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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *meladh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: top
Old Indian: mūrdhán- m. `forehead, head, skull'
Avestan: ka-mǝrǝδa- 'Kopf daēvischer Wesen'
Old Greek: blōthró- `hochgewachsen'; mélathro-n n. `Dachgewölbe, -gebälke, Dach'
Germanic: *muld-ik-ō(n-) f.
Russ. meaning: вершина
References: WP II 295 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *muldikō
Meaning: head, top of the head
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: molda (~ molde), -an m. (~ f.) `top of the head'
Old Frisian: meldke `Kopf'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1273
Root: melōdh- (molǝdh-, molǝdh-)
English meaning: elevation; head
German meaning: `Erhöhung, Kopf'
Material: Ai. mūrdhán- m. `Kopf', av. ka-mǝrǝδa- `Kopf daēvischer Wesen' (eigentlich `was für ein Kopf); gr. βλωθρός (*mlodh-rós oder *molǝdhrós mit idg- ̄) `hoch aufschießend, hoch gewachsen', auch βλαστός `Sproß, Trieb' (*mlǝdh-tos); μέλαθρον `Stubendecke, Dach' (*melǝdhrom); ags. molda `the top of the head', afries. meldke (*muldi-kō);

    toch. A malto `zuerst'.

References: WP. II 295.
Pages: 725
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *mVĺV
Meaning: top
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *meladh-, *ml[ā]dh-
Altaic: *mĕ́ĺǯu ( ~ -a)
Uralic: *mOlV ?
Dravidian: ? *mē-[l-]
Comments: ? Cf. *malV.
References: ND 1417 *mAĺHo 'head, skull' (IE+Alt + Berb.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *mĕ́ĺǯu ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: head
Russian meaning: голова
Turkic: *baĺč
Mongolian: *malǯa-, *melǯe-
Tungus-Manchu: *meli-mu
Korean: *mǝ̀rí
Comments: EAS 109, SKE 146, АПиПЯЯ 31-32, 282, Мудрак Дисс. 90, Лексика 194. Doerfer's (TMN 2, 253) criticism is short ("unklar"). On possible traces in Jpn. see under *k`ŏjli. An unsuccessful attempt of refuting the etymology was undertaken by Vovin 2000, who argues that the attested Old Korean form is 麻帝 MC mạ-tìej [ma-te]. However, it is most probable that MC -t- was used here just to transcribe Korean -r- (since Middle Chinese, as well known, lacked r-). Anyway, it is hardly possible to make any decisions on the basis of very inadequate and scanty Kirim transcriptions.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *baĺč
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: head
Russian meaning: голова
Old Turkic: baš (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baš (MK, KB)
Turkish: baš
Tatar: baš
Middle Turkic: baš (Abush., MA)
Uzbek: bɔš
Uighur: baš
Sary-Yughur: baš
Azerbaidzhan: baš
Turkmen: baš
Khakassian: pas
Shor: paš
Oyrat: baš
Halaj: baš
Chuvash: poś
Yakut: bas; battaq 'hair of head'
Dolgan: bas; battak 'head of reindeer; reindeer skin'
Tuva: ba'š
Tofalar: ba'š
Kirghiz: baš
Kazakh: baš
Noghai: bas
Bashkir: baš
Balkar: baš
Gagauz: baš
Karaim: baš
Karakalpak: bas
Salar: baš
Kumyk: baš
Comments: VEWT 64, ЭСТЯ 2, 85-88, TMN 2, 250-253, EDT 375-6, Федотов 1, 452, Ашм. X, 15, Лексика 194, Stachowski 54, 55.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *mal-ǯa-, *melǯe-, *malaji-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bald
Russian meaning: лысый
Written Mongolian: malǯan (L 525), melǯen (L 535), malaji-
Khalkha: malʒan, melʒen
Buriat: malzan, melzen, malān, malaj- 'be bald'
Kalmuck: malzn, malǟ-
Ordos: malǯan
Dagur: malǯin (Тод. Даг. 153)
Comments: KW 254. Mong. > Yak., Dolg. malān (Kaɫ. VII 43, Stachowski 175).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *meli-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 neck joint 2 back part of neck 3 sinciput 4 fish skeleton 5 skeleton
Russian meaning: 1 шейный позвонок 2 задняя часть шеи 3 темя 4 рыбий костяк 5 скелет
Even: melimki 1
Negidal: īxej-melin 5
Ulcha: mugǯe 3
Orok: melimu 2
Nanai: mulgikte 4
Oroch: muggikta 5
Comments: ТМС 1, 302, 549, 550, 567.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *mǝ̀rí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: head
Russian meaning: голова
Modern Korean: mǝri
Middle Korean: mǝ̀rí
Comments: Nam 210, KED 608.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 576
Proto: *mOlV (*mOljV, *mOlkV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: breast ( < *top, *end?)
German meaning: Brust
Mari (Cheremis): malǝ̑š (MK) 'hölzerner Deckel für die kleine Öffnung des aus einem Baumstamm verfertigten Bienenkorbes' ?
Udmurt (Votyak): me̮ĺa, me̮ĺ (S) 'Brust (z. B. eines Ochsen), Wamme, Brust am Hemde', me̮l (S G) 'unter dem Hals zwischen den Füßen befindlicher Teil beim Vogel', me̮ĺa (S), mu̇ĺa (K) 'Bauchteil unter den Rippen bei Mensch und Tier', moĺa gureź (Uf.) 'runder, alleinstehender Berg', me̮ĺa (URS) 'грудь', me̮l 'грудные мышцы птиц'
Hungarian: mál, máj, mály (dial.) 'Bauchfell eines Pelztiers; südlicher Bergabhang; (altung.) Brust'
Nenets (Yurak): (māl 'Ende, Gipfel, Wipfel' - rejected by Redei)
Selkup: (mălča- 'beendigen' - rejected by Redei)
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-slk,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *mē-[l-]
Meaning : 1 up; height 2 fine, good
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *mē-[l-]
Proto-Telugu : *mēl-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *mēl-
Brahui :
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *mē-[l-]
Meaning : excellent; high
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil :
Tamil meaning : excellence
Tamil derivates : mēkku height, high place, superiority; west; mē-taku to be eminent; mē-takai, mē-takavu excellence, eminence, greatness; mēntalai eminence, excellence; mēm-paṭu to rise high, be great; mēl that which is over or above, extra; sky, west, head, leadership, superiority, excellence; that which comes after; more, more than; before, previously; mēlimai excellence; mēlukku on the outer side, extremity; mēlai upper, western, etc.; mēlōr those who are seated high, as on horses; the great, those of superior rank or caste; mēr_ku west; mēn_mai greatness, eminence, excellence, dignity, superiority
Malayalam :
Malayalam meaning : over
Malayalam derivates : mēn what is above, superiority, excellence; mēnavan a superior (title of Śūdra writers); mēŋkai authority; mēnma excellence, superiority; mēl what is above, surface; mēlan, mēlavan a superior; mēlē upwards; mērkku westward
Kannada :
Kannada meaning : that which is above, etc.
Kannada derivates : mēgu (obl. mēgaṇ-), mēge the upper side, surface, etc.; mēgana upwardly; mēṃ- upper; mēṇ what is above; upwards, further, and, besides; mēl(u), mēla, mēle that which is above, the top, upper part, surface, that which is high, high, superior, lofty, that which is good or excellent, that which is to come, future, afterwards; mēludu upper garment
Kodagu : mē māḍi
Kodagu meaning : top story
Kodagu derivates : mēŋ gay back of hand; mēŋ gālɨ top part of foot; meppuṇi higher level in a field
Tulu : mēlụ
Tulu meaning : upper part of anything; superiority, excellence; futurity; upper, higher, superior, future; afterwards
Tulu derivates : mēlāra superficial, upper
Proto-Nilgiri : *mē[l]-
Notes : The final -l- has normally to be considered as a suffix, albeit dating back to PDR, as it is also met in Telugu and CDR. However, if the root is indeed related to Altaic *meĺa 'head', it is not excluded that *mē- and *mēl- are in fact two contaminated roots.
Number in DED : 5086
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *mē[l]-
Meaning : high
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : mē mūl "higher place, up, western side"
Toda : mēl "up, high (in songs)"
Additional forms : Also Kota mē cīm western part of Nilgiris; mē kay, mē kī upper arm; mēŋ gaṇ eyes turned up in death; mēkī- (mēkaṛt-) to get up (cf. 1109); mēkaṛc- (mēkaṛc-) to make to get up; Toda mētal upper border of waistcloth; mētɨṇ sleeping platform on right side of house; mēlpāw upstream; -mil upon, on, over; concerning, about; (one) after/upon (another)
Number in DED : 5086
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *mēl-
Meaning : fine, beautiful, excellent
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : mēli
Additional forms : Also mēlimi fineness, excellence, pure gold; mēlu prosperity, happiness, good fortune, good, advantage; excellent, superior, better, higher, upper, lying above; mēlu-konu to wake up, get up
Number in DED : 5086
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *mēl-
Meaning : good
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *mēl-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *mēl-
Meaning : good
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Maria Gondi : mēlo "bad"
Koya Gondi : mēlta
Additional forms : Also Gondi_Elwin melo taboo (of places, actions, relatives)
Number in DED : 5086
Number in CVOTGD : 2967
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui :
Meaning : up, over, on (only as a verbal prefix, e.g. bē-haṛsing to turn over, upset, bē-xalling to steal)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 5086
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : MVLV
Meaning : face, head
Eurasiatic : *mVĺV
Sino-Caucasian : *hwVmVlĭ (~-ĕ)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *hwVmVlĭ (~-ĕ)
Meaning: face
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *hwVmVlĭ (~-ĕ)
Sino-Tibetan: *meɫ
Comments and references : LV D8.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *hwVmVlĭ (~-ĕ)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: face
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ħVmV(r)
Proto-Dargwa: *muħuli
Notes: An Av.-And.-Darg. isogloss.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-darg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ħVmV(r)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: face
Avar: humér
Chadakolob: humér
Akhvakh: hama-ʔal (Tseg.)
Comments: Av. paradigm C (hurmá-l, húrma-l; Chad. id.) Cf. also Akhv. Tlan. haq̇:al, Ratl. hama-q̇al. The Akhv. form reflects a compound where the second part is PA *q̇ili 'mouth' q.v.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-akv,aandet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *muħuli
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: mouth
Akusha: muħli
Chiragh: mūIle
Comments: Cf. also Kad., Mek., Ur., Kharb. muħli, Gapsh. muIħli, Kub. mūle, Tsud. muħuIli 'mouth'.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *meɫ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: face
Chinese: *mhens face.
Kachin: man1 the face.
Lushai: hmēl face, looks, appearance (? cf. also hmai the face).
Lepcha: mlem, a-mlem face
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: miàn
Preclassic Old Chinese: mhens
Classic Old Chinese: mhenh
Western Han Chinese: mhjanh
Eastern Han Chinese: mhjanh
Early Postclassic Chinese: mhjèn
Middle Postclassic Chinese: mhjèn
Late Postclassic Chinese: mhjèn
Middle Chinese: mjèn
English meaning : face; to face; face to face
Russian meaning[s]: 1) лицо, наружность; 2) сторона; лицевая сторона; внешняя сторона; поверхность; внешность; плоскость; 3) личный; очный; лично; 4) повернуться лицом к...; 5) счетный суффикс зеркал и флагов
Comments: Viet. men is a colloquial loanword (with the meaning 'to face' > 'to approach'); regular Sino-Viet. is diện. For *mh- cf. Xiamen bin6, Chaozhou miŋ6, Fuzhou meŋ5, Jianou miŋ6.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 176
Four-angle index: 1912
Karlgren code: 0223 a
Vietnamese reading: men
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 866
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 山開三去線明
ZIHUI: 7240 1788
Beijing: mian 3
Jinan: miã 3
Xi'an: miã 3
Taiyuan: miɛ 3
Hankou: mian 3
Chengdu: mian 3
Yangzhou: mî̃ 3
Suzhou: mî 32
Wenzhou: mi 32
Changsha: miẽ 31 (lit.); miẽ 32
Shuangfeng: mî̃ 32
Nanchang: miɛn 32
Meixian: miɛn 3
Guangzhou: min 32
Xiamen: bian 32
Chaozhou: miŋ 32
Fuzhou: mieŋ 32
Shanghai: mî 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: mien 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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