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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'eke
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): сын, дочь
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ạkkạ #
Proto-Itelmen: *'eke-čh
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ạkkạ #
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): сын (дочь) 1, мальчик (девочка) 2, мужчины (pl.tant.) 3
Chukchee: ɛ́kǝk (ŋɛ-), ɛkkɛ- 1
Koryak: ákǝk (ŋav-), akka-, voc. akka-piĺ (ŋav-) (III) 1
Palan: ekǝk (ŋew-), ekke-, voc.: ekke(-p), hǝv-ekke 1
Alutor: akǝk, akka- 1, 2, akka-ĺhe, akka-ĺhaj-u 3
Comments: М.б. вторая часть в алют. сложении 'мужчины' *ʁoʒla. Интересна аллегровая вокативная пал. форма hǝvekke 'дочка' < *ŋv-ekke с редукцией гласного префикса.
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *'eke-čh E
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): девочка
Itelmen: 'eke-čh ('ekečh-en poss. personal.)
Itelmen meaning: девочка
West Itelmen: 'ǝk_ǝ-č ('ǝkẹ-n-č pl.)
West Itelmen meaning: virgo puella
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): dziewica, dziewczyna
Number in Volodin 1976: 132, 166
Comments: В зап. камч. материалах Дыбовского спутано рус. рукописное "к" = [k] с "п" = [p]. Использование во множественном числе знака "ять" = [ẹ] указывает на произношение -n- ближе по артикуляции к -ŋ-, т.е. здесь таким способом отмечен палатальный.
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-vol,itelet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔaḳV
Meaning: elder brother or sister
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ā́k`V (+ *ĕk`a 422)
Uralic: *ekä
Dravidian: *ak-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'eke ?
References: Ndr 15 *ʔaga 'uncle, elder person'; 21 *ʔaḲa 'grandfather, elder relative' (a hardly justified distinction).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ā́k`a
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: elder brother
Russian meaning: старший брат
Turkic: *(i)āka
Mongolian: *aka
Tungus-Manchu: *akā / *kakā
Comments: EAS 91, KW 3, Владимирцов 324, Poppe 55, Цинциус 1972a, 40-45. АПиПЯЯ 290. A Western isogloss. The Turkic forms are relatively late attested and could be < Mong., see TMN 1, 137, Щербак 1997, 199, but the Mong.-Tung. parallel still holds.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *(i)āka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 elder brother; elder uncle; father; grandfather 2 respectful address 3 elder
Russian meaning: 1 старший брат; старший дядя; отец; дедушка 2 почтительное обращение 3 старший
Old Turkic: aqa 1 (OUygh., from I-t half of XIII century, see ДТС)
Turkish: aɣa 1, 2
Tatar: aɣa 1, 2
Middle Turkic: aqa 1 (Oghuz-nama), aɣa 1 (Abush.), aqa (Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: ɔɣa 1
Uighur: aɣa 1
Sary-Yughur: aqa 1,2, qɨz aɣa 'тесть' (ЯЖУ 11, 13)
Azerbaidzhan: aɣa 2
Turkmen: āGa 1
Khakassian: aɣa 1 ('father's father')
Shor: aqqa 'father's father'
Oyrat: aqa 1, 2
Halaj: aɣa 2
Yakut: aɣa 1 ('father'), 3
Dolgan: aga 'father'
Tuva: aqɨ 1
Tofalar: aɣa 1
Kirghiz: aɣa 1
Kazakh: aɣa 1, 3
Noghai: aɣa 1, 2
Bashkir: aɣaj 1, 2
Gagauz: aɣa 1, 2
Karaim: aqa 2 (K), aɣa 2, 3 (K, T)
Karakalpak: aɣa 1, 2
Kumyk: aɣa 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 13, ЭСТЯ 1, 70-71, 121-122, Лексика 291, Stachowski 28. Note the expressive gemination of the medial -k- in Tuva and elsewhere.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *aka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: elder brother
Russian meaning: старший брат
Written Mongolian: aqa (L 59)
Middle Mongolian: aqa (HY 28, SH), axai ekeči 'elder aunt' (HY 28), aɣā (IM 432), āɣa (MA 266, 185, 256)
Khalkha: ax; axaj 'aunt' (resp. address)
Buriat: axa
Kalmuck: axǝ
Ordos: axa
Dongxian: aɣa
Dagur: akā, aga (Тод. Даг. 118, 119, MD 112), ag (MGCD)
Shary-Yoghur: aʁa (MGCD: aGa)
Monguor: aGa 'frère aîné', āGa 'frère puînté du père' (SM 2)
Comments: KW 3, MGCD 126. Cf. also WMong. aki, Kalm. ākǝ 'elder brother's wife' (KW 20).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *ak- / *kaka
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 man 2 elder brother
Russian meaning: 1 мужчина 2 старший брат
Evenki: akā, akin 2
Even: aqa, aqъ̣n 2
Negidal: aga / axa 2
Spoken Manchu: hahǝ 1 (829)
Literary Manchu: xaxa 1, axun 2
Jurchen: xaxa-aj (298) 1, axun (axun-un) (286) 2
Ulcha: aGa 2
Orok: aGa / aqa 2
Nanai: ā 2
Oroch: aka, akin 2
Udighe: aga` 2 (Корм. 203)
Solon: axā, axin 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 23-24, 459. Forms like Evk. akā can be < Mong. (see TMN 1, 139, Poppe 1972, 100), but this is impossible for *akin and *kaka.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 133
Proto: *ekä
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: elder (male) relative: father's father, father's elder brother, uncle
German meaning: älterer (männlicher) Verwandter: Vater des Vaters, älterer Bruder des Vaters, Onkel
Saam (Lapp): ække, ǣg- (N) 'father's brother, paternal uncle, older than the father of the person in question; a man's younger brother's son or daughter', iehkē ~ ǟhkē (L) 'Vaters Bruder od. Vetter (wenn er älter ist als der Vater)', jiekke (jea) (T) 'Vatersbruder, älter als der Vater'
Khanty (Ostyak): iki (V) 'alter Mann; Vater des Vaters; älterer Bruder des Vaters; Vater der Mutter', ikǝ (DN), ĭkǝ (Ni.) 'alter Mann, Greis', akĭ (Kaz.) 'älterer Bruder der Mutter, älterer Bruder des Vaters; Vater des Mannes; älterer Bruder des Mannes etc.', ȧki (O) 'Vater des Großvaters'
Mansi (Vogul): āk (K) 'Großvater, Onkel', ǟk- (P), äkė (LM) 'Onkel', ǟkǝm (LU) 'meines Vaters Bruder', aki (N) 'Onkel, старший брат отца, муж старшей сестры отца'
Nenets (Yurak): ńeka (O) 'älterer Bruder; jüngerer Bruder des Vaters'
Selkup: ăgá, ăgà (Ke. N) 'älterer Bruder' ?
Sammalahti's version: FU *ekä
References: FUV; DEWO 36; SzófSz.; Stein.Fgr.Vok. 41
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-saa,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-nen,uralet-slk,uralet-samm2,uralet-lit,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ak-
Meaning : an elder relative
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *akā, *akai
Proto-Telugu : *akka
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aka
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ak-
Notes : The root forms several PDR stems; the most common is *ákā~*ákai "elder sister", but a PGn stem in *-o is also available, denoting a male rather than female relative. // Present in 4/6 branches.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *akā, *akai
Meaning : elder sister
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : akkā, akkai, akkan_, akkāttai, akkāḷ, akkacci, akkaicci
Tamil meaning : elder sister
Malayalam : akka
Malayalam meaning : elder sister, wife of an elder brother, elderly maternal or paternal cousin, a term of endearment denoting an elderly woman
Kannada : akka (nom. sg. akkaṃ, i. e. akkan, nom. pl. akkaŋgaḷ/akkandir)
Kannada meaning : elder sister; a woman older than oneself is usually termed akka, endearingly girls are also so called by their elders
Kodagu : akkë
Kodagu meaning : elder sister or female parallel cousin
Tulu : akka, akkè
Tulu meaning : elder sister
Proto-Nilgiri : *ak-
Number in DED : 0023
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ak-
Meaning : elder sister or female parallel cousin
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : akn
Toda : okn, okok
Number in DED : 23
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *akka
Meaning : elder sister
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : akka
Number in DED : 23
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *aka
Meaning : grandfather
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Parji : akka "mother's father"
Number in DED : 24
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-parji,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ak-
Meaning : grandfather (maternal)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *ak-o
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ak-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ak-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *ak-o
Meaning : grandfather; grandchild
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : akkō "mother's father (said by granddaughter)"
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : akko "great-grandfather"
Muria Gondi : akko "daughter's son or daughter, grandson's wife"
Maria Gondi (Smith) : ukko "(i.e. akko) maternal grandfather"
Number in DED : 24
Number in CVOTGD : 6, 7
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_w,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_lu_s,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ak-
Meaning : maternal grandfather
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : ako (pl. -r)
Number in DED : 24
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ak-
Meaning : grandfather
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : ake "grandfather, ancestor"
Kuwi (Schulze) : akku
Additional forms : Also Kui akenja grandfather
Number in DED : 24
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-addition,kuiet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVKV
Meaning : elder relative
Eurasiatic : *ʔaḳV
Afroasiatic : *ʔk(k)
Sino-Caucasian : *QUHV́ (? < *ʔVQU-HV)
Austric : *kVʔ
Amerind (misc.) : *-kwa 'in-law' (R 393) [+ A K]; *koko 'uncle' (R 803)
African (misc.) : Banto *-kúúkù 'grandparent'.
Reference : GE 18 *kaka (+ NC, IP, Austral., different SH), 68 *aka.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔk(k)
Meaning: old man, grandfather, elder relative
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Notes: Ndr 21: Eg, Cush (hardly distinguishable from Ndr 15 *ʔag- 'maternal uncle').
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *QUHV́
Meaning: uncle
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *qŭH
Yenisseian: *χɔj
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *qŭH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: uncle, father-in-law
Chinese: *guʔ maternal uncle.
Tibetan: khu uncle (on the father's side), skud, sgud father-in-law.
Burmese: uh mother's brother, LB *ɣux (cf. also ać-kǝw elder brother).
Kachin: gu4 father-in-law (cf. also gǝkhau1 brother-in-law).
Lushai: KC > Tiddim ū elder brother or sister.
Lepcha: ku, a-ku a paternal uncle
Kiranti: *k[ù]
Comments: Mikir ni-hu uncle, Meithei iku father-in-law; Vayu ku-ku; Bahing la-ku; Digaro (na-)ku; Miri ǝkü; Rawang ǝkhö, Trung 2 father's or mother's younger brother. Ben. 61. The Burm. and Jnp. evidence suggests that there may be two roots here, merged in most languages. Cf. PAA *kuʔ 'kinship term', Yao kɔ.4 'older brother'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: jiù
Preclassic Old Chinese: guʔ
Classic Old Chinese: gú
Western Han Chinese: gǝ́w
Eastern Han Chinese: gǝ́w
Early Postclassic Chinese: gíw
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gǝ́w
Late Postclassic Chinese: gǝ́w
Middle Chinese: gǝ́w
English meaning : uncle
Russian meaning[s]: 1) дядя (со стороны матери); 2) свекор; 3) шурин (брат жены)
Comments: The regular Sino-Viet. reading is cũ'u. For *g- cf. Xiamen ku6, Chaozhou ku4, Fuzhou, Jianou kiu6.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 134
Four-angle index: 4736
Karlgren code: 1067 b
Vietnamese reading: cậu
Jianchuan Bai: -ćo8
Dali Bai: -ćou4
Bijiang Bai: -qɨ1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1703
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 流開三上有群
ZIHUI: 5279 1597
Beijing: ćiou 3
Jinan: ćiou 3
Xi'an: ćiou 3
Taiyuan: ćiou 3
Hankou: ćiou 3
Chengdu: ćiǝu 3
Yangzhou: ćiôɨ 3
Suzhou: ʒ́iöy XH
Wenzhou: ʒ́iau 22
Changsha: ćiôu 31 (lit.); ćiôu 32
Shuangfeng: ćhiû 32
Nanchang: ćhiu 32
Meixian: khiu 11
Guangzhou: khau 22
Xiamen: ku 32
Chaozhou: ku 22
Fuzhou: kieu 32
Shanghai: ćiɨ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: kiou 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *k[ù]
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: uncle
Tulung: kuk mother`s brother
Kaling: ke uncle (mother`s brother)
Limbu: kukuwā maternal uncle
Dumi: kiki
Kulung: kɔkpa
Yamphu: kwäŋ
Comments: The reconstruction is not quite clear: perhaps also *kè, *kèku? Toba 98 *kVk.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: kwaʔ, -Ngwaʔ
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: 1) ego's maternal uncle, 2) husband of ego's paternal aunt.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: kiki
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: 1) maternal uncle, older than mother; 2) maternal uncle, irrespective of age with respect to mother.
Derivation: [2 - in Sasarkā only]
Comments: 1) cf. kira, ma:idzu, nono, te:te:m (1)
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-dercomm,dumet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: kɔkpa
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: mother's brother
Nepali: māmā.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: kwäŋ
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: mother's younger brother.
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *χɔj
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: uncle, aunt
Ket: qōj , pl. qōjeŋ1 / qɔjeŋ5
Yug: xoj, pl. xoje:ŋ3
Kottish: hai, pl. hajan "uncle"; hāja, pl. hājan, g. hājei "aunt"
Comments: ССЕ 304. Werner 2, 127 <*qoj>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *kVʔ
Meaning: older brother
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *kuʔ
Austroasiatic meaning: kinship term
Miao-Yao parallels: Yao kɔ.4 older brother;kǝu.1 male (of some grown animals), ku.4 grandmother
Proto-Austronesian: *kaka 'older brother'; (Ache tɨŋku address term for adult male)
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-myao,austr-an,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *kuʔ
Meaning: kinship
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Monic: M ko
Proto-Palaungic: Pr kɔ.B
Proto-Khmu: NK kɔʔ
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,

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