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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *deb-es-i- (*-es-es), *deb-es-ia- c.
Meaning: sky, cloud
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: debesì-s, gen. -iẽs, pl. gen. debesų̃; debesī̃-s, gen. dẽbesiō `Wolke'
Lettish: debess (gen. -s, pl. debesis, gen. dębęsu/debešu) f. `Himmel; Wolke', debesis `Wolke'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *nebh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: mist, cloud; sky
Hittite: nepis- n. 'Himmel' (Friedrich 150)
Old Indian: nábhas- n. `mist, clouds, vapour', nábha- m. `sky, atmosphere'
Avestan: nabah- n.: pl. 'Luftraum, Himmel'
Old Greek: néphos n.; nephélǟ `Wolke, Gewölk'
Slavic: *nebo, gen. -ese
Baltic: *deb-es-i- (*-es-es), *deb-es-ia- c.
Germanic: *nib-ul-ō f., -a- m.
Latin: nebula f. `Dunst, Nebel; Dampf, Rauch; Wolke'
Celtic: OIr nem n. (es-St.) `Himmel', nēl, gen. niuil m. `Wolke, Nebel', Ir neamh `Himmel'; Cymr nef `Himmel', niwl, nifwl `Wolke, Nebel', NCorn nef `Himmel', niul `Wolke, Nebel', Bret nef `Himmel'
Russ. meaning: туман, облако; (облачное) небо
References: WP I 131 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: не́бо,
Near etymology: мн. небеса́, небе́сный. Заимств. из цслав.; ср. народн. нёбо, укр. не́бо, блр. нёбо, др.-русск. небо, ст.-слав. небо, род. п. небесе οὑρανός (Супр.), болг. небе́, сербохорв. не̏бо, мн. небѐса, словен. nеbо̑, чеш. nеbе, слвц. nеbо, польск. niebo, мн. niebiosa, в.-луж., н.-луж. njebjo.
Further etymology: Балто-слав. основа на -еs, родственно лит. debesìs "облако", др.-лит. род. мн. debesų̃, лтш. debesis -- то же, debess "небо" (d-, вероятно, под влиянием лит. dangùs "небо" или др. слова, ср. греч. δνόφος, γνόφος "тьма"; см. Мейе, Geiger-Festschrift 235), др.-инд. nábhas ср. р. "туман, пар, небо", авест. nabah- ср. р. "воздушное пространство, небо", греч. νέφος ср. р. "облако", хетт. nерiš, род. п. nерišаš "небо", с расширением на -l-: греч. νεφέλη "облако", лат. nebula, др.-исл. nifl- "темнота", njól "ночь", д.-в.-н. nebul "туман"; см. И. Шмидт, Pluralb. 252; Мейе, там же; Dial. ideur. 128; Траутман, ВSW 195; М.--Э. 1, 449 и сл.; Педерсен, Kelt. Gr. 1, 255; Торп 293; Вальде--Гофм. 2, 151 и сл.
Pages: 3,53
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *nibulō, *nibula-z
Meaning: fog
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: nifl-hel `Unterwelt', nifl-heimr `Welt', nifl-vegr `dunkle Strasse'; njōl, njōla f. `Nebel, Nacht'
Old English: neowol (nifol, nihol, nihold, nēol, niwol) `pronr, prostrate; deep down, low, profound'
Old Frisian: neval m. `nevel'
Old Saxon: neval `Nebel, Dunkel'
Middle Dutch: nēvel m., f.
Dutch: nevel m.
Middle Low German: nēvel
Old High German: nebul `Nebel' (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: nëbel st. m. 'nebel, dunkel; staubwolke'
German: Nebel m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 481
Root: (enebh-2): nebh-, embh-, m̥bh-
English meaning: wet, damp; water; clouds
German meaning: `feucht, Wasser', daraus `Dampf, Dunst, Nebel, Wolke'
General comments: (Kontaminationsform nembh-); z. T. emb-, omb- aus embh-, ombh-
Material: nebhos-: ai. nábhas- n. `Nebel, Dunst, Gewölk, Luftraum, Himmel', daneben Wurzelflexion im dehnstuf. f. Plur. nā́bhaḥ (?); av. nabah- n. Pl. `Luftraum, Himmel';

    gr. νέφος, -ους n. `Wolke, Nebel' (Denom. primärer Form ξυννέφει `es umzieht sich', ξυννένοφε `es ist wolkig');

    auch (s. u. nem- `biegen') air. nem (n. es-St.), nir. neamh, cymr. corn. nef `Himmel';

    abg. nebo, -ese n. `Himmel', zum i-St. umgebildet in lit. debesìs f. und m. `Wolke' (aber alter konson. Pl., z. B. Gen. Pl. debesų̃! d für n durch Einfluß von dangùs `Himmel');

    hitt. ne-pi- (nebis) n. `Himmel' Gen. nebisas;

    mit l-Formans (nebhelā):

    gr. νεφέλη `Wolke, Nebel' = lat. nebula `Dunst, Nebel, Wolke';

    aber air. nēl m., Gen. nīuil `Wolke, Nebel' nicht aus *nebhlo-, sondern Lehnwort aus cymr. niwl, nifwl, ncorn. niul ds. (die wiederum nach Loth RC 20, 346 f. Lw. aus spätlat. *nibulus für nūbilus);

    ahd. nebul m. `Nebel', as. neƀal `Nebel, Dunkel', ags. nifol ds., aisl. nifl-heimr u. dgl., njōl `Dunkelheit, Nacht' (germ. *neƀla- und *niƀula- aus -elo-; aisl. nifl- aus *niƀila-);

    unsicher ai. nabhanú- m., nabhanū́- f., wahrscheinlich `Quelle'; av. aiwi-naptīm asti `er (befeuchtet =) besudelt mit Blut', napta- `feucht' (*nab-ta-), npers. neft `Naphtha';

    vielleicht hierher lat. Neptūnus `Gott der Quellen und Flüsse, dann des Meeres' aus *nebh-tu-s; des -p- im skyth. FlN Naparis, apers. Quell N Νάπας stammt aus iran. apa- `Wasser, Quelle' (Brandenstein, OLZ 1940, 435 ff.).

    m̥bh-(ro-):

    ai. abhrá- m. `trübes Wetter, Gewölk', n. `Wolke, Luftraum' (*m̥bhros), av. awra- n. `Wolke'; fern bleibt wegen der Bedeutung gr. ἀφρός `Schaum' (Meillet BSL 31, 51);

    in die i-Dekl. übergetreten lat. imber, imbris `Regenguß' = osk. Anafríss, wohl `imbribus'.

    Hierher auch die Flußnamen gall. *Ambrā, mcymr. Amir, Amyr sowie nhd. Amper und Ammer (kelt. *Ambrā), Emmer (kelt. *Ambriā); dazu auch engl. Amber; frz. Ambre, Ambrole; span. Ambron, Ambror; ital. Ambra, Ambria, Ambro, Ambrio usw., letztere sind bestimmt ven.-illyrisch; vgl. ohne formantisches r gall. inter ambes `inter rivos', ambe `rivo', abrit. Amboglanna `Ufer des Stromes', sowie arm. amb und (mit idg. b) amp `Wolke'.

    emb(h)- : omb(h)- :

    ai. ámbhas- n. `Regenwasser'; ambu n. `Wasser', gr. ὄμβρος m. `Regen' (zum b vgl. oben arm. amp und Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 333); hierher auch lak. ὀμφά `Geruch, Hauch', arkad. εὔομφος `wohlriechend', usw.

    nembh-:

    pehl. namb, nam, npers. nem `feucht, Feuchtigkeit', pehl. nambītan `befeuchten';

    lat. nimbus `Sturzregen, Platzregen; Sturmwolke, Regenwolke'.

References: WP. I 131, WH. I 681, II 151 f., Specht Dekl. 16 f.
Pages: 315-316
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *nVbV
Meaning: smoke, cloud
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *nĕbhV
Altaic: *ni̯òbi
Eskimo-Aleut: *Nuvǝja
Comments: Cf. also PE *ńǝpǝ-Ju-'rain, drizzle' - which, however, can also be compared with PA *ni̯abo 'storm, natural disaster' or *ŋi̯ŏbu 'to pour'.
References: ND 1556 *nop[E] 'breathe, blow', 1557 *n̄[o]pi 'fog, cloud' - with unclear reasons for distinction.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-esk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *nìbi ( ~ -e)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to smoke, to smell
Russian meaning: дымиться, пахнуть
Mongolian: *neɣü-
Tungus-Manchu: *nibu(p)-
Korean: *nắi
Japanese: *nìpǝ̀-p-
Comments: EAS 77, SKE 158 (Tung.-Kor.), АПиПЯЯ 297. Kor. -ă- is most probably a result of vowel contraction after the loss of *-b-.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *neɣü-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to curl (of smoke) 2 charcoal
Russian meaning: 1 виться (о дыме) 2 уголь
Written Mongolian: negür-sü 2 (L 569: neɣüresü(n))
Middle Mongolian: ne'uresun 2 (HY 22), nūrson (IM)
Khalkha: nǖ-gelte- 1, nǖrs 2
Buriat: nǖrhe(n) 2
Kalmuck: nǖrsen 2 (КРС)
Ordos: nǖresü, nǖres 2
Dagur: neurese 2 (MD 198)
Comments: The Mong. word for 'coal' (MMong. ne'üre-sün) is compared by Poppe 38 with Man. nemu 'ore', nemuri 'coal mine' (ТМС 1, 621) < *nebu- (?).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *nibu(p)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to smoke
Russian meaning: дымить(ся), коптить(ся)
Evenki: nuw-
Negidal: nūp-
Ulcha: ńiup-ti-
Orok: nū-či-
Nanai: ńup-či-
Oroch: ńu-či-
Udighe: ńusesi-
Comments: ТМС 1, 607-608.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *nắi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: smoke
Russian meaning: дым
Modern Korean:
Middle Korean: nắi
Comments: Nam 102, KED 315.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *nìpǝ̀-p-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to smell
Russian meaning: пахнуть
Old Japanese: nipop-
Middle Japanese: nìfòf-
Tokyo: nió-
Kyoto: níó-
Kagoshima: nìò-
Comments: JLTT 736.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *Nuvǝja
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: cloud
Russian meaning: облако
Proto-Inupik: *nuvǝja
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-inup,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *nụvǝ̣ja
Meaning: cloud 1, to be cloudy 2
Russian meaning: облако 1, облачный, пасмурный 2
SPI Dialects: W nuija* 1
North Alaskan Inupik: nuvija, nuvuja 1
NAI Dialects: B nuvija* 1
Western Canadian Inupik: nuvuja 1, nuvuja- 2
WCI Dialects: Cor nuvuja* 1
Eastern Canadian Inupik: nuvuja(q) 1, nuvija 1 [Ras.], nuvuja- 2
Greenlandic Inupik: nuia (nuia*) 1, nuia- 2
GRI Dialects: NG nuiɣaq 1, WG nuiššat pl. 1 (with secondary -šš-)
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 243
inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-gris,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : NVPV
Meaning : smoke, cloud
Eurasiatic : *nVbV
Afroasiatic : *naPVs- < *na/if- 162 'breath, blow'
Sino-Caucasian : ? ST *ŋŭp 'inhale'
Austric : ? *ŋap yawn
Reference : ND 1556, 1557.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *(ʔa-)na/if-
Meaning: breath, blowing
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔanp- (<*ʔa-nVp-) 'nose'
Berber: *-naf- 'fresh humid wind'
Egyptian: nf.t (OK) 'fan', nf (NK) 'breath; wind'
Central Chadic: *nip/f- 'breathe' 1, 'life' 2
Beḍauye (Beja): nifi 'to blow (wind)'
Saho-Afar: *naf- 'breath, soul' 1, 'face' 2
Low East Cushitic: *na/ēf- 'breath' 1, soul' 2, 'life' 3
Omotic: *nap- 'blow, swell'
Notes: Cf. EDE 126-7. Cf. HSED, 1828 *naf- 'breath' (Eg.; Saho 'breath' and Afar 'face', which is semantically doubtful; Som. 'breath, soul' and Oromo and Arbore 'body' which is very philosophical to relate with 'soul', though wrong, as 'soul' comes from 'breath' and it is hard to imagine the reconstructed term giving rise to 'breath' in some daughter languages and 'body', in others) and 1865 *nif- 'smell, breathe' (Sem. *nVpaḥ- supposedly "secondary formation based on *nap-", which is impossible to prove or disprove; Eg. nfy; CCh. *nif-, with *-f -prompted only by Eg. as both examples quoted have -p). Considering CCh. *-i-, Saho -a-, and Som. -a-/-ē (the other examples in both entries are irrelevant for semantical, and Eg., for phonetical reasons), there is not a least ground to reconstruct two roots.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-cch,afaset-bed,afaset-sho,afaset-lec,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1996
Proto-Semitic: *ʔanp-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: nose
Akkadian: appu OAkk on [CAD a2 184], [AHw 60]
Eblaitic: a-bù /ʔappu(m)/ [Kr 9-10; Con 91; Bl E No. 2]
Ugaritic: ʔap [Aist 31], /ʔappu/ [Huehner 108]
Hebrew: ʔap [KB 76]
Aramaic: OLD, PLM ʔp, OFF ʔnp 'face, front side' [HJ 83]
Biblical Aramaic: BIB ʔanpṓhī (du. suff.) 'Gesicht' [KB deutsch 1669] 'face'
Judaic Aramaic: ʔappā, ʔanpā (also 'face') [Ja 186, 99]; ʔp 'nose' [Sok 69]
Syrian Aramaic: ʔappē, ʔappayyā (pl.) 'facies' [Brock 39]
Mandaic Aramaic: anpia 'face, forehead' [DM 27]; not to confuse with aputa, puta 'forehead, face' [ibid. 30] (see in *piʔ-at- 'face, front', No. )
Arabic: ʔanf- [BK 1 62]
Modern Arabic: ʔanf, ʔinf, ʔunf, all three forms attested, e.g. in NYEM [Behnstedt 43]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ʔanf (also 'nostril') [LGz 28]
Tigre: ʔanǝf [LH 375]
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ʔanfi 'punta di penna; naso (in Hamasien)' [Bass 582]
Gafat: ãfʷä [LGaf 172]
Harari: ūf 'nose' [LHar 19]
Notes: Cf. SOD afunna, CHA ENN GYE END ãfuna, EZ̆A MUH MSQ GOG ãfunna 'nose' [LGur 21]; all <*ʔanf- + *funa <*pan- 'face' (see No. )?

    Note CAN: MOAB ʔnp 'to be angry' [HJ 83] which, together with HBR ʔnp do. [KB 72], may represent a semantic shift from 'nose' (see Introduction). Other types of semantic development can be observed in ARM ('nose' > 'face'); SAB ʔf (pl. ʔʔnf) 'fronts, near sides ?' [Biella 23] (quoted in [SD 6] without translation), MIN ʔnf 'fac̣ade' [LM 6]; and in JIB ʔɛ́nfí 'first, ancient', ʔɛ́nfɛ̄t 'a while ago' [JJ 4].

    There are derived verbal forms in ETH: TGR ʔǝf bälä 'to blow, to puff' [LH 375], AMH ǝnf alä 'to blow the nose' [K 1253].

    [Fron 44]: (*ʔanp- /GEZ,ARB,SYR,HBR,UGR,AKK/); [DRS 26]: *ʔanp-: AKK, UGR, HBR, ARM, ARB, ESA, ETH (incl. AMH afǝnč̣a, which is improbable, see [LGz 28]), JIB, MHR anūf 'avoir la colère tenace' (not found in [JM]); [KB 76]: HBR, UGR, AKK, ARM, ARB, ESA, GEZ; [Holma 18]: AKK, HBR, ABR, GEZ, ARM

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ebl,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-bib,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-dial,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-gaf,semet-hrr,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *-naf-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'fresh humid wind'
Ayr: a-năfo Aloj 141
Tawllemmet: a-năfo
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ayr,brbet-twl,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: nf.t (OK) 1, nf (NK) 2
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'fan' 1, 'breath; wind' 2
Notes: nfy (n) 'breathe'
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,egyet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *nip/f-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breathe' 1, 'life' 2
Tera: nifi 2 [Kr]
Daba: nìp [Li] 1
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-ter,cchet-dab,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: nifi
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'to blow (wind)'
Notes: Bla Review after Roper
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

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Saho-Afar etymology :

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Proto-Saho-Afar: *naf-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breath, soul'1 , 'face' 2
Saho: naf 1
Afar (Danakil): neef 2
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-saho,shoet-afar,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *na/ēf-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breath' 1, soul' 2, 'life' 3
Somali: naf 2, 3, neef 1
Boni: nêf 1 SAM 1978, 70
Baiso: neefo 1, 2 (Hab-Lamb 1998, 133)
Notes: Cf. Oromo nafa 'haste, urgency' Gr 298 (<'heavy breathing'?)
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-bon,lecet-bay,lecet-notes,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *nap-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blow, swell'
Kafa (Kaficho): naf
Mocha: nàṗiyé
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,omoet-mch,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *ŋap (? / *Hap)
Meaning: yawn
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *sǝNʔa:p + MU (also *ŋap / *ŋa:p 'molar, cheek')
Austroasiatic meaning: yawn
Proto-Austronesian: *qaŋab (also *Suab 'yawn'); *ceŋap, -ŋap '(open) mouth
Austronesian meaning: gape, open mouth wide
Austronesian code: 18:65
Proto-Thai: hŋap
Thai meaning: opening mouth widely
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-ancode,austr-tai,austr-taime,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ŋap / *ŋa:p
Meaning: molar, cheek
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Monic: M lŋap, daŋa:p molar
Proto-Palaungic: *ŋap
Khasi: ŋa:b cheek
References: Kh 727
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,aaet-khasi,aaet-bib,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa: *ŋap
Meaning: gills
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Riang: ŋap.2
Riang meaning: gills
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-riang,pawaet-rimeam,

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