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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ok-, *oket- <PIH *o-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to furrow, harrow; harrow
Hittite: akkala- c. `Furche' -- oder: akkala- c. 'tiefgehender Pflug' (so Benveniste HIE, otherwise Kronasser EHS 172, Tischler 9-10)
Old Greek: *oksínǟ ~ -ī́- f.?: oksína 'harrow' Hsch.ж ógmo-s m. `Schwad, Reihe abgemähten Grases oder Getreides; Streifen Land, das abgemäht oder auf andere Weise bearbeitet wird oder werden soll; Ackermass'
Baltic: *ak-ē̂t-iā̃ f., *ak-ē̂t-ia- c., *ak-ē̂- vb.
Germanic: *ag-íɵ-ō f., *ag-ja- vb.
Latin: occa f. `Egge'
Celtic: OCymr ocet, NCymr oged `Egge', Corn ocet `Egge', Bret ogued `Egge'
Russ. meaning: борона
References: WP I 26 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ak-ē̂t-iā̃ f., *ak-ē̂t-ia- c., *ak-ē̂- vb.
Meaning: harrow
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: akḗčiōs, ekḗčiōs pl. 'Eggen'; ekḗtis, gen. -čiō `Egge'; ekḗti, akḗti `egen'
Lettish: ecēsa (Druw., BW.), pl. ecēšas, ecêkšas (Ronneb., Smilt., Trik.), ecēža (Preili) `Egge', ecêt (-ēju, -ēju) `eggen'
Old Prussian: aketes pl. `Eggen' V.255
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *agíɵō, *agjan- vb.
Meaning: rake, harrow
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: egeɵe, egɵe `a rake, harrow', ecgan, prt. egede `to harrow'
Old Saxon: egitha `Egge', eggian `eggen'
Middle Dutch: eghe; eghede
Dutch: eg, egge, eegde; eggen vb.
Middle Low German: ēgede, eyde; egen wk.
Old High German: egida (8.Jh.) `Ege'; eggen (10. Jh.) `eggen'
Middle High German: ɛgede, eide wk. f. 'egge'; ɛggen, ɛgen wk. `eggen'
German: Egge f. (seit 15.Jh. < Verb), eggen schw. v.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳUṭV
Meaning: cut
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *oket- ? (or *kʷēd- 'sharp' 2752?)
Altaic: *k`i̯ōt`e (cf. also *ki̯ā́tu 822)
Kartvelian: *ḳwe(ś)t-
Dravidian: *kot-
References: МССНЯ 360. Bomhard 1996, 178: IE *kʷed-. Kartv. *ḳwe(ś)t- rather = Sem. *ḳVc̣Vd- (see ND 1210 *ḳUśdV 'chop, cut'). ND 1217 *ḲotV 'tip, end, sharp point' (IE *kʷēd- : Alt. + differ. Drav. + Cush.). ; 1222 *ḲutʡV ~ *ḲuṭʡV 'to cut off, tear off' (quite dubious FU and Turk. + Sem. and Bj.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯ōt`e
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a k. of knife or arrow
Russian meaning: вид ножа или стрелы
Turkic: *kēt-men
Mongolian: *kituga
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)utu, -ke
Comments: A Western isogloss. In Turkic one would expect a closed *ẹ̄, but in fact Chuv. katmak points to an open vowel. This may be due to a natural contamination of this root with the reflex of PA *ki̯ā́tu 'sharp tool, notch' q. v.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *kēt-men
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hoe, mattock
Russian meaning: мотыга
Old Turkic: ketmen (OUigh.)
Karakhanid: ketmen (MK)
Turkish: gedmen
Middle Turkic: ketmen (Sangl.)
Uzbek: ketmɔn
Uighur: kätmän
Azerbaidzhan: kätmän
Turkmen: kǟtmen
Chuvash: katmak
Kirghiz: ketmen-
Bashkir: kätmän
Comments: VEWT 259, ЭСТЯ 3, 30-31, 5, 65-66, EDT 704. Usually derived from *gēt- 'to notch' - but the semantic shift is not quite satisfactory, and the Oghuz languages (except Turkish with a secondary analogy) systematically distinguish *g- in 'notch' and *k- in 'hoe'.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kituga
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: knife
Russian meaning: нож
Written Mongolian: kituɣa, qutaɣa, qutuɣa (L 474)
Middle Mongolian: kituqai (SH), k[i]tɣa (IM), kīdūɣa (Lig.VMI), kituɣa (MA)
Khalkha: xutga
Buriat: xutaga, (зап.) xotigo
Dongxian: qudoɣo
Shary-Yoghur: χudaʁa
Monguor: ćidoGo (SM 445)
Mogol: qitqɛi (Ramstedt 1906)
Comments: MGCD 393. Mong. > Man. kitukan 'scissors' (see Rozycki 140).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-dun,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *(x)utu, -ke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 knife on a shaft 2 a k. of arrow
Russian meaning: 1 тесак (на коротком древке) 2 стрела-однозубец
Evenki: utu, utut 2, utkēn 1
Even: ötken 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 294.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-reference,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳwe(ś)t-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: отсекать, отрезать
English meaning: to cut off
Georgian: ḳvet-; na-ḳvet- 'segment'
Megrel: ḳvat-; no-ḳvet- 'segment'
Svan: ḳwt-, ḳwešd-, ḳwšd-
Laz: ḳvat-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 111, EWK 196-197. Иллич-Свитыч (МССHЯ 360) сравнивает с драв. *kott- 'резать, рубить, копать'. Бомхард (1996, 178) добавляет ПИЕ *kʷed- 'точить, сверлить'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kot-
Meaning : to peck
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kot-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kot-
Proto-North Dravidian : *qot-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kot-
Meaning : to peck
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kottu (kotti-)
Tamil meaning : to grub up, hoe, peck (as a bird), bite (as a snake), chop, hack, mince, carve; n. grubbing, mincing, pecking, biting (as a serpent), gashing, a small hoe for rooting out weeds
Tamil derivates : kottal pecking; kottan_ a mason; kontu (konti-) to peck, mince, gnaw, gore, pierce; pick up shells, etc., from the floor before a thrown-up shell comes down (as in gmae played by girls); kontal picking, nibbling
Malayalam : kottuka
Malayalam meaning : to dig, carve, peck, pick up, bite (as snakes), strike, cut
Malayalam derivates : kottu stinging, digging, pecking, picking up; kotti pick-axe, stone-digger, carver
Kannada : kottu
Kannada meaning : to chop, mince
Kodagu : kott- (kotti-)
Kodagu meaning : to pick up with single sharp motion, peck
Kodagu derivates : kotti para game of jackstones
Tulu : godduni
Tulu meaning : to pick or devour, as a fowl
Proto-Nilgiri : *kot-
Number in DED : 2091
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kot-
Meaning : to peck
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kot- (koty-) "to peck, bite, hook (small stick) in playing tipcat"
Toda : kwɨɵk- (kwɨɵky-) "to peck, (snake) bites"
Additional forms : Also Kota kot a peck
Number in DED : 2091
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kot-
Meaning : to peck
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : kot- (-t-)
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kot-
Notes : This root should not be confounded with *gond- 'to cut, hack', as it is in DEDR 2091. Causative conjugation in PGn.
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,gndet-kui,gndet-notes,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : kot- (-t-)
Meaning: to hammer, hit hard on the top
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Konda (Burrow/Bhattacharya) : kot- (-t-) "to peck"
Number in DED : 2091
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-konda_bb,konet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kot-
Meaning : to beat, pick; to dig
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : kospa (kost-) "to beat, strike with stick or mallet; peck, bite, sting; n. a beating, bite, sting"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : kōthali "to hoe"
Kuwi (Schulze) : kothnai "to pick (with pickaxe)"
Sunkarametta Kuwi : kot- (-h-) "to dig with hoe"
Kuwi (Israel) : kot- (-h-) "to peck, hoe"
Additional forms : Also Kuwi_S kotpinai to haggle, hash (i.e. mince; pl. action)
Notes : In Kui -tp- > -sp-.
Number in DED : 2091
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-addition,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *qot-
Meaning : to cut by striking, slash, inflict a gash, wound by a blow from any heavy and sharp-edged instrument, decapitate
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : xotnā/xosnā (xottas)
Notes : Although the root is found only in Kurukh, the reconstruction on the NDR level is certain because of the derivative *kot-g-, present both in Kurukh and Malto
Number in DED : 2091
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-notes,ndret-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVTV
Meaning : chopped piece, to cut
Eurasiatic : *ḳUṭV (cf. also *ḳVtV)
Afroasiatic : *ḳaṭ-/*ḳuṭ-
Sino-Caucasian : *xq̇wǝ̆́twV
Austric : PAA *kut / *ku:t 'cut' (cf. also "Alt. "*KVt 'gnaw, bite')
Amerind (misc.) : *ḳaṭi 'break' (R 89), *q̇ʷat 'cut' (R 156) [+ A K]
African (misc.) : Bantu *-kèt- 'cut'.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳaṭ-/*ḳuṭ-
Meaning: cut, break
Semitic: *ḳʷVṭ- 'cut' 1, 'cut grass' 2
Low East Cushitic: *ḳat- < *ḳaṭ- 'circumcise'
South Cushitic: *ḳat- 'circumcise'
Dahalo (Sanye): ḳaaṭ-aad- 'divide'
Omotic: *ḳuṭ- 'cut'
afaset-meaning,afaset-sem,afaset-lec,afaset-scu,afaset-dhl,afaset-omo,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 554
Proto-Semitic: *ḳʷVṭ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut' 1, 'cut grass' 2
Arabic: qṭṭ [-u-] 1
Geʕez (Ethiopian): qʷṭṭ 2
Amharic: qʷṭṭ 1
Notes: The vocalism *u may be reflected in labialized velars of Gz and Amh ||
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-amh,semet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *ḳat-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'circumcise'
Baiso: ḳat-
Notes: Dissimilation of emphatics
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-bay,lecet-notes,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *ḳat-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'circumcise'
Alagwa (Wasi): qeet-is- (-)
Burunge (Mbulungi): qeet-is- (-)
Qwadza (Ngomvia): ḳat-
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-alg,scuet-bur,scuet-kwz,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: ḳaaṭ-aad-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'divide'
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *ḳuṭ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
Kafa (Kaficho): ḳuṭ-
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xq̇wǝ̆́twV
Meaning: chopped piece, to cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *q̇_ǝ̆twV
Sino-Tibetan: *kʷāt (~ gʷ-; r-)
Burushaski: *gaṭ- ?
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇_ǝ̆twV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stump, board, chopped piece
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q̇:atʷV ( ~ -o-)
Proto-Tsezian: *q̇ɔt(u)
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇aṭ
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. In PL we have to assume an assimilation (*-t- > *-ṭ-), which is usual in roots containing two stops. With secondary semantic development 'piece' > 'piece of bread' cf. perhaps also Darg. Chir. q̇uṭur 'piece of bread, cake' (cf. a similar process under PEC *q̇ăc̣ɨ̆).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *q̇:atʷV ( ~ -o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 lid, cover 2 to cut, chop
Avar: q̇oṭ- 2
Chadakolob: q̇uṭ- 2
Chamalal: q̇:atʷ 1
Karata: q̇:ʷaṭa (Leksika) 1
Comments: Cf. also Cham. Gig. q̇:atu 'lid, cover'. The original meaning is 'chopped block' - cf. the external evidence and the Avar verb (obviously denominative - cf. the similar usage of *q̇aṭ in Lezghian languages).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-chm,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *q̇ɔtu
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: board 1 splinter
Ginukh: q̇ot 1
Khvarshi: q̇ot
Inkhokvari: q̇Iotu
Comments: PTsKh *q̇ot(u).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *q̇aṭ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 piece, chopped block 2 small beam 3 remnant
Lezghian: q̇aṭ 1
Tabasaran: q̇aṭ 1
Agul: q̇aṭ 1 (Bursh.)
Rutul: q̇aṭ 1 (Shin.)
Tsakhur: q̇aṭ 2
Kryz: q̇äṭ 3
Budukh: q̇aṭ 1
Comment: Obl. base *q̇aṭɨ- (cf. Tsakh. q̇aṭɨ-). In Lezg. cf. also the verb q̇aṭu-z 'to guess, to reason' (*'to put pieces together'). The stem is widely used in compound verbs: cf. Rut. q̇aṭ haʔas 'to break', Tab. q̇aṭ aṗuz 'to cut, chop', Ag. q̇aṭ aq̇as 'to cut, chop, break'.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kʷāt (~ gʷ-; r-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cut, divide
Chinese: *kʷrāts divide, make a breach.
Burmese: khut to strike with the edge of a knife, gash, chop, hew.
Kachin: khot2 to cut, shape, (H) lǝkhot id.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: guǎi
Preclassic Old Chinese: kʷēt
Classic Old Chinese: kwēt
Western Han Chinese: kwjāt
Eastern Han Chinese: kwiāt
Early Postclassic Chinese: kwiēt
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kwiēt
Late Postclassic Chinese: kwiēt
Middle Chinese: kwiet
English meaning : archer's thimble
Russian meaning[s]: 1) вторая из гексаграмм в книге Ицзин; второй; 2) решительный
Comments: Also read *kʷrāt-s, MC kwạ̀j, Pek. guài 'to divide, make a breach'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 37
Four-angle index: 5082
Karlgren code: 0312 a
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *gaṭ-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: bite
Yasin: gaṭ-́
Hunza: gaṭ-́
Nagar: gaṭ-́
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *kut
Meaning: cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *kut / *ku:t
Austroasiatic meaning: cut
Proto-Thai: kuʔd to cut out
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *kut / *ku:t
Meaning: cut
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: kuʔd to cut out
Proto-Katuic: *kut
Proto-Monic: *ku:t
Proto-Khmu: *ku:t
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kat,aaet-mon,aaet-kmu,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *kut
Meaning: to cut
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: VKV kakɨt V?
Proto-East Katuic: *kut
References: P-214; TK16.483; TK16.150
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic:
Meaning: to cut
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: kakɨt
Bru Van Keu meaning: to cut in chunks
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-vkv,wkatet-vkvme,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *kut
Meaning: to cut
Presyllable: #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: kut, khut
Pakoh meaning: to cut in pieces
Lao Katu: kut
Lao Katu meaning: to cut off
Kri: taŋkut stub, stump (v.)
Chatong: kut; takut stub, stump (v.)
Kantu dialects: tigut
Triw: kut
Dakkan dialects (1): ku:t V?
Katu dialects (1): kut
Katu meaning: to cut; ku:t to cut throat
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-lka,ekatet-lkame,ekatet-kr,ekatet-ct,ekatet-kntt,ekatet-tr,ekatet-dkl,ekatet-and,ekatet-katme,

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Monic etymology :

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Proto-Monic: *ku:t
Meaning: to cut ogg
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Modern Mon: kut
References: V128
monet-meaning,monet-prpr,monet-prnum,monet-word,monet-bib,

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