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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *čāṇ-
Meaning : chisel
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *čāṇ-
Proto-Telugu : *sēn- (?)
Notes : Actually a Kan.-Tulu isogloss (the Telugu form is dubious phonetically and could be a dialectal borrowing).
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *čāṇ-
Meaning : chisel
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kannada : cāṇa, cāna, cēṇa
Kannada meaning : a small chisel
Tulu : cēṇụ, cēnụ
Tulu meaning : awl, chisel
Number in DED : 2445
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *sēn-
Meaning : awl, chisel
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : sēnamu
Number in DED : 2445
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *CVNV
Meaning: smth. sharp
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: (cf. *stengh-)
Altaic: *č`i̯aŋu ( ~ *č`i̯oŋe) (cf. also *si̯únŋi 2079)
Uralic: *säŋkV (cf. also *ćäŋkV ~ *śäŋkV break, cut off, *šiŋa 'sharpen, whet')
Dravidian: *čāṇ-
Eskimo-Aleut: *caHunǝʁ (~ -ŋ-, -r-)
Comments: Several roots.
References: ND 2089 *s/šäŋV 'tooth' (FU+Drav + SH).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯aŋu ( ~ *č`i̯oŋe)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: a sharp bone, sharp instrument
Russian meaning: острая кость, острый инструмент
Turkic: *čeŋe
Tungus-Manchu: *čoŋkī-
Korean: *čǝ̄ŋ ( ~ *čjǝ̄ŋ)
Comments: It is also tempting to compare PJ *tùnuá 'horn'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čeŋe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: jaw
Russian meaning: челюсть
Middle Turkic: čaŋa, čeŋe (Pav. C., AH)
Azerbaidzhan: čänä
Turkmen: čene (dial.)
Halaj: čänä
Yakut: seŋie
Gagauz: čenä
Karaim: ceŋge
Kumyk: čene
Comments: Лексика 220. Despite Буд. 1, 483-484, D-T 98 the Pers. čānah 'lower jaw' cannot be the source of Turkic forms; it does not have any Iranian etymology and is itself most likely a Turkism.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čoŋkī-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to peck 2 pecking, beak
Russian meaning: 1 клевать 2 клевание, клюв
Evenki: čoŋkī- 1, čoŋkī 2
Even: čoŋqъ̣- 1, čoŋqъ̣n 2
Negidal: čoŋkị- 1, čoŋkị̄ 2
Literary Manchu: čoŋgi-, čoŋki- 1
Nanai: čoŋkị- 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 407.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *čǝ̄ŋ ( ~ *čjǝ̄ŋ)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: chisel
Russian meaning: зубило
Modern Korean: čǝ̄ŋ
Comments: KED 1450.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 892
Proto: *säŋkV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: wooden nail, peg
German meaning: Holznagel, Keil, Pflock
Finnish: (sänki 'Stoppel' - rejected by Redei)
Saam (Lapp): sag'ge -gg- (N) 'pin, peg', saggē (L) 'Stäbchen, Splitter, Stift', saiñke (T) 'Pflock, Zwecke'
Mari (Cheremis): (šäŋge, šäŋɣǝ (KB) 'dürrer Ast eines Strauches' - rejected by Redei)
Khanty (Ostyak): lö̆ŋk (V) 'Keil', jö̆ŋk (VK), лȯ̆ŋk (Mj.), tŏŋk (DN), luŋk (O) 'Holznagel; Keil' ?
Hungarian: ék (acc. ékët) 'Keil'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-saa,uralet-mar,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *caHunǝʁ (~ -ŋ-, -r-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: bone
Russian meaning: кость
Proto-Inupik: *caunǝʁ
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-inup,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *cạụnǝ̣ʁ (~ -ąʁ)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: bone 1, seed 2
Russian meaning: кость 1, семя 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: sauniq 1
SPI Dialects: Imaq sáûnɨq 1, W sōniq* (nąk, neʁit) 1
North Alaskan Inupik: saunɨq (ʁ) 1, 2 (in fruit), 'pit', saunʁic pl. 1, 'boat frame', saunāq dim. 'eggshell, pit, seed of fruit, small fishbone'
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl sauniq* 1
Western Canadian Inupik: sauniq 1, 'pit'
WCI Dialects: Cor x́aunaq* 1, M sauniq* 1
Eastern Canadian Inupik: sauniq 1, 'fishbone, eggshell', saunaq 2, 'pit'
Greenlandic Inupik: sāniq (ʁ) (sauneq*), sāʁni 3pl. 1, 'knuckle, pit (in fruit)'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 72
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVNV
Meaning : sharp object
Eurasiatic : *CVNV
Afroasiatic : *sin- (cf. also *c̣in- 'sharp object')
Sino-Caucasian : *c̣VŋHV́ (cf. also *ćVnV, *sɨ̄́nŏ)
Reference : ND 2089. More than one root?
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sin-
Meaning: tooth
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *šinn- 'tooth'
Berber: *sīn- 'tooth'
Western Chadic: *sin- 'tooth'
Central Chadic: *ŝyan- 'tooth'
East Chadic: *syan- 'tooth'
South Cushitic: *siḥin- (?)
Notes: Secondary lateral in CCh.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-scu,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 131
Proto-Semitic: *šinn-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: tooth
Akkadian: šinnu OA on [CAD š3 48], [AHw 1242]
Eblaitic: si-nu-u[m], si-na-tum /šinnum/, /šinnātum/ [Kr 6-7, 8; Bl E No. 90]
Ugaritic: šn [Aist 311]
Hebrew: šēn [KB deutsch 1472]
Biblical Aramaic: šinnayin (du.) [KB deutsch 1793]
Judaic Aramaic: šinnā [Ja 1603]; šn, det. šännā [Sok 559].

    Cf. mǝšunnītā 'jaw' [Ja 850], likely derived after a participle pattern

Syrian Aramaic: šennā [Brock 789]
Mandaic Aramaic: šina [DM 789]
Arabic: sinn- [BK 1 1147]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): sǝnn
Tigrai (Tigriñña): sǝnni
Argobba: sǝn
Gafat: sǝnä [LGaf 231]
Harari: sǝn
East Ethiopic: SEL isn, WOL ǝsǝn, ZWY sǝn [LGur 549].

    The two first forms < *ʔi-sin-, with the prefix?

Gurage: CHA sǝn, EŽA MUH MSQ GOG SOD sǝnn, ENN END GYE šǝn [ibid.]
Jibbali: šnin [JJ 262]
Notes: Same meaning throughout SEM.

    Note that AMH sǝnn is from GEZ according to [LGz 504] (not in [K]).

    Cf. MSA ʕAbd-El-Kuri ŝáʕnhǝn 'dent' [SSL 4 89] with unexplained ŝ- if related and inserted -ʕ-.

    [Fron 45] (*šinn- 'dente'); [Holma 22]: AKK, HBR, SYR, ARB, GEZ; [KB deutsch 1472]: HBR, ARM, AKK, UGR, ARB, GEZ; [LGz 504]: GEZ, ETH, ARB, ARM, HBR, UGR, AKK

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ebl,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-bib,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-tgy,semet-arg,semet-gaf,semet-hrr,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-jib,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *sīn-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tooth'
Ghadames: a-sīn
Nefusa: sīn
Siwa: a-sayn
Ghat: i-sin
Ayr: e-šen
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): esîn
Tawllemmet: e-šen
Taneslemt: e-sen
Sened: i-sîn
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ghd,brbet-nfs,brbet-siw,brbet-ght,brbet-ayr,brbet-ahg,brbet-twl,brbet-tsl,brbet-snd,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *sin-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tooth'
Jimi: sǝn [Cs]
Polchi: šĩn [CS N 94]
Geji: šiŋ [CLR: 330]
Zaar: šin [CLR]
Sayanchi: šɨ̃n [Cs N 94]
Boghom: šaŋá-l [Cs N 94]
Guruntum: šin [CLR]
Dwot: šéén [Cs N 94]
Buli: šin [Kr]
Tule: šìna [CLR]
Wangday: šɛn [CLR]
Tala: šin [Cs]
Zul: šine [Cs N 94]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-jim,wchet-pol,wchet-gej,wchet-zar,wchet-say,wchet-bgh,wchet-grn,wchet-dwo,wchet-bul,wchet-tul,wchet-wnd,wchet-tal,wchet-zul,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ŝyan-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tooth'
Gaanda: ŝêna
Gabin: ŝêne
Hwona: ŝànà
Mbara: sí ŋ [TMba]
Higi Nkafa: ŝìnɛ
Fali Gili: ŝǝìni
Kapsiki=Higi Kamale: ŝǝ̀nɛ
Gisiga: ŝeŋ
Mada: sliŋ
Mafa=Matakam: ŝɛnnɛ
Munjuk: sisiyen [TMnj]
Logone: s̃ìnì
Musgu: šɛšiɛ́ŋ [LkMsg]
Banana: sinà
Notes: Cp. C 12 *s- [Sy: 57]. Secondary lateral .
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-gaa,cchet-gbn,cchet-hwn,cchet-mba,cchet-hnk,cchet-fag,cchet-kap,cchet-gis,cchet-bld,cchet-mtk,cchet-mnj,cchet-log,cchet-msg,cchet-bnn,cchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *syan-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tooth'
Somrai: sán-dē [Jg]
Tumak: hìín [Cp]
Ndam: hân [JgD]
Gabri: k-song [Lk:88]
Dormo: gá-sene [Lk: 91]
Dangla: sààŋo [Fd]
Migama: sâ:nú [JMig]
Jegu: sàŋó [CLR: 221]
Bidiya: séénō [JBid]
Mubi: sìŋàŋù [CLR]
Birgit: sàŋó [[CLR]
Mokilko: sìntá
Sokoro: sǝn, són-d [CLR]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-smr,echet-tum,echet-ndm,echet-gbr,echet-dor,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-jeg,echet-bid,echet-mub,echet-brg,echet-mkk,echet-sok,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *siḥin-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'tooth'
Iraqw (Mbulu): siḥino
Alagwa (Wasi): siḥino
Burunge (Mbulungi): siḥino
Notes: Metathesis from *ḥV-sin- ?
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-irq,scuet-alg,scuet-bur,scuet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *c̣VŋHV́
Meaning: sharp; arrow; to pierce
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *c̣ǟnHV
Sino-Tibetan: /*cōn (/*cōŋ) /
Basque: *siHi
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *c̣ǟnHV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bow, arrow
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣inHu
Proto-Tsezian: *c̣ẽ
Proto-West Caucasian: *ć:ǝ
Notes: An important common NC root; not very widely represented, but both phonetically and semantically quite reliable.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣inHu
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 arrow 2 bow
Andian language: c̣iwu 2
Akhvakh: č̣ĩwo / č̣ĩho 1
Chamalal: c̣ĩw 1
Tindi: c̣ĩhu 1
Karata: c̣ijun (Tok.) 1
Bagvalal: c̣i (Leksika) 1
Comments: The word for 'fork' in some Andian languages is derived from the same root: *c̣inHu-b or *c̣inHu-r > *c̣imHu-r ("arrow-like"): cf. Tind. c̣inob, Akhv. č̣ume (Tseg., Tlan. č̣umer, Ratl. č̣umeri), And. c̣umur 'fork'.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-bgv,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *c̣ẽ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 bow 2 arrow
Ginukh: nic̣u 2
Inkhokvari: c̣ẽ 1
Comments: PTsKh *c̣ẽ, obl. *c̣eno- (Inkh. c̣eno-); Gin. nic̣u reflects a metathesised oblique stem (coincidence with nic̣u 'reed' is obviously secondary, because the latter is borrowed from Av. nuc̣:i q.v.).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ć:ǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 bow 2 arrow
Abkhaz: a-χǝ́-c 1
Abaza: χri-χǝc 1,2
Comments: PAT *xǝ-ćǝ (cf. also Bzyb. a-xǝ́ć 'bow', Ashkh. χǝc 'arrow'). This compound, actually meaning "arrow+bow", is an exact parallel of EC forms like Akhv. Ratl. ʎar-č̣ijõ 'bow and arrow' etc. (see under *ʎĂl(H)V).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *cōn (/*cōŋ)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bore, chisel
Chinese: *cōn to bore, perforate, penetrate.
Tibetan: mchon any pointed or cutting instrument.
Burmese: LB *cuŋh chisel.
Lushai: thon to thrust, put endwise anything long into a hole.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-lush,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zuǎn
Preclassic Old Chinese: cōn
Classic Old Chinese: cwān
Western Han Chinese: cwān
Eastern Han Chinese: cwān
Early Postclassic Chinese: cwān
Middle Postclassic Chinese: cwān
Late Postclassic Chinese: cwān
Middle Chinese: cwân
English meaning : to pierce, incise [L.Zhou]
Russian meaning[s]: дрель, бурав; сверло; шило; [zuàn] алмаз (для резки стекла); [zuān] 1) колоть; дырявить, буравить; просверливать; 2) исследовать, доискиваться; 3) протискиваться, втискиваться в...
Comments: Also read *cōn-s, MC cwần, Mand. zuàn 'sharp instrument, tool for piercing, incising'. In the specialized meaning 'diamond for cutting glass' (attested rather late) it was borrowed in Viet. as xoàn. Standard Sino-Viet. is toa`n. Sometimes also used as a loan for 攢 *ʒ(h)ōn 'to collect,gather' q.v.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 167
Four-angle index: 8047
Karlgren code: 0153 h-i
Go-on: san
Kan-on: san
Vietnamese reading: xoàn
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 2584
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 山合一平桓精; B: 山合一去換精
ZIHUI: A: 9449 1931; B: 9449 1932
Beijing: A: cuan 11; B: cuan 3
Jinan: A: cuã 11; B: cuã 3
Xi'an: A: cuã 11; B: cuã 3
Taiyuan: A: cuä̃ 1; B: cuä̃ 3
Hankou: A: can 11; B: can 11
Chengdu: A: cuan 11; B: cuan 11
Yangzhou: A: cuõ 11; B: cuõ 3
Suzhou: A: cö 11; B: cö 31
Wenzhou: A: cö 11; B: cö 31
Changsha: A: cõ 11; B: cõ 11
Shuangfeng: A: cuã 11; B: cuã 31
Nanchang: A: cɔn 11; B: cɔn 31
Meixian: A: cɔn 3; B: cɔn 3
Guangzhou: A: čyn 11; B: čyn 31
Xiamen: A: cuan 31; B: cuan 31
Chaozhou: A: cɨŋ 31; B: cɨŋ 31
Fuzhou: A: cauŋ 31; B: cauŋ 31
Shanghai: A: cö 3; B: cö 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: con 1; B: con 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *siHi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 wedge 2 iron skewer, spit 3 frayed thread, lint 4 point 4 icicle 5 iron bar with a point
Bizkaian: burdun-tzi 2, burrun-tzi 2, al-tzi 3, bur-tzi 5, (Txorierri) zii 1, zi 4
Gipuzkoan: burdun-tzi 2, (Goierri) al-tzi 3, (Berastegi, Gaintza) burrun-tzi 4
Comments: Contra Michelena (1961: 346, 413), who cited Bsq zihi as a variant of ziri, in this analysis *siHi is etymologically distinct from *siri / *sil- 'peg, wedge', etc., *siHi 'rush, reed', and *sini 'acorn' (q.v.). For compound elements see *burdina 'iron',*ha[l]i 'thread'. The Bsq word could have been *sinHi, but there is no evidence in this case from dialects with nasal vowels (ZBR, RNC).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-comments,

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