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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *asur-
Meaning : an onom. word to express weariness
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : asurusuru
Additional forms : Also anjali-gunjali fatigued, tired (?).
Number in DED : 39
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *asái
Meaning : faint, weary
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *asai- ~ *asar-
Proto-Telugu : *asur-
Notes : The stem is always bisyllabic but the second syllable varies (it is possible that *asar < *asai-r-, but SDR *asai and *asā are untraceable to a single prototype). // Present in 2/6 branches.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *asai- ~ *asar-
Meaning : faint, drowsy
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : acar (-v-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to become faint, drowsy
Tamil derivates : acarttu (acartti-) to cause to be drowsy or sluggish; acati drowsiness; acappu inattentiveness, absence of mind; acāvu (acāvi-) to droop, languish, grow slack; acā languor, faintness; acai (-v-, -nt-) to be weary, exhausted, grow feeble, walk or ride slowly; acaivu weariness, exhaustion; añar (-v-, -nt-) to be lazy, slothful; n. mental distress, disease; ayar (-v-, -nt-) to lose consciousness (as in fainting, sleep, drunkenness), become weary, forget; (-pp-, -tt-) to forget; ayarcci, ayarti languor, faintness, forgetfulness; ayarppu, ayarvu forgetfulness; ayā languor, faintness; ayāvu (ayāvi-) to be distressed; añcal laziness, sloth
Malayalam : aśati
Malayalam meaning : drowsiness, forgetfulness
Malayalam derivates : aśattu pōka to forget oneself; ayarkka to swoon, feel estranged, disagree; ayarcca fatigue, distress, affliction, forgetfulness; ayarti, ayarppu swoon, forgetfulness, discord
Kannada : asur
Kannada meaning : to feel disgusted, have an aversion or a dislike, be impatient; n. fatigue, faintness
Kannada derivates : asurusuru exhaustion; ayil, aylu bewilderment, madness; āsar_ to be weary; n. weariness, fatigue, languor
Tulu : ajakè
Tulu meaning : idleness
Tulu derivates : ? āsarụ thirst, that which slakes thirst
Notes : As is often the case, there may be several roots confused in this DED entry; the most dubious forms are those in which Tamil has a palatal nasal (añar, añcal), because that would mean the original form is *anǯ-, although no other SDR languages show any forms with the nasal. The difference in semantics is also striking: "faint, drowsy, weary" vs. "lazy, slothful". The rest of the forms, however, are hard to separate from each other.
Number in DED : 0039
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ēco ( ~ -č-)
Meaning: weary, tired
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *ēč`o
Dravidian: *asái
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ēč`o
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: be weak, exhausted
Russian meaning: быть слабым, истощенным
Turkic: *ạ̄č
Tungus-Manchu: *eče-
Korean: *ǝ́č-
Japanese: *ǝ̀tǝ̀r-
Comments: The parallel seems reliable despite tone discrepancy between Turk.-Tung., on the one hand, and Kor.-Jpn., on the other.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ạ̄č
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: hunger
Russian meaning: голод
Old Turkic: (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: (MK)
Turkish:
Tatar:
Middle Turkic: (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: ɔč
Uighur:
Azerbaidzhan:
Turkmen: āč
Khakassian: as
Shor:
Oyrat:
Halaj: āč, ɔ̄ču-
Chuvash: vɨźъ
Yakut: ās
Dolgan: ač-čɨk 'hungry'
Tuva:
Kirghiz:
Kazakh:
Noghai:
Bashkir: as
Balkar:
Gagauz: āč
Karaim:
Karakalpak:
Kumyk:
Comments: EDT 17, VEWT 3, ЭСТЯ 1, 208-209, Stachowski 28.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *eče-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to feel constrained
Russian meaning: чувствовать стеснение
Ulcha: ečise-
Nanai: ečisi-
Comments: ТМС 2, 471.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *ǝ́č-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be in disorder, confusion
Russian meaning: быть в беспорядке, смятении
Modern Korean: ǝǯirǝp- (-w-)
Middle Korean: ǝ́čɨ́rǝ̀p- (-w-) 2
Comments: Nam 365, KED 1136.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ǝ̀tǝ̀r-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be worse 2 to become weak
Russian meaning: 1 быть хуже, уступать 2 слабеть
Old Japanese: otor- 1, ot(w)or(w)op- 2
Middle Japanese: òtòr- 1, òtòròf- 2
Tokyo: otór- 1, otoroé- 2
Kyoto: ótór- 1, ótóróé- 2
Kagoshima: otór- 1, òtòròè- 2
Comments: JLTT 743. The Kagoshima accent in otór- is irregular (probably under literary influence).
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVCV
Meaning : sick, ill
Eurasiatic : *ēco ( ~ -ć-, -č-)
Afroasiatic : *ʔaĉVw-/*ʔaĉVy-
Sino-Caucasian : *ʔá̆ʒV
Austric : PAA *ʒǝj / *ʒɨǝj 'ill, sick'
Reference : Peiros 1989, 130. PAA may be < ST.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔaĉVw-/*ʔaĉVy-
Meaning: illness
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔaŝVy- 'illness (of head)'
Egyptian: ꜣšy.t (med) 'kind of illness'
East Chadic: *ʔVĉVw- 'fever'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-ech,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1282
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
semet-prnum,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: ꜣšy.t (med)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'kind of illness'
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *ʔVĉVw-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: fever
Sokoro: ósso [Lk: 43]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-sok,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʔá̆ʒV
Meaning: sick, ill
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʔăʒ_Ĕ (~ -ǝ̆-,-ŏ-)
Sino-Tibetan: *ʒhaj
Comments and references : Confused with *HV̆ǯV́- in HGC 36. Cf. also PST *chǝ `be ill; heal, recover'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʔăʒ_Ĕ (~ -ǝ̆-,-ŏ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be ill, feel pain
Proto-Nakh: *l-ac̣-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣:i-n-
Proto-Lak: c̣u-
Proto-Dargwa: *ʔic:-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔac̣:a
Proto-Khinalug: c̣ɨ-t
Proto-West Caucasian: *źV
Notes: A rather widely represented common NC root. The etymology on the whole seems quite satisfactory, but there are some irregularities: in PD we would rather expect *z, not *c:. We may think that the root consonant here was expressively geminated (PD *ʔizz- > *ʔicc:-), and indeed we see traces of this gemination in Ak. izz-es, izz-ala. It is even possible that the gemination occurred as early as in Proto-Darg.-Lezg. - cf. a quite analogous gemination in Rut. =ädda- (normally -d- would be expected).

    Cf. also Hurr. azz-u/ošχǝ 'tabooed, impure, sinful, sick (or the like)', see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 40.

    See Abdokov 1983, 136.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *l-ac̣-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to hurt, feel pain, be ill
Chechen: laz-
Ingush: laz-
Batsbi: lac̣-
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣:i-n-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to tickle, scratch; to be ticklish
Akhvakh: c̣:in-
Tindi: c:ic:in-
Comments: The Tindi form is reduplicated.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-akv,aandet-tnd,aandet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: c̣u-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to hurt, ache
Lak form: c̣u-n
Comments: Cf. Khosr. c̣u-n (imper. c̣uc̣u).
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *ʔic:-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to hurt, ache, be ill
Akusha: izz-
Chiragh: ic:-
Comments: Cf. also Ur. iʒ- id. and the PD derivate *ʔic:ala 'disease, pain': Ak. izzala, Chir., Kait., Kub. ic:ala.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔac̣:a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be ill, hurt, ache
Lezghian: ṭa-
Tabasaran: ic:-ru xuz
Agul: it:-ar xas
Rutul: =ädda-
Kryz: tit-
Budukh: tut-kar-
Archi: =ac̣:a-r
Comment: Cf. also Ag. Bursh. it:-aj xis. The stem demonstrates the PL *a/*i Ablaut (ä in Rut. is not quite clear) and belongs to the weak conjugation class; the Kryz. and Bud. forms are reduplicated. Tab. and Ag. have preserved only participial forms combined with auxiliary verbs. Cf. also the PL derivate *jic̣:al(a) 'sickness, disease, pain': Lezg. ṭal, Ag. it:al, Rut. jaddal (Shin. jatal, Mükhr. jed:al, Mishl. jadal).

    See Бокарев 1961, 71; Лексика 1971, 135; Гигинейшвили 1977, 107.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: c̣ɨ-t
North Caucasian etymology: 1888
Meaning: sick, ill
Khinalug form: c̣ɨ-t
Comments: Cf. also c̣ɨt-q̇i 'to be sick, ill'.
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *źV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 to be ill, sick 2 illness, disease
Abkhaz: a-č́ǝ́ma-zaʕʷ-1
Abaza: zʕʷa 2
Adyghe: wǝzǝ 2
Kabardian: wǝz 2
Ubykh: źa-ʁʷá 2
Comments: PAT *zVʕʷV; PAK *wǝ-zǝ (*wǝ- is a frequent verbal prefix). For PWC we can also reconstruct a compound *źV-ʁʷV (besides the listed forms cf. also Kab. wǝzǝʁʷa = wǝzǝ); the second part (*-ʁʷV) is not quite clear etymologically (it can be attributed to several PWC roots).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʒhaj
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: illness, disease
Chinese: *ʒāj / *caj disease.
Burmese: ćha be hungry; be weak (of hands, feet).
Lushai: KC *fa be ill.
Comments: Sh. 54. KC *fa instead of *faj under the influence of a similar root, see *chǝ be ill; heal, recover.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: cuó
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʒāj
Classic Old Chinese: ʒāj
Western Han Chinese: ʒāj
Eastern Han Chinese: ʒǟ
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʒā
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʒā
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʒā
Middle Chinese: ʒâ
English meaning : epidemic, disease
Russian meaning[s]: болезнь; [chài] выздоровление; выздоравливать
Comments: Also read *ciaj, MC cja id.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 104
Four-angle index: 103
Karlgren code: 0005 l
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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