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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kalan- vb.; *kali-; *kalda-; *kaldī(n); *kōlia-; *kulidēn; *kaldō; *kuli; *kulja-z; *kōlian- vb.
Meaning: cold, freeze
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: kald-s (a) `cold'
Old Norse: kala st. `frieren, kalt machen'; kald-r `kalt'; kuldi m. `Kälte, Feindschaft'; kɔld f. `Panzer (ɵula)'; kul n. `Windstos', kül-r m. `Kälte' (poet.), kȫla wk. `abkühlen'; kelda f. `Brunnen, Bach'
Norwegian: kald adj.; kalen `erfroren'; kulde; kul `Brise'; kül `kalter Wind, Frostperiode'; kjöla vb.; kjelda
Swedish: kall adj.; dial. kala `sanft wehen'; kul `Brise'; küla vb.; källa
Danish: kold adj.; kulde; kjöle vb.; kilde
Old English: calan `kalt s., frieren'; cile, cele, ciele, cyle `Kälte'; ceald, cald; cōl
English: chill, cold, cool
Old Frisian: kald adj.; kelde, kalde
Old Saxon: kald adj.
Middle Dutch: cout adj.; coude f., n., kelde; coel adj.
Dutch: koud adj.; koude f.; koel
Middle Low German: kōlt adj.; kōlde, kōld; kȫl adj.
Old High German: kalt (9.Jh.); chaltī; kuoli (um 1000)
Middle High German: kalt 'kalt'; küel(e) 'kühl, kalt'
German: kalt, Kälte; kühl
Comments: Finn kaltio `Quelle'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-notes,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gelǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: cold
Old Greek: gelandrón = psükhón Hsch.
Slavic: *želdь
Baltic: *gel̂-men-ia- c., *gel-um-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *kal-a- vb.; *kal-i- adj.; *kal-d-a- adj.; *kal-d-ī(n-) f.; *kōl-ia- adj.; *kul-id-an- m.; *kal-d-ō f.; *kul-i- n.; *kul-ja- m.; *kōl-ia- vb.
Latin: gelū, -ūs n.; gelus, -ūs m.; gelum, -ī n. `Eiskälte, Frost, Eis', gelidus, -a `eisig, vereist; eiskalt; frostig, starr'; gelāre `gefrieren machen, fegrieren (auch unpers.)'
Other Italic: Osk gelan = pákhnēn Steph. Byz.
Russ. meaning: холодный
References: WP I 622
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *gel̂-men-ia- c., *gel-um-ā̂ f.
Meaning: frost
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: gélmeni-s, gelumà `heftende, stechende Kälte, Frost'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 557
Root: gel(ǝ)-3
English meaning: cold
German meaning: `kalt, frieren'
Material: Lat. gelū (auch gelus, -ūs und gelum, -ī) `Kälte, Frost', gelidus `kalt', gelō, -āre `gefrieren'; osk. γελαν `πάχνην' (Steph. Byz.);

    gr. γελανδρόν ψυχρόν Hes. ist vielleicht falsch überliefert (WH. I 867); das gallorom. *gelandron `Frost' (Hubschmied VRom. 3, 130) ist besser mit Bertoldi (ZrPh. 56, 187) und Wartburg (s. v. *gelandron) durch Einfluß von lat. gelū auf gallorom. *calandron ds. (mit mediterr. Endung) zu erklären, zu air. caile `(weißer) Fleck'; wieder anders Specht Dekl. 130; über gallorom.*gelabria `Frost' s. Wartburg s. v. *calabra und gelabria; Hubschmid Praeromanica 18 ff.

    über lat. glacies s. unten;

    anord. kala, kōl `kalt sein, frieren' (unpers. m. Akk. mik kelr), ags. calan ds. (hine oderhim cælþ `ihn friert') mit a durch Umbildung eines Kaus. *kaljan = *golei̯ō `kalt machen', woher auch die impers. Konstruktion mit Akk.; ags. ciele m. (nengl. chill) aus *kali `Kälte'; als Partiz.dazu got. kalds, ahd. (usw.) kalt, nhd. kalt (dazu anord. kelda aus *kaltiōn- `Quelle', finn. Lw. kaltio; mit Ablaut, auf Grund der älteren Form *kul-da- des Partiz., anord. kuldi m. = mnd.külde f. `Kälte'); dehnstufig ags. cōl, ahd. kuoli, nhd. kühl, wovon ags. cēlan, ahd. kuolen, nhd. kühlen, anord. kø̄la ds., schwachstufig anord. kul (kol) n. `kühle Brise', kylr m. `Kälte';

    mit gebrochener Redupl. idg. *gla-g- (die Basis scheint also *gelǝ- gewesen zu sein), anord. klaki m. `gefrorene Erdrinde', womit lat. glacies `Eis' unter der Annahme zu verbinden ist, daß *glagiēs nach aciēs (und anderen Worten auf -aciēs) umgestaltet wurde;

    hierher auch schweiz. challen `erstarren (von Fett)', ags. cealer, calwer m. `dicke Milch', mnd. keller ds. (`Erstarren' ist zunächst das Erkalten, z. B. von Fett); ahd. chalawa, mhd. kalwe `Schauder', wohl ursprüngl. `sich vor Schauer wie vor Kälte schütteln'; nach Machek (Slavia 16, 195) vielleicht hierher mit expressivem ch- aksl. chladъ `Kühle, Kälte' (*gol-do-).

References: WP. I 622, WH. I 585 f., 603, 867 f.
Pages: 366
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *küĺV
Meaning: cold
Indo-European: *g'ela- [cf. also *k'ǝl- 460]
Altaic: *koĺi ( ~ k`-, -i̯-, -e) (cf. also *k`ale snow)
Uralic: kilmä (külmä)
Kartvelian: *kwer- / *kwel-
Dravidian: *kuḷ-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *hǝl 'snow' (cf. also *'ǝkɫǝ̆- 'to freeze')
References: ОСНЯ 1, 304, МССНЯ 371; ND 878 *ku/üĺE 'cold, to freeze' (?+ EChad.); 1048 *ḲEL(H)V 'cold' (IE + same Ur. + very dubious SH).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *koĺi ( ~ k`-, -i̯-, -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Turkic: *Köĺ-
Mongolian: *köl-de-
Comments: ОСНЯ 1, 305. A Turk.-Mong. isogloss. The root should be distinguished from *k`òlmV 'shadow, cloud' (although contaminations are possible).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Köĺ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Tatar: küšek-
Yakut: köhüj-
Tuva: köžü-
Tofalar: köšü-
Kazakh: köšü-
Bashkir: küšek-
Comments: VEWT 294, ЭСТЯ 5, 127.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-tat,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *köl-de-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to freeze
Russian meaning: замерзать
Written Mongolian: kölde-, köldü- (L 485)
Khalkha: xöldö-
Buriat: xülde-
Kalmuck: köld-
Ordos: köldö-
Dongxian: guanǯie-
Baoan: gondǝ-
Dagur: kuĺde- (Тод. Даг. 151: kulde-, 179: xulde-), hulede- (MD 166), xuĺde-, xuldu-
Shary-Yoghur: köldǖ-
Comments: KW 288, MGCD 373.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1327
Proto: *kilmä (*külmä)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: cold; cold, frost; to freeze
German meaning: kalt; Kälte, Frost; kalt werden, gefrieren, erfrieren
Finnish: kylmä 'kalt, kühl; Kälte', kylmää- 'kühlen, kälten, kalt machen', kylmene- 'kalt werden'
Estonian: külm (Gen. külma) 'kalt; Kälte, Frost', külma- 'erkalten, kalt werden; frieren, gefrieren, erfrieren'
Saam (Lapp): gâlmâs -ĺbm-, (Attr.) gâlbmâ N 'frozen', gâĺbme -lm- 1) 'freeze (impers., causing a frozen crust to form on snow, or ice to form on water)'. 2) 'form (intr.) a layer of ice on, freeze over', L kalmas, (Attr.) kaĺma 'kalt', kaĺmē- '(unpers.) der Boden ist gefroren; frieren, verfroren sein (von einem Menschen)', (T. I. Itk., WbKKlp. 105) T ka̯лmcs, Kld. kɛ̮лm̀as, Not. kɛ̮̄лmas 'kalt', T ka̯l̨̄me-, Kld. kȧ̮l̨̄me-, Not. kȧ̮l̨̄m̄e- 'kalt werden (der Erdboden), sich erkälten (ein Glied); gefrieren (Wasser und ein nasser Gegenstand, z.B. ein Kleidungsstück)'
Mordovian: keĺme E, keĺ'mä M 'kalt; Kälte, Frost', E M keĺme- 'frieren, gefrieren, kalt werden'
Mari (Cheremis): kǝlmǝ KB, kǝ̑lme U B 'gefroren, erfroren, (KB U), zugefroren (B)'
Udmurt (Votyak): ki̮n S, kǝ̑m (kǝ̑nm-) K, kị̑m (kị̑nm-) G 'Frost, Kälte (S K G); frostig, gefroren (S K)', S ki̮nmi̮-, K kǝ̑nmǝ̑-, G kị̑nmị̑- 'frieren, gefrieren'
Komi (Zyrian): ki̮n S P, køn PO 'gefroren (S P PO), erfroren (S P), kalt, frostig (P)', S P ki̮nmi̮-, PO kønmi.- 'frieren, erfrieren, gefrieren (S P PO), kalt werden (PO)'
Sammalahti's version: *külmä
K. Redei's notes: Im Lapp, ist der â-Stamm ( < *e) sekundär. Nomen-Verbum.
References: Ahlqvist, MMdGr. 156; MUSz. 787, 881; VglWb. 212; Anderson, Wandl. 136; Setälä: JSFOu. 14/3:46, JSFOu. 17/4:6; Genetz: Suomi 1897/3/13:8, 46, 47; ÄKE 323; Wichmann, WotjChr. 70, FUF 15:41, TscherT 59; Paasonen, MordChr. 75; Beke: KSz. 14:348; Beitr. 43; Sauvegeot, Rech 93; Uotila: MSFOu. 65:374, SyrjChr. 96; Lehtisalo: MSFOu. 72:321; Steinitz, FgrVok. 28; E. Itkonen: FUF 29:232, 294, 298, 323, 31:183, 241, 300, LpChr. 107; Räsänen: Vir. 1947:169; SKES; Lytkin, VokPerm. 192, NyK 71:98, Bereczki: NyK 70:33; ESK.
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-samm2,uralet-redei,uralet-lit,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *kwer- / *kwel-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: охлаждать, остывать
English meaning: to cool down
Megrel: kir-
Megrel meaning (Rus.): охлаждаться
Megrel meaning (Eng.): to cool down
Svan: kwäl- 'to have a fever', kwel- 'to cool', Lashkh. kwēl- 'to cool down, to catch a cold', kwēr-i 'cool'
Laz: kor-, kir-
Laz meaning (Rus.): охладить
Laz meaning (Eng.): to cool down
Notes and references: См. ОСНЯ 1, 304; там же основа сравнивается с урал. *küLmä, алт. *k(`)üle, драв. *kuḷV и ПИЕ *ǵel- / *gel- < ностр. *küĺV.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-meg,kartet-mgmean,kartet-emgmean,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-lzmean,kartet-elzmean,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kuḷ- (?)
Meaning : cool
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kuḷ-
Notes : A good SDR root.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kuḷ-
Meaning : cool
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kuḷir (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to feel cool (as breeze), be cool, refreshing, get numbed (as in death); n. coldness, chilliness, ague, shivering
Tamil derivates : kuḷircci, kuḷirtti, kuḷutti coolness, cold, act of cooling or refreshing, numbness (as in death); kuḷirppu, kuḷirmai, kuḷumai coolness, kindness; kuḷiri a fan; kuḷḷa-kkuḷir- to be intensely cool and refreshing
Malayalam : kuḷir, kuḷur
Malayalam meaning : coldness, cool, refreshing
Malayalam derivates : kuḷiruka to be chilly, refreshed; kuḷirma freshness; kuḷirppu, kuḷuppam chilliness; kuḷirppikka to chill, quiet, refresh, comfort; kuḷukuḷu intense cold
Kannada : kuḷir
Kannada meaning : to be cool or cold; n. coldness, coolness, cold, snow, frost
Kodagu : kuḷɨ- (kuḷɨp-, kuḷɨt-)
Kodagu meaning : cold feeling is
Kodagu derivates : kuḷɨrɨ kāla cold season
Proto-Nilgiri : *kuḷ-
Number in DED : 1834
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kuḷ-
Meaning : (hands, feet, body) feel cool, (mind) feels calm and peaceful
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kuḷak in-, kuḷkuḷ in-
Number in DED : 1834
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *hǝl-hǝl "
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): снег
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ʁǝ̣L "
Proto-Itelmen: *qăl'al
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ʁǝ̣L "
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): снег 1, снеговая стена 2, покрываться снегом 3, снеговой 4
Chukchee: ʔǝ́tlɛl ", ʔǝtl-ɛn poss., ʔǝɫ- (I) 1, ʔǝl-mǝ-n 2, ʔǝl-ɛ́t- 3, ʔǝtlɛ́l-kin, ʔǝ́l-kin 4
Koryak: hǝl-hǝl, ha_́l-hǝl* " (hǝlhǝl-in poss.), hǝlhǝl-, hǝl- (III) 1, hǝl-at-, ha_l-át-* 3
Palan: hǝl-hǝl, hǝlhǝl-in poss. (I) " 1
Alutor: hǝl-hǝl " 1
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *qăl'al
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): снег (на земле)
Itelmen: qăllal
Itelmen meaning: снег (на земле)
West Itelmen: koĺ'al, koĺɣal [koĺa'aĺ*]
West Itelmen meaning: nix
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): śnieg
South Itelmen: kulaĺ [koĺa'aĺ*]
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): nix
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): śnieg
Number in Volodin 1976: 29
Stebnitsky reference: 88, 89
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,itelet-steb,

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