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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ēr_- (*-d_-)
Meaning : male
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ēr_-
Brahui : arē (pl. arisk)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ēr_-
Meaning : bull, male
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : ēr_u
Tamil meaning : bull, male of certain animals (pig, deer, buffalo, sambar, tiger, lion)
Tamil derivates : ēr_r_ai, (lex.) ēṭṭai male of any animal remarkable for physical strength
Malayalam : ēr_u
Malayalam meaning : bullock
Malayalam derivates : ēr_an bull
Proto-Nilgiri : *ēr_ä
Number in DED : 0917
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ēr_ä
Meaning : male buffalo, bull
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ēr
Toda : ēr_
Additional forms : Also Kota tir ēr buffalo calf at Toda calf sacrifice
Number in DED : 917
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : arē (pl. arisk)
Meaning : male individual, person, husband
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 917
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔarV
Meaning: member of the clan
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ar(y)- <PIH *a->
Altaic: *ā́ri ( ~ *ḗra)
Uralic: *arV (*arwa)
Dravidian: *ēr_- (*-d_-)
References: ND 67 *ʔarV; 781 *he(y)r[E] 'male' (hardly separatable) (in 1881 *q[ä]rV 'ox' Drav. is compared with Kartv. *qar- 'bull, ox' and some East Cush.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ar(y)- <PIH *a->
Meaning: master
Hittite: arawa- 'frei', Lyk. arawã 'abgabenfrei' (Tischler 53-55 is doubtful)
Old Indian: árya-, aryá- m. `master, lord', ā́rya- `Arian'
Avestan: airyō 'arisch'
Other Iranian: OPers ariya- 'arisch'
Celtic: Gaul Ario-manus; Ir aire, gen. airech gl. `primas'
Russ. meaning: господин; "ариец"
References: WP I 80
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ā́ri ( ~ *ḗra)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: man
Russian meaning: мужчина
Turkic: *ēr
Mongolian: *ere
Comments: KW 123, Владимирцов 324, Poppe 79, 106, Цинциус 1972a, 45-49, ОСНЯ 1, 247, АПиПЯЯ 54, 283. A well known Turk.-Mong. isogloss. Borrowing in Mong. from Turk. (see TMN 2, 179, Щербак 1997, 115) is quite improbable because of the final vowel. Cf. *i̯òre.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ēr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: man
Russian meaning: мужчина
Old Turkic: er (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: er (MK, KB)
Turkish: er
Tatar: ir
Middle Turkic: er (Pav. C.)
Uighur: är
Sary-Yughur: jer
Azerbaidzhan: är 'husband'
Turkmen: ǟr
Khakassian: ir
Shor: er
Oyrat: er
Halaj: här
Chuvash: ar
Yakut: er
Dolgan: er
Tuva: er
Bashkir: ir
Balkar: er
Karaim: er
Karakalpak: er adam
Salar: er
Kumyk: er
Comments: VEWT 46, TMN 2, 178-9, EDT 192, ЭСТЯ 1, 290-291, Лексика 303, 561, Егоров 30, Stachowski 46, 128.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ere
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: male, man
Russian meaning: мужчина
Written Mongolian: ere (L 321)
Middle Mongolian: ere (HY 29, SH), ärä (IM), irä̆ (MA)
Khalkha: er
Buriat: ere
Kalmuck: erǝ
Ordos: ere
Dongxian: ere
Baoan: ere
Dagur: er, ergun (Тод. Даг. 140) ere (MD, 145)
Shary-Yoghur: ere
Monguor: 'mâle non châtré de certains animaux, masculin' (SM 313)
Mogol: ZM errä (9-6a)
Comments: KW 123, MGCD 264.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1745
Proto: *arV (*arwa)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: relative on mother's side; (younger) brother of mother
German meaning: mütterlicher Verwandter; (jüngerer) Bruder der Mutter
Khanty (Ostyak): oĺi (V Vj.), orti (O), wǫrtĭ (Kaz.) 'Neffe, Sohn des Bruders (od. der Schwester), jüngerer Bruder der Mutter etc.', oĺisakǝn (Vj.) 'Mutterbruder und Kind seiner älteren Schwester zusammen', oĺisat 'Mutterbruder und Kinder seiner älteren Schwester zusammen', i̮ĺt́i̮ (Vj.), åл́t́ (Trj.), ɔr`ne (Kaz.) 'Tochter der älteren Schwester (des Vaters), Tochter des älteren Bruders des Mannes etc.', ar`sǝχ (O) 'Kind der älteren Schwester, Kind der Schwester des Vaters', ɔrtĭweŋ (Kaz.) 'Mann der Tochter der älteren Schwester etc.'
Mansi (Vogul): oår (LM), ā̊r (N) 'mütterlicherseits verwandt', or 'сородичи по материнской линии, предки по матери', jäɣnor ōr-nor (K) 'родительская досада'
Hungarian: ara 'Braut; (altung.) Bruder der Mutter od. der Schwester; Schwiegertochter'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVRV
Meaning : clan member
Eurasiatic : *ʔarV
Afroasiatic : *ʔary-
Sino-Caucasian : *ʡwǝ̆hri ( ~ -e)
Reference : ND 67; GE 15 *ar (+ NS; various diff. SC and Nostr.).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔa-rway-
Meaning: husband, wife; family/clan member
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔary- 'family member, relative'
Egyptian: ỉry.t 'friend (fem.)' (old)
East Chadic: *rway- 'friend' 1, 'husband' 2
Beḍauye (Beja): reero 'relative' (cf. ʔoor 'child')
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ʔar- 'husband'
Low East Cushitic: *ʔarr- ~ *rēr- 'wife' 1, 'clan' 2
High East Cushitic: *ʔarʔ- 'husband'
Omotic: *ʔar- 'husband'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-ech,afaset-bed,afaset-agw,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-omo,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1425
Proto-Semitic: *ʔary-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'family member, relative'
Akkadian: āru 'young man' OAkk
Ugaritic: ʔary
Arabic: ʔarā-
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-ara,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: ỉry.t
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'friend (fem.)' (old)
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *rway-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'friend' 1, 'husband' 2
Dangla: ròyà 1 [Fd]
Mubi: rò 2 [CLR: 201]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-dng,echet-mub,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: reero
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'relative'
Notes: ʔoor 'child'
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *ʔar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'husband'
Awiya (Aungi): ŋ-ära
Notes: Prefix ŋ- ?
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-aun,agwet-notes,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *ʔarr- ~ *rēr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'wife' 1, 'clan' 2
Somali: oori 1, reer 2
Rendille: arrari 2
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-rnd,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *ʔarʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'husband'
Sidamo: aroo
Darasa (Gedeo): aroʔo
Hadiya (Gudella): aróʔo
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-sid,hecet-dar,hecet-had,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *ʔar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'husband'
Anfillo (Southern Mao): aroo
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-anf,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʡwǝ̆hri ( ~ -e)
Meaning: army; enemy
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʡwǝ̆hri ( ~ -e)
Sino-Tibetan: *rāH
Yenisseian: *ha(ʔ)r-
Burushaski: *hol
Basque: *her̄i
Comments and references : HGC 34, BCD 31.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʡwǝ̆hri ( ~ -e)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: troops, army
Proto-Nakh: *bʡo
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔin-ħʷa
Proto-Tsezian: *ħɔz:ʷ B
Proto-Lak: aIra-l
Proto-West Caucasian: *ŕǝ
Notes: An interesting cultural term, securely reconstructed for PNC. There exist also HU parallels: Hurr. χūr-adǝ, Ur. χur-adǝ, χūr-adǝ 'warrior' (see Diakonoff-Starostin 1986, 63-64).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *bʡo
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: troops, army
Chechen: bʕo
Ingush: bʕu
Batsbi: bʕö (Matsiyev)
Comments: 5th class in Chech., 5/6th class in Ing., 6th class in Bacb. Obl. base *bʡa- (cf. Chech. dat. bʕa-na, Ing. erg. bʕe-wo). Cf. also a suffixed form in Bacb.: Bacb. buħ ( < *bʕo-ħu) 'war, quarrel'.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔin-ħʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: army, troops
Avar: bo
Chadakolob: bo
Andian language: iha
Akhvakh: ĩho
Chamalal: iha
Tindi: iha
Comments: Av. paradigm A (bo-l / bó-dul, bó-jal). The detailed meaning in Avar is "people; community (from several villages); army, troops". The PA form has a prefixed *ʔin- (as in some other cases of laryngeal Anlaut).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ħɔz:ʷ B
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: troops, army
Tsezi: oz
Ginukh: üz
Khvarshi: ezʷ
Inkhokvari: ez
Bezhta: haz
Gunzib: haz
Comments: PTsKh *ʔözʷ; PGB *haz (*-a- is not quite regular here: one would expect PGB *hɔz and Gunz. hɔz). The PTs form is originally an oblique base *ħɔ(r)-z:ʷV-, early reinterpreted as the direct one (cf. analogous cases in words for 'eye' and 'bone' - all of the direct bases ending in PTs *-r).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: aIra-l
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: army, troops
Lak form: aIral
Comments: An old plural form. The original suffixless form is reflected in Arch. aIri 'army', an old Laki loanword.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ŕǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: army, troups
Abkhaz: á-r
Abaza:
Adyghe: ʒa
Kabardian: ʒa
Ubykh: La
Comments: PAT *rǝ; PAK *ʒa; Ub. def. á-La. The correspondence PAT *r : PAK *ʒ : Ub. *L points to palatalized *ŕ in PWC. Because of this reconstruction, Charaya's (1912) comparison of the WC forms with Georg. eri 'people, nation' seems possible (despite Shagirov 1).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *rāH
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: enemy, captive, war
Chinese: *r_āʔ captive.
Tibetan: dgra enemy, foe, ãgras to hate, ãgran to fight; to vie with, contend with.
Comments: Coblin 72.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: lǔ
Preclassic Old Chinese: r(h)āʔ
Classic Old Chinese: r(h)ā́
Western Han Chinese: r(h)ā́
Eastern Han Chinese: r(h)ā́
Early Postclassic Chinese: l(h)ṓ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: l(h)ṓ
Late Postclassic Chinese: l(h)ṓ
Middle Chinese: ló
English meaning : captive, prisoner
Russian meaning[s]: 1) пленник, пленный; 2) брать в плен; похитить; поймать; арестовать, см. 擄; 3) древн. раб
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 141
Four-angle index: 4738
Karlgren code: 0069 e
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *har-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: Arin; slave, servant
Kottish: arɨn-gɨt (Бол.) 'slave'; harangat (M), haranget (Сл, Кл); Ass. xáranget (Сл, Кл) 'servant'
Arin: ar (M), ara (M, Мес.) 'Arin'
Comments: ССЕ 230. The self-denomination of the Arins, probably originally meaning 'warrior' (cf. the external evidence), and with a characteristic semantic transition 'Arin' > 'slave' in Kottish - apparently reflecting intertribal relations between Yenisseians. Werner 1, 57 (doubting the comparison without additional arguments).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *hol
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: army, troups
Yasin: hol
Hunza: hol
Nagar: hol
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *her̄i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: people, population, nation, country
Bizkaian: erri
Gipuzkoan: erri
High Navarrese: erri
Low Navarrese: herri
Lapurdian: herri
Zuberoan: hérri
Roncalese: erri
Comments: From the probable PSC original meaning Bsq *her̄i has become broader (‘people, nation’ + the land they occupy), while PNC *ʡwǝ̆hri is more restricted (‘part of the people who fight in war’).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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