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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *čal̂-n-ā̂ (2) f., *čal̂-n-ia- (2) c., *čal̂-t-a- (2) adj., *čal-ā̂ f., *čal-a- c.
Meaning: frost, freeze
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: šálti (šą̃la/šálsta, šãlō) `(ge)frieren, abkühlen, kalt werden'; šálta- 'kalt, kühl, frostig', šalnà 'Reif, kleiner Frost', { pãšala-s `gefrorene Erde'; }; pašōlī̃-s `Nachtfrost, Frost in der Erde'; plìk-šala 'Frost ohne Schnee', dial. plìk-šala-s; grīn-šalà 'ds.', ãp=šala-s 'Glatteis', pã=šala-s, pa=šalà 'Frost in der Erde; gefrorener Erdboden, Nachtfrost', pṓ=šali-s 'leichter Frost'
Lettish: sal̂t (sal̂stu/sal̨u, salu) `frieren; gerinnen'; sal̂ts `kalt; kalt, bloss, nackt'; sal̂na `Frost, Reif', sal̂nis 'Eisschimmel'; sals 'Frost'
Old Prussian: pasalis `Frost', passalis 'leichter Frost' V. 57, salta 'kalt'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *k'alǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: hoar-frost; cold
Old Indian: śiśira- `cool, chilly, cold', m.n. `cold, hoarfrost'
Avestan: sarǝta- `kalt', sarǝ-δa- `Kälte bringend'
Other Iranian: NPers sard `kalt', Osset sald `Kälte'
Slavic: *solnā `Reif'
Baltic: *čal̂-n-ā̂ (2) f., *čal̂-n-ia- (2) c., *čal̂-t-a- (2) adj., *čal-ā̂ f., *čal-a- c.
Germanic: *xal-a- n.; *xíxl-ōn- f.
Russ. meaning: иней; холодный
References: WP I 429 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: сла́на
Near etymology: "иней", цслав. (исконнорусск. было бы *солона), русск.-цслав. слана πάχνη, болг. сла́на, сербохорв. сла́на, вин. ед. сла̑ну, словен. slána.
Further etymology: Праслав. *solna родственно лит. šalnà, вин. šal̃ną "мороз", лтш. sal̂na -- то же, sals "мороз", лит. šáltas "холодный", лтш. sal̂ts -- то же, голл. hаl "замерзшая почва", др.-исл. hêlа ж. "иней", др.-инд. c̨ic̨iras "прохлада, мороз", осет. sald "холод" (Траутман, ВSW 298; М.--Э. 3, 675 и сл.; Торп 84; Хольтхаузен, Awn. Wb. 111).
Pages: 3,665
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xala-n; *xíxlōn
Meaning: hoar-frost
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: hēla f. `Reif'
Norwegian: hēla
Swedish: dial. hila, hela
Old English: heolca `Reif'
Middle Low German: hal n. `hardheid van de grond door vorst'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-oengl,germet-mlg,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *buṭV
Meaning: beat, break
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *bhodhw-; *bheud- 'beat' (Germ., Celt., Balt.)
Altaic: *bŭ̀t`ù ( ~ -o-)
Kartvelian: *betk- ?
Dravidian: Kol.-G. *put- 'cut'; *poḍ- 'winnow, beat'
References: ND 266 *buṭV 'cut, cut off, cut into pieces', ND 268 *baʡ/GuṭV 'kick, push' (distinguishable in SH?).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *bŭ̀t`ù ( ~ -o-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to beat, break
Russian meaning: бить, ломать
Mongolian: *buta-
Tungus-Manchu: *bute-, *butekte-
Korean: *putɨ'ič-
Japanese: *pùt-
Comments: Poppe 21, 101; Martin 233.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *buta-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to break 2 be broken
Russian meaning: 1 ломать 2 ломаться
Written Mongolian: buta-ra- (L 141) 2
Middle Mongolian: butăra- (MA)
Khalkha: butar- 2, butal- 1
Buriat: butar- 2
Kalmuck: butṛ- 2
Ordos: butara- 2
Dongxian: pudura- (MGCD), putura- 2
Monguor: pudǝrā- (SM 304) 2!
Comments: KW 63, MGCD 172. Mong. > Chag. butra- etc. (VEWT 90-91, ЭСТЯ 2, 308-309) (not vice versa, despite Щербак 1997, 110: OTurk. budra- is invented, and OTurk. budraq 'scattered' is a hapax misinterpreted by Malov, see EDT 307).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *bute-, *butekte-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to break, crush
Russian meaning: ломать, дробить, разбивать
Evenki: butēkte-; butukte 'piece'
Even: bụ̄t-
Negidal: bokta-l-
Ulcha: bụqta-
Nanai: boqta-
Oroch: buktaga-
Udighe: bukta-
Comments: ТМС 1, 116.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *putɨ'ič-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to hit, bump, collide
Russian meaning: бить, сталкиваться
Modern Korean: pudit- [putič-]
Middle Korean: putɨ'ič-
Comments: Nam 265, KED 812.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *pùt-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to beat, hit
Russian meaning: бить
Tokyo: bút-
Kyoto: bùt-
Kagoshima: bùt-
Comments: A verb (not attested in OJ) with an expressive voicing *p- > b-. See JLTT 680.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *betk-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: бить, колотить
English meaning: to beat, hit
Georgian: betk-
Megrel: batk-
Svan: betkw- ( < Georgian?)
Notes and references: EWK 48-49. Ср. алт. *p`āt`a 'бить' (или *but`u id.), (ПИЕ...).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *poḍ-
Meaning : 1 to winnow, beat 2 to fight
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *pUḍ-ai-
Proto-Telugu : *poḍ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *pōḍ-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *pUḍ-ai-
Meaning : to winnow; to strike
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : puṭai (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to winnow, thresh, beat, strike, beat (drum), flap (wings); n. blow
Tamil derivates : puṭaippu stroke, sifting
Kannada : poḍe
Kannada meaning : to strike, beat, throw (as a stone), drive (cattle, cart), beat off, prevent, fell (a tree); n. beating, etc.
Kannada derivates : (PBh.) poḍar to tremble; poḍarpu trembling, quivering
Kodagu : poḍa- (poḍap-, poḍat-)
Kodagu meaning : to flutter quickly to and fro (hen with head cut off, persons struggling on ground, mouth in chewing)
Tulu : puḍepuni, poḍepuni
Tulu meaning : to winnow, fan
Tulu derivates : poḍụtoṇuni to struggle, strive, flutter, flap the wings, bustle, be in a hurry; puḍipuni quarrel, fight
Proto-Nilgiri : *poḍ-
Number in DED : 4252
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *poḍ-
Meaning : to winnow
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : poṛc- (poṛc-) "to winnow (rice) with long up-and-down strokes to remove the husks after pestling"
Toda : puṛf- (puṛt-) "to winnow, flap (a branch of leaves in cleaning house, in wiping off Kurumba witchcraft), (waterfall) dashes down, (fever) attacks"
Additional forms : Also Toda puṛ beating; tomk/tobk waḍ- (waḍɵ-) to beat drum, publish by drum (< Badaga; see 3082)
Notes : Irregular *-u- in Toda.
Number in DED : 4252
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *poḍ-
Meaning : to fight
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : poḍucu
Additional forms : Also pōṭu battle
Number in DED : 4252
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *pōḍ-
Meaning : fight
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Salur Gadba : pōḍu
Number in DED : 4252
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-salur,kogaet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : PVTV
Meaning : break, split
Eurasiatic : *buṭV
Afroasiatic : *baṭ-
Sino-Caucasian : *(b)=ĭṭV
Reference : ND 266.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *baṭ-
Meaning: pierce, cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *buṭ- 'split, pierce' 1, 'be split' 2
Berber: *bVṭ- 'pierce' 1, 'divide' 2
Western Chadic: *ḅat- < *baṭ- 'cut'
East Chadic: *ḅat- (< *baṭ-)
Low East Cushitic: *baṭ- 'part; divide'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-ech,afaset-lec,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 491
Proto-Semitic: *buṭ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'split, pierce' 1, 'be split' 2
Arabic: bṭṭ [-u-] 1
Jibbali: bɔttǝt 2
Notes: Secondary *-u- < *a after a labial.
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-ara,semet-jib,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *bVṭ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'pierce'1 , 'divide' 2
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): ǝbǝd 1, 2
Tawllemmet: ibḍu 2
Semlal: ibḍu 1
Ntifa: bǝdda 1
Izdeg: bḍu 1
Izayan: bḍu 1
Iznassen: ebḍa 2
Snus: bǝdda 1
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): ǝbḍu 1
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ahg,brbet-twl,brbet-sml,brbet-ntf,brbet-izd,brbet-izy,brbet-izn,brbet-snu,brbet-qbl,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ḅat- < *baṭ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut' 1, 'cut tribal marks' 2
Bolewa: ḅot- 1 [LkB]
Ngamo: ḅat- 1 [ShV]
Kifri=Giwo: ḅatt- 2 [St]
Gera: ḅâḍ- 1 [ShV]
Galambu: ḅar- [ShV]
Notes: Note the shift of emphatization.
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-bol,wchet-ngm,wchet-krf,wchet-ger,wchet-glm,wchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ḅat- (< *baṭ-)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'split'
Mokilko: ḅáttè [JMkk]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-mkk,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *baṭ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'part; divide'
Somali: baḍ-
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=ĭṭV
Meaning: to cut, divide, break
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=ĭṭV
Sino-Tibetan: *tɨ(w) (~ dh-,-iw,-ǝw; -k)
Basque: *e=te-n
Comments and references : BCD 8. In PST cf. alternatively *t(h)a `knife, axe' 1017; in PNC - also *ʔVrṭV `to sting'. Perhaps two roots, but hard to distinguish. [Cf. *=ǟtwV, *=āṭwV, *=adV]. Cf. also Basque *bat 'one' ( < 'separate'?)
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=ĭṭV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to cut, to divide
Proto-Nakh: *t-iṭ- / *t-eṭ-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *b-uṭV / *ṭubi
Proto-Tsezian: *=iṭ-
Proto-Lak: b-aṭul-
Proto-Dargwa: *=uṭ-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔiṭV-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The root demonstrates different Ablaut grades (*-i-/*-e-/*-u-). The isomorphism between Av.-And. *b-uṭV 'part', Lak. b-aṭu-l- 'separate' and Darg. Chir. b-iṭal 'part' suggests that the derivate *w-ĭṭV (*w-ŭṭV) can also be reconstructed for PEC.

    Cf. also HU *ṭiṭi- > Hurr. tid- 'to share out, to separate', tidenni 'sharing out, re-division of land', Urart. ṭiṭj-u/ošǝ 'share, (movable) property' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 27).

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *t-iṭ- / *t-eṭ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to cut in pieces 2 to interpret, explain, decide
Chechen: ted- 1, tit- 2
Ingush: ted- 1
Batsbi: teṭ- / tiṭ- 1,2
Comments: The stem *teṭ- is durative, *tiṭ- - terminative.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *b-uṭV / *ṭubi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: part
Avar: buṭá
Akhvakh: ṭubi
Chamalal: ṭub
Tindi: ṭubi
Karata: ṭube
Bagvalal: ṭub
Godoberi: ṭubi
Comments: The PA *ṭubi is a metathesis ( < *b-uṭi), as seen from the Avar parallel. Av. buṭá was borrowed in some Andian languages (Akhv. Tseg., Kar. Rats. buṭa), as well as in Lak. (buṭa 'part'), Darg. (Ak., Ur., Kait., Kub., Tsud. buṭa) and Arch. (buṭi 'part').
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=iṭ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to divide
Tsezi: =eṭʷ- (Radzhibov)
Bezhta: =iṭ- (Tlad.)
Gunzib: =iṭ-
Comments: PGB *=iṭ- (cf. also Bezht. Khosh. =iṭ-). The source of labialisation in Tsezi is not clear.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: b-aṭul-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: separate
Lak form: baṭul-s:a
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=uṭ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to divide, distribute
Akusha: =uṭ- /=urṭ- (Ur.)
Comments: An old derivate is Chir. b-iṭal 'part, piece' (buṭa in most other dialects is probably a loanword from Avar).
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔiṭV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to crack (nuts) 2 break 3 to tear, cut in pieces
Lezghian: eq:-eṭ- 1
Tabasaran: uṭ- 3
Agul: jaʕ-ṭ- 2
Tsakhur: =eṭa- 2
Kryz: =iṭ- 3
Budukh: e=ṭ- 3
Comment: Cf. also Tab. Düb. k-u=ṭ- 'to break off, tear off', q:I-u=ṭ- 'to tear off, pluck' ( = Bud. q:-e=ṭ- id.), perhaps also Tsakh. q-e=ṭa- 'to touch', Kryz. (with Ablaut) w-äṭ- id., Arch. χiṭ-bos 'to push' (formally = Tsakh. qeṭa-). See Лексика 1971, 255.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *tɨ(w) (~ dh-,-iw,-ǝw; -k)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: break
Tibetan: rdos to break, burst.
Kachin: do2 broken piece, doʔ2 to break, be broken.
Lepcha: thek to break, to divide, to disunite (?)
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-kach,stibet-lepcha,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *e=te-n
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to break, break off 2 to tire, be fatigued
Bizkaian: eten
Gipuzkoan: eten
High Navarrese: eten
Low Navarrese: ethen
Lapurdian: ethen
Zuberoan: ethen
Roncalese: eten
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,

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