
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *sel-ai (*c-)
Proto-Telugu : *sel- (*c-)
Proto-North Dravidian : *cal-q-
Brahui : cal-[ēng]ing
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-ndr,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *sel-ai (*c-)
Meaning : crack
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tulu : selè
Tulu meaning : chink, crack, flaw as in a stone
Number in DED : 2377
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *sel- (*c-)
Meaning : to cut
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : selagu
Dialectal forms (1) : selayu
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : selãgu, celagu, celavu
Additional forms : Also sela hole
Number in DED : 2377
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *cal-q-
Meaning : to open; to split
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : calxnā "to open, uncover"
Malto : calge "to split, or break open"
Additional forms : Also KUR calxrnā to open (intr.); MLT calgro torn asunder.
Number in DED : 2377
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : cal-[ēng]ing
Meaning : to become cracked, split
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 2377
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVLV
Meaning : split, tear off
Eurasiatic : *CVlV
Afroasiatic : *salaʕ-
Sino-Caucasian : ? *=ōcV, *=ōcV-ɫV
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sVlaʕ- (?)
Meaning: split, cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *šVlaʕ- 'pierce, split'
Western Chadic: *sVl- 'cut'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1906
Proto-Semitic: *šVlaʕ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'pierce, split'
Arabic: slʕ [-a-]
Notes: Together with Hbr slʕ may go back to *šVlaʕ-
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *sVl-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
Gera: šallǝ- [ShB]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-ger,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=ōcV
Meaning: to mow, reap
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=ōcV
Sino-Tibetan: *chǝ̄H
Basque: *us-ta
Comments and references : NSC 52 *cVɫHV, VCQ 5.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=ōcV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to mow
Proto-Nakh: *=āc-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=Vc-
Proto-Lak: =u=ca-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔocV
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Correspondences are regular. There exists also a PEC nominal derivate *(ʔō)cV̄ɫV, reflected in PN *cēl and Av. χ:arí-cel.

    Deeters (1957, 390) compared the EC forms with PK *cel- 'to mow; scythe'. If the PK verbal stem is actually denominative (see Dzhavakhishvili 1, 272, 2, 91), it is most probably borrowed from an EC source. See Klimov 1965, 223.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=āc-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to mow 2 to work hard, be exploited
Chechen: =āc- 2
Ingush: =ac- 2
Batsbi: =ac- 1
Comments: A PN derivate is *cēl 'hoe' ( < *'sickle, scythe'), reflected in Chech. cel (cēla-), Ing. cel; however, Bacb. cel 'scythe' is rather to be considered a loan from Georg. celi 'scythe'.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=Vc-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to mow 2 to clip, shear
Avar: =ec- 1
Chadakolob: =oš- 2
Comments: An old derivate from this verbal root is -cel in Av. χ:arí-cel 'scythe' (in the first part of the compound - Av. χ:er, obl. χ:arí- 'grass'). The Avar compound was borrowed in many Andian and Tsezian languages (sometimes with distortion, usual for a long borrowed word): Akhv. qalic:a, Cham. χ:arical, Gig. χarica 'sickle', Tind. q:arisa ( > Inkh. qarisa), Tsez. χerceli, Gin. χalicen.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =uca-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to mow; break off, tear off
Lak form: =uca-n
Comments: G. pr. =u=cu-n, dur. cu-lu-n. Cf. Khosr. =ucʷa=n, cʷu-lu-n id. (with secondary labialisation).
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔocV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to mow
Agul: uc-as
Udi: oca-psun
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-agu,lezget-udi,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *chǝ̄H
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: pluck, reap, harvest
Chinese: *chǝ̄ʔ gather, pluck; 菜 *chǝ̄ʔs edible herbs, vegetables.
Tibetan: bca fruit (Sch.); bcas harvest, to reap.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: cǎi
Preclassic Old Chinese: shǝ̄ʔ
Classic Old Chinese: shǝ̄́
Western Han Chinese: shǝ̄́
Eastern Han Chinese: shǝ̄́
Early Postclassic Chinese: shǝ̄́
Middle Postclassic Chinese: shǝ̄́
Late Postclassic Chinese: chǝ̄́j
Middle Chinese: chʌ́j
English meaning : to gather, pluck
Russian meaning[s]: 1) разноцветный, цветной, вм. 彩; 2) выбирать; собирать, срывать, вм. 採; 3) Цай (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 捋取也.從木.從爪.
Comments: Also read cài, MC chл̀j, OC *shǝ̄ʔ-s 'appanage' (Sch.: "what is plucked"). The graph is used also for a number of homonymous words:

    1) *shǝ̄ʔ 'color, pigment';

    2) *shǝ̄ʔ 'affairs, tasks, works';

    3) *shǝ̄ʔ 'name of part of the day' (around 8 am).

Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 165
Four-angle index: 5275
Karlgren code: 0942 a-c
Shijing occurrences: 1.3_, 8.1_, 8.2, 8.3, 13.1, 13.2, 14.2, 14.3, 15.1, 35.1, 48.1, 48.2, 48.3, 54.3
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *usta
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 harvest 2 July (month)
Gipuzkoan: uzta 1, 2
High Navarrese: uzta 1, 2, uztail 2
Low Navarrese: uzta 1, uztail 2
Lapurdian: uzta 1, uztail 2
Zuberoan: üzta 1, üztaila 2
Roncalese: uzta 1
Comments: Some of the words are a compound of *usta + *hil 'month' (q.v.). Bouda (1948) compared Bsq + Lak =uca-, etc.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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