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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *aidh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to burn (tr., intr.)
Old Indian: inddhé `to kindle, light, set on fire', idhyáte `to be lighted, to blaze, flame'; idhmá- m. `fuel'; édha- m. id., édhas- n. id.
Avestan: aēsma- m. `Brennholz'
Old Greek: ái̯thō `anzünden', ái̯thomai̯ (/ áithō) `brennen, leuchten', ái̯thōn, âi̯thop- `feurig, funkelnd'; âi̯tho-s m. `Brand', ai̯thó- `funkelnd, glühend', âi̯thos n. `Brant'
Slavic: *ēstējā 'Ofen'
Baltic: *ei(d)-sm-iā̃ f.
Germanic: *aid-a- m., *ái-s-ōn- f., *í-s-ōn- f., *ais-t-ō f.; *aid-l-a- m.
Latin: aedēs/-is f. `Tempel', pl. `Haus'; aestās, -tātis `warme Jahreszeit, Sommer', aestus, -ūs m. `Hitze, Glut, Brandung'
Celtic: *aidhu-: Gaul Aedui; OIr aed `Feuer'; Cymr aidd `Hitze, Eifer', Bret oaz `Eifersucht'
Russ. meaning: гореть/жечь
References: WP I 2 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ei(d)-sm-iā̃ f.
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: iesmē̃ 'Fracht, Holz, zum einmaligen Einheizen des Ofens'
baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *aida-z, *áisōn, *ísōn, *aistō; *aidla-z
Meaning: flame, spark
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: eisa f. `glühende Asche, Feuer'; eld-r m. `Feuer'
Norwegian: dial. eisa `Feuerställe'; dial. e(i)ld, e(i)ll
Swedish: ässja, dial. ajsa `Herdfeuer'; eld `Flamme', dial. äild
Danish: esse `Esse'
Old English: ād, -es m. `funeral pile, pile, heap'; āst, -e `kiln'
English: oast `Hopfendarre'
Old Saxon: ēd `vuur, brandstapel'
Middle Dutch: eest(e), ēst(e)
Dutch: eest m. `droogoven'
Middle Low German: eiste; ēse f. `Esse, Feuerherd'
Old High German: eit m. `Glut, Scheiterhaufen'; essa `Brandstätte, Schmelzofen' (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: eit (-t-) st. m. 'feuer, ofen'; esse st. f. `esse, feuerherd'
German: Esse f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 30
Root: ai-dh-, i-dh-, nas. i-n-dh-
English meaning: to burn
German meaning: `brennen, leuchten'
Material: Ai. inddhḗ `entzündet, entflammt' (Pass. idhyáte, Perf. īdhḗ, Part. Perf. Pass. iddhá-ḥ), indhana-m `das Anzünden'.

    Gr. αἴθω `zünde an, brenne' (αἰθόμενος), αἴθων, αἶθοψ `feurig, funkelnd', ἰθαίνεσθαι θερμαίνεσθαι Hes., hylleisch αἰδω̃σσα αἴθουσα `Loggia'; ablautend κακ-ιθής Hes. `ausgehungert' (W. Schulze KZ. 29, 269 = Kl. Schr. 329).

    o-St.: gr. αἶθος m. `Brand' (αἰθός `verbrannt') = ai. ēdha-ḥ m. `Brennholz' = ags. ād, ahd. mhd. eit m. `Glut, Scheiterhaufen': schwundstufig wohl norw. schwed. id `leuciscus idus' (eine helle Karpfenart), vgl. nhd. dial. aitel `leuciscus cephalus' als `der Glänzende'; daneben u-St. *aidhu- im gall. VN Aedui, air. áed `Feuer', auch als MN; lat. aedēs `Tempel', ursprüngl. `der häusliche Herd', auch aedis = maked. ἄδις ἐσχάρα Hes.

    Vom Verbaladjektiv auf -to- stammt wohl lat. aestās, -ātis `warme Jahreszeit, Sommer' (aus *aisto-tāt-, idg. *aidh-to-); aestus, -ūs (aus *aidh-tu-) `Hitze, Glut, Brandung', aestuāre `kochen, wallen, brausen'; agerm. MN Aistomōdius (`mit hitzigem Mute'), ags. āst f. `Dörrofen', engl. oast `Darre'.

    r-Formans: gr. αἰθήρ `die obere Luft' (maked. ἀδη̃), αἴθρα `der heitere Himmel' (maked. ἀδραιά), αἴθριος `hell, heiter (vom Wetter)', wozu ablautend ἰθαρός `heiter', ai. vīdhrá- (=vi-idh-rá́-) ds.

    l-Formans: gr. αἰθάλη, αἴθαλος `Ruß', maked. ἄδαλος; unter Annahme einer Entwicklung von `glänzend, scheinend' zu `anscheinend' stellt man etwas gezwungen hierher ags. īdel `eitel, unnütz, nichtig', ahd. ītal, nhd. eitel.

    Auf idg. *aidh-lo- beruht germ. ail- in ags. ǣlan `brennen' zu āl n. `Flamme', und in ags. ǣled m., aisl. eldr (Gen. elds) `Feuer, Brand'. Aus verschiedenen Entwicklungsstufendes ags. ǣled sind cymr. aelwyd, bret. oaled `Feuer, Herd' entlehnt (M. Förster Themse 4872). Mir. āel `Kalk' könnte aus *aidh-lo- entstanden sein. Doch könnten die germ. und kelt. Worteauch direkt von der Wurzel 4. ā̆i- mit -lo-Suffix gebildet sein.

    s-Formans: es-St. gr. αἴθος n. `Glut, Brand' = ai. ḗdhas- n. `Brennholz'.

    Weiterbildungen: aisl. eisa f. (*aidh-s-ōn) `Feuer', norw. `Feuerstätte', mnd. ēse f. `Esse, Feuerherd' (aber ahd. essa `Esse' s. unter ā̆s- `brennen'); av. aēsma- m. `Brennholz'(*aidh-s-mo-, vgl. ohne s ai. idhmá- m. ds.); dazu balt. *aismiā in lit. íesmė `Brennholz'; lit. aistrà f. `Leidenschaft'; ačech. niestějě (fem. Pl.) `Ofen', später nístěj (mit n-Vorschlag durch falsche Zerlegung der Verbindungen *vъn-ěstěję, vъn-ěstějachъ, Berneker 275) aus *aidh-s-to-; dazu schwundstufiges *idh-s-to- in slov. istė́je, stė́je Pl. `Ofenloch'; nach Johansson IF. 19, 136 auch ai. iṣ̌ṭakā `gebrannter Ziegel', av. ištya- n. `Ziegel, Backstein'.

    Auf *indh- gehen zurück: alb. geg. idhunɛ, tosk. idhëtë `bitter', tosk. idhɛrím `Bitterkeit, Ärger', hį̄dhitë Pl. `Brennessel' (Jokl Studien 29).

References: WP. I 5, WH. 15, 20, 843, Trautmann 3, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 347.

    Wahrscheinlich zu ā̆i-4.

    Hierher gehört auch aisk-, falls aus aidh-s-k- entstanden.

Pages: 11-12
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *[H]indV
Meaning: heat
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *eidh- / i(n)dh- 'heat, to burn' (Pok. 11-12)
Dravidian: *end_-
References: МССНЯ 340; cf. *ɣontV.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *end_-
Meaning : sunshine, heat of sun
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *enr_-
Proto-Telugu : *enḍ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *end_-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ed-
Notes : Irregular correspondences.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *enr_-
Meaning : sun
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : en_r_u
Tamil meaning : sun
Tamil derivates : en_r_ ūẓ sunshine, sun, summer
Proto-Nilgiri : *er_
Number in DED : 0869
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *er_
Meaning : sun, in song unit: er_ oṭ ṇelp ground cool in the sun [during the rainy season] (interpretation doubtful, but a parallel unit has nȫr_ 'sun', for which see 2910)
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Toda : er_
Number in DED : 869
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *enḍ-
Meaning : sunshine, sun, heat of the sun
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : eṇḍa
Additional forms : Also eṇḍu to be heated by exposure to the sun, dry up, evaporate; eṇḍugulu grain exposed to the sun for being dried
Number in DED : 869
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *end_-
Meaning : sunshine
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Naiki : edde
Parji : nendi, (NE) nenḍi "heat of the sun"
Notes : Pa. n- probably because of contamination with the *n-sun.
Number in DED : 869
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-parji,kogaet-notes,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ed-
Meaning : sun
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *ed-i
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *ed-i
Meaning : heat of the sun
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : addī
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : adī
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : addī
Gommu Gondi : ed
Muria Gondi : eddi (E), addi (W)
Maria Gondi : eddi
Seoni Gondi : eddi
Koya Gondi : ed
Maria Gondi (Mitchell) : ed
Chindwara Gondi : addi
Adilabad Gondi : eddi
Durg Gondi : eddi
Additional forms : Also Gondi_A (SR) yaddi hot, sunlight
Number in DED : 869
Number in CVOTGD : 342
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_w,gonet-gondi_ph,gonet-gondi_g,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_s,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-gondi_m,gonet-gondi_ch,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-gondi_d,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : LVCV
Meaning : lick
Eurasiatic : *lašV ?
Afroasiatic : *lis-
Austric : PAA *lɨajh 'tongue'
Reference : МССНЯ 347.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *lis-
Meaning: tongue
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *liš(š)ān- 'tongue, language'
Berber: *ilVs- (<*ʔV-lis) 'tongue'
Egyptian: ns 'tongue' (pyr)
Western Chadic: *ḥa-lis-um- 'tongue'
Central Chadic: *ʔV-lyas- 'tongue'
East Chadic: *lyas-an- 'tongue' 1, 'my tongue' 2
Omotic: *mi-las- 'tongue' (probably < Amh mǝlas) (?)
Notes: See *lahas- 'lick'.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 2147
Proto-Semitic: *liš(š)ān- {} *lis(s)ān-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: tongue; language
Akkadian: lišānu 'tongue, language' OB on [CAD l 209], [AHw 556]
Eblaitic: li-sa-nu /lišānu(m)/ [Kr 7-8; Bl E No. 66]
Ugaritic: lšn [DLU 249]; /lašānu/ [Huehner 143]
Phoenician: lasoun [HJ 584] (in Diosc.)
Hebrew: lāšōn [KB 536]
Aramaic: SAMAL OLD DAL OFF lšn 'language; folk, people' (WARKA li-iš-šá-an) [HJ 584], HERTEVIN neššala [J Hert 195] (metath.)
Biblical Aramaic: liššānā [KB deutsch 1732]
Judaic Aramaic: līšānā [Ja 710]; läššān (lyšn) [Sok 282]
Syrian Aramaic: leššānā [Brock 371]
Modern Aramaic: MAL liššōna 'Zunge' [Berg 54] MLḤS lešono 'Zunge' [J Mlah 181] HRT neššala 'Zunge' [J Hert 195] NASS lišǟnä 'tongue' [Tser 0119] URM lis,ǝnǝ 'tongue, language' [R Urmi 100] ZKH līšana 'tongue' [R Zakhon 108] M MND lišān, emph. lišāna 'language, tongue' [M MND 508, 523] GZR lišána 'tongue, language' [Nak 78] AZRB liššana (northern subdialect), lišana (southern subdialect) 'tongue, language' [Garb 317] IRAN lišâna 'la lingua' [Pen 97]
Mandaic Aramaic: lišana [DM 237]
Arabic: lisān- [BK 2 991]
Epigraphic South Arabian: SAB ls1n [SD 83]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): lǝssan [LGz 318].

    -ss- is supported by recent studies like [Mäk Arg 199]

Tigre: lǝs(s)an [LH 36], nǝssal [ibid. 325]
Tigrai (Tigriñña): lǝs(s)an [Bass 20]
Amharic: lǝs(s)an [K 58]
Mehri: ɛwšēn/lǝšōn [JM 256]
Jibbali: ɛls̃ɛ́n [JJ 165]
Harsusi: lēšen [JH 85]
Soqotri: léšin [LS 236], [SSL LS 1466]
Notes: Judging from AFRASIAN data the original form should be *lis-, with suffixed *-ān.

    The reduplicated -ss- in ARM and ETH suggests a derived noun of the verb *lšš {} *lss 'to lick', if not for the fact that the latter is attested only in ARB lss 'lécher; manger' [BK 2 989]. Cf., however, variant roots: ARB lws 'goûter; tourner un morceau dans la bouche' [ibid. 1041], lhs 'lêcher' [ibid. 1032]; SEM *lḥš {} *lḥs 'to lick': ARB lḥs [ibid. 937], ETH *lḥs [LGz 311] and, possibly, AKK lâšu 'to taste, lick' [CAD l 111] which may as well be from *lhš related directly to ARB lhs; for AFRASIAN cf. HAUSA lā̀sā́ 'to lick' [Abr 615], likely <*lHs, see [O-S 356], but possibly an Arabism [Fron 45] (*lišān- 'lingua' /GEZ,ARB,SYR,HBR,UGR,AKK/) [Holma 25]: AKK,HBR,SYR,ARB,GEZ (discussion on possible verbal origins of the root in question quoting ARB lhs, lḥs eventually refuting this hypothesis) [DLU 249]: UGR,ARM,PHO,HBR,EBL,AKK,ESA,ARB,GEZ [KB 536]: HBR,ARM,UGR,ARM,AKK,ARB,GEZ,TGR (quoting ARB lss as a possible origin of this word) [Brock 371]: SYR,ARM,HBR,ARB,AKK,GEZ [LGz 318]: GEZ,ETHSEM,ESA,ARB,SO Q,HBR,ARM,UGR,AKK [LS 236]: SOQ,MSA,ARB,HBR,ARM,GEZ,AKK

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ebl,semet-uga,semet-phn,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-bib,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-sar,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-amh,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *ilVs- (<*ʔV-lis)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tongue'
Ghadames: īlǝs
Siwa: îlǝs
Ghat: ilǝs
Ayr: ilǝs
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): îlǝs
Tawllemmet: ilǝs
Zenaga: ǝčsi
Ntifa: ils
Seghrushen: ils
Izdeg: ils
Mzab: ilǝs
Wargla: ilǝs
Snus: ilǝs
Shenwa: ilǝs
Shawiya: ilǝs
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): ilǝs
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ghd,brbet-siw,brbet-ght,brbet-ayr,brbet-ahg,brbet-twl,brbet-zng,brbet-ntf,brbet-sgr,brbet-izd,brbet-mzb,brbet-wrg,brbet-snu,brbet-shn,brbet-sha,brbet-qbl,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: ns (pyr)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tongue'
Coptic: *les
Coptic meaning: 'tongue'
Fayumic: les
Akhmimic: les
Bohairic: las
Sahidic: las
Notes: Copt attests the character of the sonant orthographically denoted as n- in Eg. Cf. sn.w (gr) id. (met.?)
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,egyet-cpt,egyet-cptmean,egyet-fff,egyet-aaa,egyet-bbb,egyet-sss,egyet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ḥa-lis-um
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tongue (your)'
Hausa: hár/lšè
Mupun: lǝ̄ǝs [FrM]
Sura: líis {CLR: 328]
Angas: leus [Fl]
Chip: lis [JgC]
Montol: líis [JgC]
Gerke=Yiwom: lis [JgC]
Bolewa: lisi-m [CLR]
Karekare: lusu/ǝm [CLR]
Ngamo: linsõ [ShV]
Maha: ḍi-lis [NM]
Kifri=Giwo: ílmíší [ShB]
Gera: ḍè-límsà [ShB]
Galambu: lĩm [ShB]
Geruma: límši [ShB]
Sayanchi: ríisǝn [Cs]
Boghom: ŋǝ-lǝs [CLR]
Guruntum: laši [Ja]
Kir: ndé-láŋ [CLR]
Fyer: lés [JgR]
Bokos: ʔa-lis [JgR]
Sha: ʔa-liši [JgR]
Kulere: ʔa-lúš [JgR]
Daffo-Butura: lis [JgR]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-gwn,wchet-sur,wchet-ang,wchet-chp,wchet-mnt,wchet-grk,wchet-bol,wchet-krk,wchet-ngm,wchet-mah,wchet-krf,wchet-ger,wchet-glm,wchet-grm,wchet-say,wchet-bgh,wchet-grn,wchet-kir,wchet-fyr,wchet-bks,wchet-sha,wchet-klr,wchet-dfb,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ʔV-lyas-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tongue'
Logone: ns̃ì [LLog],
Musgu: ɛlɛsí [CLR: 329]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-log,cchet-msg,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *lyas-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tongue' 1, 'my tongue' 2
Somrai: dì-lèsé1 [Jg]
Tumak: hìg [[Cp] < *lis-g, cf. bǝ-g (< *bV) 'mouth'
Nanchere: ke-len-d-em 2 [Lk: 90]
Lele: ke-len-d-in 2 [Lk: 88]
Kabalai: ko-sà́ [Cp]
Kera: ku-su-r [Eb]
Kwang: ke-lesúm 2 [Lk Modgel: 97]
Dangla: lḗsé [Fd]
Migama: líi-̀t [JMig]
Jegu: lḕsó [CLR: 329]
Bidiya: zii-te [JBid]
Mubi: lɛ̀ésí , lísi ́[CLR]
Birgit: lììsì [CLR]
Mokilko: ʔílzè [JMkk]
Sokoro: sólań-d-um , sɛ́lɛ̀/n [CLR]
Notes: Form of the type *kV-lVn-d-Vn/m, originates from *kV-lVsVn-d-Vn/m (kV- noun/body part pref., -d- marker of singularity, Vn/m - possessive). Note met. in Sokoro.
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-smr,echet-tum,echet-nch,echet-lle,echet-kbl,echet-ker,echet-kwn,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-jeg,echet-bid,echet-mub,echet-brg,echet-mkk,echet-sok,echet-notes,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *mi-las-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tongue'
Kafa (Kaficho): mi-laso
Notes: Unless < Amh mǝlas.
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,omoet-notes,

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