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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *kaûl-a- (1) n.
Meaning: bone, leg
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: káula-s `Knochen, Bein, Kern im Steinobst, Würfel'
Lettish: kaũls 'Knochen; Stengel'
Old Prussian: caulan `Bein', kaules `Dorn' V. 609
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kaw(ǝ)l-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: tubular bone, pipe
Old Indian: kulya- n. `receptacle for bones; (L.) bone', kulyā́ f. `small river, channel, ditch'
Old Greek: kau̯ló-s m. `Schaft, Stengel, Stiel, Federkiel'
Baltic: *kaûl-a- (1) n.
Germanic: *xul-a- adj.
Latin: caulis, -is m. (/f.) `Stengel, Stiel der Pflanzen, spez. Kohlstengel, Kiel der Federn; männliches Glied'
Celtic: MIr cuaille `Pfahl' (*kaullio-)
Russ. meaning: трубчатая кость, трубка
References: WP I 332, Buck 43.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xula-
Meaning: hole
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: hulundi f. (jō) `cave'
Old Norse: hol n. `Höhle, Loch', hol-r `hohl'
Norwegian: hol adj.; hol sbs.
Old Swedish: hol adj.
Swedish: hɔl sbs.
Danish: hul adj., sbs.
Old English: hol, -es n. `hole'; hol `hollow', holh (holg), -es n. `hollow, cavity, hole'
English: hole, hollow
Old Frisian: hol adj.; hol
Old Saxon: hol adj.; hol
Middle Dutch: hol adj.; hol `holte, inham, gat; bedding; hol, grot, spelonk'
Dutch: hol adj.; hol
Old High German: hol adj. (8.Jh.); hol
Middle High German: hol 'ausgehöhlt, hohl; klanglos'; hol st. n., m. 'höhle, höhlung, loch, vertiefung; öffnung'
German: hohl
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 859
Root: kau-l-, ku-l-
English meaning: hollow; bone
German meaning: `hohl; Hohlstengel; Röhrenknochen'
Material: Gr. καυλός m. `Stengel; Federkiel, Schaft'; lat. caulis (cōlis, caulus) `Stengel, Stiel an Pflanzen'; mir. cuaille `Pfahl' (*kaulīni̯o-); lit. káulas m. `Knochen' (Stoßton sekundär), lett. kaũls `Stengel, Knochen', apr. caulan n. `Knochen, Bein'.

    Schwundstufig: ai. kúlyam n. `Knochen', kulyā́ f. `Bach, Graben, Kanal'; anord. holr `hohl', ahd. ags. hol ds., got. ushulōn `aushöhlen'.

References: WP. I 332, WH. I 188 f., Trautmann 122; vgl. unter 2. keu-.
Pages: 537
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳVwlV
Meaning: leg, limb
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kaw(ǝ)l- (cf. also *kel- / *kol-)
Altaic: *k`ŏjli
Kartvelian: *qel- (or rather *q̇wil- 'bone' 902)
Dravidian: *kāl-
Comments: (2 roots)
References: Dybo 1989, 1996 (w/o Drav.); ND 1914 *q̇awlV ~ *q̇awElV 'leg, bone of a limb' (+ ??SH).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ŏjli
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: limb, extremity
Russian meaning: конечность
Turkic: *Kol
Mongolian: *köl
Tungus-Manchu: *xolda-n
Korean: *kūi-mǝ̀rí
Japanese: *kuru-(n)-pusi
Comments: See АПиПЯЯ 286, Цинциус 1984, 96-97, Дыбо 316, Лексика 243, 245. The comparison is quite reliable phonetically; *-jl- has to be assumed to account for the development in Kor. ( > -i-). The semantic side ('arm'/'leg'/'thigh') can be explained if we suppose that the word originally designated a part of the animal body (front or hind leg together with the thigh). Cf. also ТМ *xūl-kse 'sleeve' (probably an original derivation, although the length is not clear), *xul-ŋsi 'shank, shin', PT *koltuk 'armpit' (Лексика 243, TMN 3, 557-558, ЭСТЯ 6, 52-54). It is interesting to speculate on the subject of the identity Kor. *kūi-mǝ̀rí = Jpn. kuru-(n)pusi. In Kor. -mǝ̀rí is certainly to be analysed as "head" (*'leg-head'); the Jpn. form in this case may reflect a dissimilation < *kuru-n-musi, where *musi could be the remnant of PA *mĕ́ĺǯu 'head' (q. v.). The same element in fact may be also present in Jpn. *tu(m)pu-(n)pusi 'ankle, knee' and *kǝmpusi (if, with haplology < *kǝmpu-(n)pusi) 'fist'. One has, of course, to reckon with the possibility of having here rather PJ *pusi 'joint' ( < PA *bŭ̀ĺi q. v.), which would explain the constant emergence of a stop in Jpn.; but the Jpn.-Kor. match (*kūi-mǝ̀rí = kuru(n)pusi) seems to be not accidental.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kol
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 arm 2 hand
Russian meaning: 1 рука (от локтя до плеча) 2 рука (кисть)
Old Turkic: qol 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qol 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: kol 1
Tatar: qul 1, 2
Middle Turkic: qol 1, 2 (Abush., Sangl., MA, Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: qụl 1, 2
Uighur: qol 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: qol 1
Azerbaidzhan: Gol 1
Turkmen: Gol 1
Khakassian: xol 1, 2
Shor: qol 1, 2
Oyrat: qol 1, 2
Halaj: qol 1
Chuvash: xol 'shoulder'
Yakut: xol 1
Dolgan: kol 'shoulder'
Tuva: xol 1, 2
Tofalar: qol 1
Kirghiz: qol 1, 2
Kazakh: qol 1
Noghai: qol 1, 2
Bashkir: qul 1, 2
Balkar: qol 1, 2
Gagauz: qol 1
Karaim: qol 1, 2
Karakalpak: qol 1, 2
Salar: qol 1
Kumyk: qol 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 276, EDT 614-5, TMN 3, 556, Дыбо 146-153, Федотов 2, 353, Лексика 244-245, ЭСТЯ 6, 37-43, Stachowski 150.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *köl
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: foot
Russian meaning: нога
Written Mongolian: köl (L 483-484)
Middle Mongolian: kol (HY 47, SH, IM, LH), kul (MA)
Khalkha: xöl
Buriat: xül
Kalmuck: köl
Ordos: köl
Dongxian: kuan (MGCD kon)
Baoan: kul (MGCD kuol)
Dagur: kuli (Тод. Даг. 150, MD 185)
Shary-Yoghur: köl
Monguor: kor (SM 214), (MGCD kol)
Mogol: köl; ZM kol (4-3a)
Comments: KW 237, MGCD 372.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xolda-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 side 2 thigh
Russian meaning: 1 бок, сторона 2 бедро
Evenki: oldōn 1, 2
Even: oldān 1
Negidal: oldon 1
Ulcha: χoldo(n) 1
Orok: χoldo(n) 1
Nanai: χoldõ 1
Oroch: ogdo(n) 1
Udighe: ogdo(n) 1
Solon: oldõ 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 13. TM > Dag. oldōn (Тод. Даг. 159).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kūi-mǝ̀rí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ankle (*leg-head)
Russian meaning: лодыжка
Middle Korean: kūi-mǝ̀rí
Comments: Nam 65.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kuru-(n)-pusi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ankle
Russian meaning: лодыжка
Tokyo: kurúbushi
Kyoto: kúrúbúshí
Kagoshima: kurubushí
Comments: JLTT 465. The PJ accent is not clear.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *qel-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: рука
English meaning: hand
Georgian: xel-, Old Georg. qel-
Megrel: xe 'hand', xu 'Handvoll'
Svan: qäl
Svan meaning (Rus.): zwei Armlängen
Svan meaning (Eng.): zwei Armlängen
Laz: xe
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 264 (*qe-), EWK 562-563. Основа обнаруживает параллели как в ностратических языках (ПИЕ *el- 'рука, локоть'), так и в северно-кавказских (ср. ПВК *q_ɨ̆lʔi 'локоть; рука, крыло' (NCED 895-896) или *q̇_wǟɫʔV̆ 'рука, пазуха' (NCED 933-934) (с ЗК рефлексами последнего картвельский корень сравнивается в Климов 1969, 289).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-svmean,kartet-esvmean,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kāl-
Meaning : leg, foot
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kāl
Proto-Telugu : *kāl-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kāl
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kāl
Brahui : tri-kkal
Notes : Brahui?
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-bra,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kāl
Meaning : leg, foot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kāl
Tamil meaning : leg, foot, base (of tree), quarter, family, relationship
Tamil derivates : kālāḷ foot-soldier; kāli herd of cows, cow
Malayalam : kāl
Malayalam meaning : leg, foot, stem, pillar, quarter
Malayalam derivates : kālāḷ foot-soldier; kāli cow, cattle; she-buffalo
Kannada : kāl
Kannada meaning : foot, leg down to the knee, quarter
Kannada derivates : kālu-naḍe walking on foot; a cow; kālāḷ foot-soldier
Kodagu : kālɨ
Kodagu meaning : leg, foot, quarter
Tulu : kārụ
Tulu meaning : leg, foot
Tulu derivates : kālụ quarter
Proto-Nilgiri : *kāl
Number in DED : 1479
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kāl
Meaning : leg, foot
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kāl "leg, foot, base (of tree), quarter"
Toda : kōl "leg, foot, quarter, family, progeny"
Additional forms : Also Toda kaḍ xōl mox last-born son (for kaḍ, see 1109); kōlk ɨr- (child) sits on mother's leg to defecate; kōs_ excrement; mēṇ gōs_ shade (lit. foot) of tree
Notes : Toda kōl is irregular; if kōs_ "excrement" does somehow belong here (cf. kōlk ɨr-), it represents a more regular reflection of the root. One has to assume influence of Kota or literary languages.
Number in DED : 1479
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kāl-
Meaning : leg, foot, quarter
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kālu
Additional forms : Also kālari foot-soldier
Number in DED : 1479
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kāl
Meaning : leg, foot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kinwat Kolami : kāl
Parji : kēl (pl. kēlul) "leg"
Ollari Gadba : kāl (pl. kālgil) "leg"
Additional forms : Also (Glasfurd) Parji kaloo id.
Number in DED : 1479
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kol_kin,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kāl
Meaning : leg, foot
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *kāl
Konda : kāl
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kāl
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kāl-u
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *kāl
Meaning : leg, foot
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : kāl
Additional forms : Many dialects have kāl.
Number in DED : 1479
Number in CVOTGD : 652
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : kāl
Meaning: leg
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 1479
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *kāl
Meaning : leg, foot
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : kāl
Manda : kāl
Number in DED : 1479
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *kāl-u
Meaning : leg, foot
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : kāḍu
Parja Kuwi : kāl (p. -ka) "leg"
Number in DED : 1479
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : tri-kkal
Meaning : tripod of three sticks on which tent is hung
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 1479
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVLV
Meaning : leg, arm
Eurasiatic : *ḳVwlV
Sino-Caucasian : *xq̇wV̄́ɫʔV̆
Amerind (misc.) : *kʷala 'arm' (R 10)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-amer,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xq̇wV̄́ɫʔV̆
Meaning: arm
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *q̇_w[ǟ]ɫʔV̆
Comments and references : See notes under *χV̆ɫHe.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *q̇_w[ǟ]ɫʔV̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: arm; bosom, armpit
Proto-Nakh: *pħō
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q̇:ʷalV
Proto-Tsezian: *q̇e
Proto-Lezghian: *q̇ʷVl(:)-
Proto-West Caucasian: *q̇́Ia (~*q:́Ia)
Notes: Correspondences are regular, except for some vocalic problems: not clear is the *-a-vowel in PA (*-i- would be expected regularly; perhaps we deal with a case of Ablaut here).

    Trubetzkoy (1930, 277) proposed a different comparison (WC *q̇́Ia ~ EC *kwīlʡɨ 'hand'), which seems improbable for phonetic reasons.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *pħō
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sleeve
Chechen: pħo-š
Ingush: pħo-š
Batsbi: pħo
Comments: Chech. and Ing. reflect a suffixed form *pħō-š (obl. base *pħōši-, cf. Chech. pħǖša-); 3d class in Chech. and Ing., 6th class in Bacb. The Ablaut variant *pħā- is reflected in the compound *pħā-ʁat 'distance between stretched hands' (Chech. pħā-ʁat, Ing. pħa-ʁat), where *ʁat goes back to PEC *q_emtV q.v.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *q̇:ʷalV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 arm; sleeve 2 armpit 3 armful
Avar: q̇:ʷal 1
Chadakolob: q̇:ʷal 3
Andian language: q̇:ʷa-ƛ̣:u 2
Akhvakh: q̇:ʷa-ƛ̣:i 2
Chamalal: q̇:ʷaj-ƛ̣:
Tindi: q̇:ʷar-ƛ̣:i 2
Karata: ʁʷa-ƛ̣:e 2
Godoberi: q̇:ʷa-zu-ƛ̣:i 2
Comments: Av. paradigm C (loc. q̇:ʷalá-ƛ̣: 'under the arm, in the arm-pit'; Chad. q̇ʷalí-l, q̇ʷála-l). Andian forms reflect a subessive *q̇:ʷar-ƛ̣:i < *q̇:ʷal-ƛ̣:i (with dissimilation) = Av. q̇:ʷaláƛ̣:, Chad. q̇ʷa-ƛ̣ ("armpit"). The suffixless form, besides Avar, is preserved only in Akhv. q̇:ʷari 'sleeve of a fur-coat; armful" - but the -r- here raises some problems (it has, perhaps, developped analogically with the dissimilated form *q̇:ʷar-ƛ̣:i). The Kar. form demonstrates a dissimilative voicing of the initial affricate; Cham. (Gig. q̇:o-du-ƛ̣:i) and God. forms also reflect a former subessive case, but from different oblique bases (*q̇:ʷa(l)-dV- and *q̇:ʷa(l)-zV-). From Andian languages is borrowed Inkh. q̇ʷaƛ̣i 'armpit'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *q̇e
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 shoulder 2 shoulder-blade
Ginukh: q̇ilu 1
Khvarshi: q̇e 1
Bezhta: q̇ejo 1
Gunzib: q̇e 2, q̇eru 1
Comments: PTsKh *q̇e, *q̇e-Ru; PGB *q̇e, *q̇eru- (cf. also Bezht. Khosh. q̇ero, Tlad. q̇erö 'shoulder') < PTs *q̇e, obl. base *q̇e-ru- (cf. Gunz. q̇e, q̇ero-). The oblique base became direct in Gin. and Bezht. (partially also in Gunz., where q̇e and q̇eru coexist).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *q̇ʷVl(:)-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: in one's bosom
Lezghian: q̇ula-k
Comment: Isolated in Lezg., but obviously archaic. Cf. also the derivate of the same root: q̇ulaš 'compass (of both arms)'.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *q̇́Ia (~*q:́Ia)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: hand
Adyghe: ʡa
Kabardian: ʡa
Ubykh: q̇ā-ṗá
Comments: PAK *ʡa; Ub. def. á-q̇aṗa. For the etymology of -ṗa see *ṗA; the root q̇a- is discoverable in many compounds (q̇a-(n)cʷá 'finger' etc.).

    External correspondences suggest that this root must have been labialised, but labialisation was for some reason lost in PWC. Indeed, we find the labialised form *q̇́Iʷa (~*q:́Iʷa) within the compound *q̇́Iʷa-(p)ƛ̣a (~*q:́Iʷ-) 'arms, embrace; to embrace' q.v.

    AT parallels for this root suggested by several authors are not persuasive (see Шагиров 2, 154 - 155 with literature).

abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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