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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'ǝkɫ́ime
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): почка (анатом.)
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ǝ̣kcịmạ
Proto-Itelmen: *kɫime-
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ǝ̣kcịmạ
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): почка (анатомическая)
Chukchee: kǝcimɛ́=
Koryak: k(ǝ)cim(a), kǝcime= (III)
Palan: kc̨ìmme, kcime-, kc̨ema-qal sg.
Alutor: k(ǝ)cìmmǝ, kǝcim(a)-
Comments: &
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *kɫime- EA
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): почка (анат.)
Itelmen: kɫime-lŋin
Itelmen meaning: почка (анат.)
West Itelmen: txim-ǝn pl.
West Itelmen meaning: renes
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): nerki
South Itelmen: kina
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): renes
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): nerki
Number in Volodin 1976: 125, 62
Comments: Может быть южно-кам. -n- из -l-?
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,itelet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gwVlV
Meaning: belly, entrails
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gʷolbh- (ND 620 *ghelondh-?)
Altaic: *k`i̯ū́ĺnu 'navel'
Kartvelian: *gul-
Dravidian: *kōl-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *'ǝkɫ́ime kidney
References: ND 620 *gol[ʔ]V 'belly, entrails' (Kartv.-Drav.+IE *ghelondh-?).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gʷelbh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: foetus, womb
Old Indian: gárbha- m. `womb'
Old Greek: delphǘ-s, -ǘos f. `Gebärmutter'; dolphó-s `womb' Hsch.; délphaks, -akos f. (m.) `Sau, Mutterschwein'
Germanic: *kalb-az-, *kalb-iz- n.; *kalb-ōn- f.; *kilb-Vr=
Russ. meaning: плод во чреве; матка
References: WP I 692, Buck 107.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kalbaz, *kalbiz n.; *kalbōn f.; *kilbVr=
Meaning: calf
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: *kalbō f. (n) `young cow, calf'
Old Norse: kalf-r m. `Kalb'
Norwegian: kalv
Swedish: kalv
Danish: kalv
Old English: cealf (celf, calf), -es, pl. cealfru (calfru) n./m. `calf'; ceolbor-, cilfor-, cilfor-, ceolbor-lamb n. `female lamb'
English: calf
Old Saxon: kalf
Middle Dutch: calf
Dutch: kalf, pl. kalveren n.
Old Franconian: calf
Middle Low German: kalf
Old High German: kalb, pl. kelbir (8.Jh.) `Kalb'; kalba = MHG kalbe; kilbur n. (11.Jh.); kilburra, kilbirra (9.Jh.) f. `Mutterlamb'
Middle High German: kalp (-b-) st. n. `Kalb'; kalbe wk. f. 'weibl. kalb, das über ein jehr ist u. noch nicht gekalbt hat'
German: Kalb n.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 715
Root: gʷelbh-
English meaning: womb; young of animal
German meaning: `Gebärmutter; Tierjunges'
Material: Ai. gárbha-, av. garǝwa- `Mutterleib, Leibesfrucht', gǝrǝbuš n. `Tierjunges'; ai. sá-garbhya- `eodem utero natus' (= gr. ἀδελφεός ds.);

    gr. δελφύς, -ύος f., dor. δελφύᾱ `Gebärmutter' (s. unten); *δέλφος n. ds. als Grundlage von ἀδελφεός (Hom.) `couterinus, Bruder' (*ἁ-δελφε[σ]-ός), woneben att. ἀδελφός ds.; δέλφαξ m. f. `Ferkel', δελφί̄ς, -ί̄νος m. `Delphin', δολφός ἡ μήτρα Hes.; Specht (Idg. Dekl. 268) erschließt aus gr. ἀδελιφ-ήρ ἀδελφός. Λάκωνες (Hes.) eine ursprüngl. Wurzel *gʷel-;

    der -us-St. kehrt wieder in ahd. kilbur n., chilburra f. `Mutterlamm', ags. cilforlamb ds. (daneben vom es-St. ahd. kilbira ds. und - mit Abtönung о nach einem o-St. wie δολφός, gárbha- - nhd. Kalb, s. oben S. 359 unter *gel-, *gelebh- `ballen'), die auf rein velaren Anlaut weisen (wie gall.-lat. galba und got. kil-þei `Mutterleib' usw.). Es liegen verschiedene, aber lautähnliche und daher gegenseitiger Beeinflussung ausgesetzte Sippen vor: *gʷelbh-, *gʷerebh-, und aus gel- erweiterte bh-Formen, die aber im Germ. vermutlich durch Aufsaugung von gʷelbh-Formen deren Stammbildung und spezifische Bedeutung übernommen haben.

References: WP. I 692 f., WH. I 578, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 295.
Pages: 473
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ū́ĺnu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: navel
Russian meaning: пупок
Turkic: *kīn, *kīn-dük
Mongolian: *köjil-sü
Tungus-Manchu: *xulŋu-
Comments: KW 234, Дыбо 6, Лексика 280. A Western isogloss, with a rather complicated phonology. In Mong. *köjil-sü ( < *kölil- < *kölin-) should be distinguished from *köji < *kṓp`i, although the reflexes have been significantly confused; PTM *xulŋu- either < *xulnu- through assimilation, or else < *xulnu-gV- or *xulnu-ŋV- (with a fused velar suffix). Finally, in Turkic one has to suppose a (rather frequent) fronting *kīn < *kɨ̄n.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *kīn, *kīn-dük
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 navel, navelstring, centre 2 navel of a musk-deer, musk
Russian meaning: 1 пупок, пуповина, центр 2 мускусная железа, мускус
Old Turkic: kin 'утроба, vagina; мускус', kindik 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kin (KB), kün (MK) 2
Turkish: kindik, künük (dial.) 1
Tatar: kendek 1
Middle Turkic: kindik (MA, Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: kindik, kindak 1
Uighur: kindik 1
Sary-Yughur: kendek 1 (ЯЖУ)
Turkmen: kindik (dial.) 1
Khakassian: kǝn 1, kǝndǝk 1
Oyrat: kindik 1, kin 2
Halaj: kindik 1
Chuvash: kǝndǝk (dial.)
Yakut: kīn 1
Tuva: xin 1, 2, xindik 1, 2
Tofalar: xin 1, 2
Kirghiz: kindik 1
Kazakh: kindik 1
Noghai: kindik 1
Bashkir: kendek 1
Balkar: kindik 1
Karaim: kindik 1, 'belly'
Karakalpak: kindik 1
Salar: kinǯix, kintix 1
Kumyk: gindik 1
Comments: VEWT 271, EDT 725, 729, ЭСТЯ 5, 68-69, Лексика 279-280. Turk. > Mong. kindik (Щербак 1997, 127).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *köjil-sü
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: navel
Russian meaning: пупок
Written Mongolian: köi(l)sü (L 498: küisü(n), küilsü(n))
Middle Mongolian: kojisun (HY 47, 15), kuj-sun (MA)
Khalkha: xüjs
Buriat: xüjhe(n)
Kalmuck: kīsṇ
Ordos: kǖs, kīs, küjs, kȫs, kǖsü
Dongxian: kuisun
Baoan: kisoŋ
Dagur: kuise (Тод. Даг. 151, MD 184)
Shary-Yoghur: kǖsǝn
Monguor: kwǝ̄ʒǝ; kwǝ̄gi- 1 'nombril, centre; couper le cordon ombicical à l'enfant 1' (SM 208)
Mogol: ZM kosun (3-3b)
Comments: KW 239, MGCD 397.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xulŋu-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: navel
Russian meaning: пупок
Evenki: uŋurē
Even: inŋö, iŋŋö
Negidal: uŋńo-n
Spoken Manchu: uluŋu (94)
Literary Manchu: uleŋgu
Ulcha: xujmu
Orok: xūnu
Nanai: xujmu
Comments: ТМС 2, 266, 280. In Man. cf. also xum-sun 'navel' (ТМС 1, 447).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *gul-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: сердце
English meaning: heart
Georgian: gul-
Megrel: gur-
Svan: gu, gwi
Laz: gur-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 66-67, EWK 93-94. Предлагавшиеся сближения с СК материалом (см. Климов 1969, 289) следует отвергнуть: ПЗК *ǵʷǝ 'сердце', несомненно, восходит к ПСК *jĕrḳwĭ, см. NCED 678. Гораздо вероятнее сравнение с алт. *gowVlu 'долина, сердцевина' (ОСНЯ 1, 231-232, с реконструкцией ностр. *golHV).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kōl-
Meaning : belly, womb
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-North Dravidian : *kūl/*kōl
Brahui : xōl
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-ndr,dravet-bra,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *kūl/*kōl
Meaning : belly, abdomen
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : kūl "belly, stomach, womb"
Malto : kōli "abdomen"
Additional forms : Also KUR kūlas offspring, descendant.
Number in DED : 2244
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : xōl
Meaning : womb, offspring, entrails, woof, weft
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 2244
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVLV
Meaning : belly, liver
Eurasiatic : *gwVlV
Afroasiatic : *kʷaly-
Sino-Caucasian : *KV́ɫV
Austric : PAN *ku[ḷ]a' 'spleen'
Amerind (misc.) : *kila 'liver' (R 436)
Reference : ND 875 *kol[V]yV 'lumbar region' (SH + Drav. under *gol[ʔ]V + ??TM *kalda-).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *kʷaly-
Meaning: kidney
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *kʷaly-at- 'kidney'
Egyptian: Copt.: Fay Sah kala-hē(hē <ḫt)
Central Chadic: *kwul- 'kidneys'
East Chadic: *ʔa-kwal- 'liver'
Beḍauye (Beja): ʔɔnkʷelʔa 'kidneys', kálawa 'belly'
Low East Cushitic: *kal(a)l- 'kidney'
High East Cushitic: *kal- 'kidney'
Warazi (Dullay): *kall- 'kidney'
South Cushitic: *kʷal- 'lumbar area'
Dahalo (Sanye): kalle 'kidney'
Omotic: *kVllaw- 'kidney'
Notes: Borrowing from Eth in some Cush and Om cannot be ruled out.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-bed,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-wrz,afaset-scu,afaset-dhl,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 122
Proto-Semitic: *kʷaly-at-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: kidney
Akkadian: kalītu OB on [CAD k 74], [AHw 425]
Ugaritic: klyt [DLU 217]
Canaanite: EG SYLL ga=ra=ta /*kalyā́ta/ [Hoch 352-353]
Hebrew: kilyā [KB 479]
Judaic Aramaic: kulyā (also 'testicle') [Ja 620]; kwlyyh [Sok 254]
Syrian Aramaic: kūlītā [Brock 329]
Modern Aramaic: MAL h_ullīt_ā 'Niere' [Berg 44] AZR kčulta 'kidney' [Garb 314]
Mandaic Aramaic: kulaia [DM 207]
Arabic: kulyat-, kulwat- [BK 2 926]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): kʷǝlīt
Tigre: pl. kälawǝʔ, kälawi, kälwät (metath.) [LH 392]
Amharic: kulit, pl. kulalit [K 1368, 1371]
Gafat: kullalit [LGaf 209]
East Ethiopic: SEL kilāyo, WOL kǝlayo, ZWY hǝlāyo [LGur 342]
Gurage: GOG SOD kǝlayo [ibid.]
Mehri: kǝlyīt [JM 209]
Jibbali: kuźɛ́t [JJ 131]
Harsusi: kelīt
Soqotri: QADHUB kǝlɔ̄́yǝt [SSL LS 1460-61].

    Cf. kéloih (du. keloiti) translated as 'intestines' in [LS 219]

Notes: [Fron 47] (*kuly-at- 'rene' /GEZ,ARB,SYR,HBR,UGR,AKK/); [DLU 217]: UGR, HBR, SYR, AKK, ARB, GEZ; [KB 479]: HBR, ARM, UGR, ARB, SOQ, GEZ, AKK; [Brock 329]: SYR, ARM, ARB, GEZ, AKK, HBR; [LGz 284]: GEZ, ETH, HBR, ARB, SOQ, ARM, AKK; [LS 219]: SOQ, MSA, ARB, HBR, GEZ, AKK
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-can,semet-hbr,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-amh,semet-gaf,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *kwul-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidneys'
Gaanda: kùlkùla-rà [Kr N 71]
Bura: kul-ši
Chibak: kwul-sä̀
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-gaa,cchet-bur,cchet-chb,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ʔa-kwal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'liver'
Birgit: ʔókóló [Jg]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-brg,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: ʔɔnkʷelʔa
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidneys'
Notes: kálawa 'belly'
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *kal(a)l-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidney'
Somali: kellii
Oromo (Galla): kalee, kulali-ti (pl.)
Boni: kaláálǝ
Rendille: kalási
Baiso: kalalyaa
Arbore: kalanó
Konso: ḫallitta
Notes: Elmolo kâl
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-oro,lecet-bon,lecet-rnd,lecet-bay,lecet-arb,lecet-kon,lecet-notes,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *kal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidney'
Burji (Bambala, Dashe): kalatt-ée
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-bmb,

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Warazi etymology :

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Proto-Warazi: *kall-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidney'
Gawwada (Gawata): Dalpena ḫalle
Notes: Gedeo kalatte
wrzet-prnum,wrzet-meaning,wrzet-gaw,wrzet-notes,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *kʷal-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'lumbar area'
Notes: Ehr HRSC 333 (only reconstructed form is quoted without reference to individual language forms)
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-notes,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: kalle
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidney'
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *kVllaw-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kidney'
Ometo: kellawa
Galila: kela (Fl)
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-ome,omoet-gll,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *KV́ɫV
Meaning: liver
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *kāɫ
Basque: *gibel ( < *bi-gel?)
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kāɫ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: liver, kidney
Chinese: *kān liver.
Tibetan: mkhal kidney, reins.
Burmese: khah the loins, waist, small of the back.
Kachin: kan1 the stomach, belly.
Lushai: kal kidney, KC *m-kal.
Comments: Meithei nam-gal ~ nam-gan, Kham kàl kidney; Chepang kal. Sh. 47; Ben. 18. Some forms reflect *kjVɫ - apparently a merger with *gjV̆nH 'kidney' q.v.: cf. Taraon kɨ.3 jɨŋ.1, Tani *ki, Rengma agen, Tiddim gil 'belly', Magar mi-gin 'heart'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: gān
Preclassic Old Chinese: kān
Classic Old Chinese: kān
Western Han Chinese: kān
Eastern Han Chinese: kān
Early Postclassic Chinese: kān
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kān
Late Postclassic Chinese: kān
Middle Chinese: kân
English meaning : liver [LZ]
Russian meaning[s]: 1) печень, печенка; 2) храбрость, отвага; 3) совесть
Comments: Regular Sino-Viet. is can.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 130
Four-angle index: 2342
Karlgren code: 0139 l
Vietnamese reading: gan
Jianchuan Bai: kã4
Dali Bai: ka5
Bijiang Bai: qã4
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 444
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 山開一平寒見
ZIHUI: 5139 1739
Beijing: kan 11
Jinan: kã 11
Xi'an: kã 11
Taiyuan: kä̃ 1
Hankou: kan 11
Chengdu: kan 11
Yangzhou: kɛ̃ 11
Suzhou: kö 11
Wenzhou: ky 11
Changsha: kan 11
Shuangfeng: kuɛ̃ 11
Nanchang: kɔn 11
Meixian: kɔn 11
Guangzhou: kɔn 11
Xiamen: kan 11 (lit.); kuã 11
Chaozhou: kaŋ 11
Fuzhou: kaŋ 11
Shanghai: kö 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: kan 1
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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *gibe-l ~ *bige-l
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 liver 2 back (part, space) 3 rump, arse 4 quietness, calm
Bizkaian: gibel, (arc) kibel 1, 4
Gipuzkoan: gibel 1
High Navarrese: gibel, (Lezaka) bigel 1, 2
Low Navarrese: gibel 1, 2
Salazarese: gibel 1, 4
Lapurdian: gibel 1, 2
Zuberoan: gíbel 1, 2, 3
Roncalese: gibel 1, 4
Comments: Cf. PNC *gǝ̄bǝ̄ ~ *bǝ̄gwǝ̄ ‘side’. For semantics, note especially Tindi beǵal (~ beǵaw) 'thigh, hip' in relation to ZBR gíbel 'rump, arse'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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