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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *Ayek-, *y[ē]k-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to call; to beg, to complain
Old Indian: yā́cati, -te `to ask, beg, implore'
Old Greek: ôi̯kto-s m. `pity, compassion', oi̯ktró- `pitipitiable, lamentable'; {3 sg. ai̯kázdei̯ `звать' (Hsch.) - nowhere found!};
Baltic: *aîk-in-ā̂- (2?) vb.
Germanic: *jíx-a- vb.; *jix-t-i- c., *jix-t-ō- vb.; *aix-t-r-ō- vb.
Other Italic: Osk aíkdafed `proclamavit ?'
Celtic: OIr ēigid `cries', ēigem f. `a cry', īachtaid `groans, cries'; MCymr ieith, NCymr iaith, Bret iez `Sprache'
Russ. meaning: звать; просить, жаловаться
References: WP I 8 f, I 204 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *aîk-in-ā̂- (2?) vb.
Meaning: call together
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lettish: aîcinât (-u/-ãju, -ãju) `laden, rufen'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *jíxan-; *jixti-z, *jixtōn- vb.; *aixtrōn-
Meaning: say, bet, pray
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: aihtrōn wk `bet, request for oneself, pray'
Old Norse: jā wk. `ja sagen, bekennen, bewilligen'; jātta wk. `erklären, gestehen, einwilligen'
Old Frisian: jā(n) `zeggen, beloven'; jecht, gecht f. `bekentenis'; biiecht, biecht, bicht f. `bekentenis, biecht'; iechta `bekennen'
Old Saxon: gehan `sagen, sprechen; bekennen, geloben''; bigihto m.
Middle Dutch: ghien `vertklaren, bekennen'; biechte, biecht f., noordmnl. ghicht(e) f.
Dutch: biecht f.
Old Franconian: gian `bekennen'; begiht f.
Middle Low German: gicht
Old High German: jehan `sagen, sprechen, bekennen'; jiht `Aussage, Bekenntnis, Geständnis', bī̆giht, bī̆jiht (9.Jh.), bī̆gihta (11.Jh.) `Bekenntnis, feierliche Aussage, Sündenbekenntnis'
Middle High German: jëhen, jēn st. 'sagen, sprechen, für wahr erklären, behaupten; bekennen, beichten'; bigiht(e), begiht(e), bīhte st. f. 'bekenntnis, beichte'
German: Beichte f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳVŋV
Meaning: bend
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kang- (rather *kneigʷh- 1573)
Altaic: *k`i̯úŋu
Uralic: Sam. *kuŋkь 'curve, bend'
Dravidian: *kōṇ-
Comments: Cf. also (possibly a different root): PA *gḕnŋa 'bend', Ur. *kaŋa(-rV) 'bow, bow-shaped'
References: ND 1091 *[ḳ]un̄igU 'to bend, incline, bow' (IE *kneigʷh- : Alt. + Drav. *gūn_-).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`i̯úŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to bend, bow
Russian meaning: гнуть, наклонять
Turkic: *Kɨŋ-
Mongolian: *kiji- / *keje-
Tungus-Manchu: *xuŋke- / *kuŋke-
Japanese: *kúnkúm-
Comments: TM and Jpn. forms reflect a velar suffix (or partial reduplication). One of several similar roots which are sometimes difficult to distinguish: cf. *gék`á, *gŭ̀k`a, *k`ōki.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kɨŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bent, oblique
Russian meaning: согнутый, косой
Old Turkic: qɨŋɨr (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qɨŋɨr (MK)
Tatar: qɨŋɣɨr
Middle Turkic: qɨŋɨr (Ettuhf.)
Uzbek: qiŋɣir
Uighur: qiŋi(r)
Turkmen: Gɨŋɨr
Yakut: kɨŋnar 'криво, косо'
Kirghiz: qɨŋɨr
Kazakh: qɨŋɨr
Bashkir: qɨŋɨr (dial.)
Balkar: qɨŋɨr
Karaim: qɨŋɣɨr
Karakalpak: qɨŋɨr
Kumyk: qɨŋɨr
Comments: VEWT 264-265, EDT 639, ЭСТЯ 6, 220-221. OT qɨŋraq 'curved dagger' > WMong. kiɣira, kiŋgara (Kalm. kīrǝ, Khalkha x́aŋgar).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kiji- / *keje-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: oblique, slanting
Russian meaning: косой, наклонный
Written Mongolian: keje-ge (L 445), kiji-ǯaŋ
Khalkha: xejeg; xejede-, xejele- (v.)
Kalmuck: kīzŋ
Comments: KW 235. There also exists a synonymous WMong. variant geji-, geje- (Kh. geje-de-, geje-le-, Kalm. gī). Voiced *g- here is probably due to the influence of another synonymous root, *gek- (v. sub *gék`á).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xuŋke- / *kuŋke-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to bow
Russian meaning: кланяться, наклоняться
Evenki: uŋkē-
Negidal: keŋket-
Spoken Manchu: xeŋkilǝ-, xiŋkili- 'to kowtow' (1446)
Literary Manchu: xeŋgile-
Jurchen: keŋ-ke-le-mij (751)
Ulcha: keŋkele-
Nanai: keŋkele-
Udighe: xeŋki-
Comments: ТМС 2, 278-279.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kúnkúm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: be curved, bent
Russian meaning: быть кривым, изогнутым
Middle Japanese: kugum-, kúgúmar-
Comments: JLTT 715.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-comments,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kōṇ-
Meaning : 1 corner 2 crooked
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kōṇ
Proto-Telugu : *kōṇ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kōn- (*-ṇ-)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kōṇ
Meaning : corner; crooked
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kōṇ
Tamil meaning : crookedness, angle, crossness of disposition
Tamil derivates : kōṇu (kōṇi-) to be bent, curved, be crooked, deviate, be perverse; kōṇam curve, curvature, scimitar, angle, corner; kōṇal obliquity, hump, crookedness (as of mind); kōṇan_ humpback; kōṇai curvature, crookedness, cruelty; kuṇaku (kuṇaki-) to become bent, crooked; kuṇakku (kuṇakki-) to bend (tr.); n. crookedness, curvature, crossness; kuṇalai bending of the body through bashfulness; kuṇukku (kuṇukki-) to bend (tr.)
Malayalam : kōṇ
Malayalam meaning : corner, angle
Malayalam derivates : kōṇuka to bend (intr.); kōṇam corner; kōṇi corner of a piazza
Kannada : kōṇ, kōṇa, kōṇe, kōna
Kannada meaning : angle, corner
Tulu : kōṇa, kōṇè
Tulu meaning : angle, corner
Tulu derivates : kōŋgaṇṇụ a squint eye
Proto-Nilgiri : *gōṇ
Notes : PN *g- irregular; has to be explained yet.
Number in DED : 2209
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *gōṇ
Meaning : corner of room
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : gōṇ
Number in DED : 2209
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kōṇ-
Meaning : angle, corner
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kōṇamu
Additional forms : Also kōna corner
Number in DED : 2209
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kōn- (*-ṇ-)
Meaning : corner
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Poya Gadba : kōne
Number in DED : 2209
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-poya,kogaet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVNV
Meaning : to bend
Eurasiatic : *ḳVŋV
Sino-Caucasian : *xq̇ăm(x)q̇(w)ă (~ -ǝ̆) (ST *khʷǝ̆ŋ - may be < Austric)
Austric : *kUŋ
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xq̇ăm(x)q̇(w)á̆ (~ -ǝ̆)
Meaning: joint; to bend
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *q̇ămq̇(w)ă (~ -ǝ̆)
Sino-Tibetan: *kŭk
Basque: *konko-r̄
Comments and references : LV A23, LDC 43, FDCP 2. In ST cf. also *khʷǝ̆ŋ (~ghʷ-,qhʷ-) 'vaulted, crooked'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇ămq̇(w)ă (~ -ǝ̆)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: knee, leg-bone
Proto-Tsezian: *q̇ãq̇u
Proto-Dargwa: *q̇ʷaq̇ʷa
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇amq̇
Proto-West Caucasian: *q̇ʷaq̇ʷa
Notes: Correspondences are regular. The comparison seems fully reliable.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-cez,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *q̇ʷãq̇u
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tubular bone
Tsezi: q̇aInq̇u
Ginukh: q̇aq̇u
Comments: PTsKh *q̇ʷãq̇u. Some Tsez. dialects have lost the nasalisation, cf. Kid. q̇ʷaIq̇u.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *q̇ʷaq̇ʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: knee
Akusha: q̇uq̇a
Chiragh: q̇uq̇a
Comments: Cf. also Ur., Kub. q̇uq̇a, Kait. q̇ʷaq̇, Tsud. q̇ʷaq̇a. Interesting is the Kad. form q̇unq̇a, probably preserving the archaic nasal resonant.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *q̇amq̇
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: knee
Tabasaran: q̇amq̇
Agul: q̇ʷaq̇ʷ
Rutul: q̇waq̇
Comment: Obl. base *q̇amq̇a- (cf. Ag. Fit. q̇ʷaq̇ʷa-, Rut. q̇ʷaq̇a-). 3d class in Rut.

    See Лексика 1971, 114.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *q̇ʷaq̇ʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: hip-bones
Abkhaz: a-q̇ʷáq̇ʷa
Abaza: q̇ʷaq̇ʷa
Comments: PAT *q̇ʷaq̇ʷa.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *kŭk
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bend
Chinese: *kuk to bow, bend.
Tibetan: ãgug(s) (p. bgug, f. dgug, i. khug) to bend; khug(s) corner, nook, creek, bay.
Burmese: kauk be crooked, not straight, LB *kukx; khauk to fold, double.
Kachin: mǝgoʔ2, lǝgoʔ2, guʔ3 be bent.
Lepcha: kŭk to bow, to bend down, to incline downwards, lean forward to to bow the head
Comments: Trung 1-gɔʔ1 be crooked; Bahing guk be bent, kuk make bent. Ben. 125. Cf. *khjŏk. Cf. also Naga *kok 'knee'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: jū
Preclassic Old Chinese: kuk
Classic Old Chinese: kuk
Western Han Chinese: kǝuk
Eastern Han Chinese: kǝuk
Early Postclassic Chinese: kɨuk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kuk
Late Postclassic Chinese: kuk
Middle Chinese: kük
English meaning : be exhausted, exhaustive
Russian meaning[s]: 1) сгибать, гнуть; кланяться; 2) футбольный мяч; футбол; 3) выкармливать, воспитывать, выращивать; 4) расследовать, разбирать; 5) молодой; малолетний; 6) Цзюй (фамилия)
Comments: Also read *guk, MC gük (FQ 渠竹) id.; used also for a homonymous *kuk / *guk 'to nourish'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 177
Four-angle index: 4354
Karlgren code: 1017 h
Shijing occurrences: 35.5_
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-shijing,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *konko-r̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hump, knob 2 joint (of bones) 3 hunchbacked
Bizkaian: konkor 3
Gipuzkoan: konkor 3
High Navarrese: konkor, kunkur 1
Low Navarrese: konkor, kunkur 1
Lapurdian: konkor 1
Baztanese: kunkur 1
Zuberoan: konkor, kunkur 1
Roncalese: kunkur 1, 2
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *kUŋ
Meaning: bent, curved
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *kɔŋ
Austroasiatic meaning: bent, curved
Proto-Austronesian: *beŋkuŋ, *-kuŋ
Austronesian meaning: bent, curve, arch
Proto-Thai: gɔ:ŋ.C CK
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-tai,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *kɔŋ
Meaning: bent, curved
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: gɔ:ŋ.C CK
Khmer: kuŋ < OK kuŋ
Proto-Monic: TP ko:ŋ
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-kmr,aaet-mon,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: kuŋ
Meaning: curve; kaoŋ be curved, bent
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Khmer: kuŋ
Old Khmer Meaning: curve, crooked
References: P102, JP11, JP21
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-okh,kmret-okmean,kmret-ref,

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