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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ā-/*an-
Meaning : to be
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ā-, *ā-g-
Proto-Telugu : *a-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ā-/*an-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ā-
Brahui : ann-ing
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ā-, *ā-g-
Meaning : to be
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Stems:
Tamil : ā (ān_-, āyi-), āku (āki-)
Tamil meaning : to come into existence, happen, be, be fit, agreeable, be like, equal
Tamil derivates : ā becoming; ā (-pp-, -tt-) to cause, bring about; ākku (ākki-) to effect, make, cause to be, create, arrange; n. creation; ākkam creation, increase, prosperity; ākkan_ that which is artificial; ākkiyōn_ creator, author of a book; ākkum perhaps, indeed; āka completely, in that fashion; adverbial suffix; ām yes, so, expressing assent, recollection (< ākum); ākātu no
Malayalam : ākuka
Malayalam meaning : to be that, become that, be what it ought to be, be right, be possible
Malayalam derivates : ākkuka to make to be that; place, put, employ; ākkikka to cause to make; ākkam what one puts, contentment, strength, continuance; āka altogether, being, so as to be; ākum it will be thus, just so; ām id., interj. of agreeing
Kannada : āgu (ān-, āy-, etc.), agu
Kannada meaning : (rare) to come into existence, happen, become, prove to be, be, etc.; n. becoming, coming to pass
Kannada derivates : āgisu to cause to become, bring about, perform; āguvike, āguha becoming, happening, etc.; -āgi adverbial suffix; āṃ interj. of assent of reconciliation
Kodagu : āg-
Kodagu meaning : (irregular with stems āy-, ān, ā-) to become
Kodagu derivates : āku yes, all right; āk- (āki-) to make to stay in a place; aynɨ (? āynɨ) genuine, true; aynɨ mane central house of family
Tulu : āpini
Tulu meaning : (irregular forms, including 2 sg. neut. past āṇḍụ) to be, become, grow, happen, occur, fit, suit, be possible, be related to
Tulu derivates : āvu it may be or may happen; yes
Proto-Nilgiri : *ā-
Number in DED : 0333
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-stems,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ā-
Meaning : to become, be agreeable, be of use, menstruate
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : āg- (āy-/ān-; some forms from ā-; gerunds āṛy, āṭy)
Toda : ōx- (irregular with stems ōy-, ōn-, ō-)
Additional forms : Also Kota āk- (āyk-) to make to become, construct (plough); ākc- (ākc-) to make to become, prepare; Toda ōk- (ōky-) to place; ọ̄, ọ̄ ọ̄, ọ̄họ̄ yes
Number in DED : 333
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *a-
Meaning : (ayi having become; allomorph kā-) to be, become, prove to be, be done, be fit, be agreeable; adj. which is
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : agu
Dialectal forms (1) : avu
Additional forms : Also ayite possible, which may be or can be done, convenient; n. possibility, convenience; ayina which is or has become, agreeable, suitable; avunu yes; kāni bad, wrong; kādu no; -gā adverbial suffix; kāvincu to do, make, perform, produce, cause to be done
Number in DED : 333
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *ā-/*an-
Meaning : to be
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : an- (irregular; past anḍ-; imper. ān) "to be in a place, be so-and-so"
Naikri : anḍ-
Naiki : an- (anḍ-)
Additional forms : Also Kolami a- allomorph of er- (edd-) to become; āp- (āpt-) to keep in a place, entrust; Naikri āp- to keep; akk- to make, do
Number in DED : 333
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *ā-
Meaning : to be
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *ā-
Konda : ā- (āt-, ān-)
Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ā-
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ā-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-pem,gndet-kui,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *ā-
Meaning : to be
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : aiānā "(irregular: 3 sg. impf. ānd-; some forms from stem ā-) to be"
Additional forms : Most dialects have ā-
Number in DED : 333
Number in CVOTGD : 115
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : ā- (āt-, ān-)
Meaning: to be, become
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 333
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Pengo-Manda etymology :

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Proto-Pengo-Manda : *ā-
Meaning : to be, become
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Pengo : ā- (āt-)
Manda : ā- (āt-)
Number in DED : 333
pemet-meaning,pemet-prnum,pemet-pengo,pemet-manda,pemet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ā-
Meaning : to be
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : āva (āt-) "to become, be, happen, be sufficient, finished"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : aiyali "to be, become"
Kuwi (Schulze) : ānai "to occur"
Sunkarametta Kuwi : ā (āt-) "to become, be"
Parja Kuwi : ā (āt-) "to become, be"
Kuwi (Israel) : ā (āt-) "to become, be"
Additional forms : Also Kui āpka (āpki-) pl. action; ā, āngo yes
Number in DED : 333
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_su,kuiet-kuwi_p,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-addition,kuiet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : ann-ing
Meaning : to be (stems an-, ar-, as- a-)
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 333
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔa ?
Meaning: to be
Borean: Borean
Altaic: Mong. *a- ?
Dravidian: *ā-/*an-
References: ND 2 *ʔa, 107 *ʕ/ʔaʔV (the roots are hardly different).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HV
Meaning : to be
Eurasiatic : *ʔa ?
Afroasiatic : Berb. *iha (in afaset < *h(w)y), ? Eg., Sem. *-a
Sino-Caucasian : *ʔa
Reference : ND 2, 107.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʔa
Meaning: to be
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=a / =i
Sino-Tibetan: *ʔă (~ɣ-)
Yenisseian: *ʔa
Burushaski: *b-á-
Comments and references : NSC 54 *ʔa(HV).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=a / =i
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (an auxiliary verb)
Proto-Nakh: *=u / =a
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *-i
Proto-Lak: =u- / =i-
Proto-Dargwa: *=u
Proto-Lezghian: *ʔa / ʔi
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The stems *=a and *=i probably demonstrate the aspectual Ablaut *a/*i.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=u / =a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be, is (an auxiliary verb)
Chechen: =u
Ingush: =a
Batsbi: =a
Comments: The auxiliary verb "to be", used only in the present tense. The -u-vocalism in Chech. is probably secondary (*u_-i > *w-u in the first class, whereas *-i > -a in other classes).
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (auxiliary verb)
Andian language: i
Akhvakh: g-i-di
Chamalal: i-da
Tindi: i-ja
Botlikh: i-ra
Bagvalal: i-da
Comments: In most Andian languages this auxiliary verb is prefixless; the only exception is Akhvakh, where class markers are inserted between g- and the root (1st cl. gudi, 2d class gidi etc.).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *-i
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (auxiliary verb)
Bezhta: -i / -j
Comments: Enclitic auxiliary, used only in present and lost everywhere except Bezht.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: =u- / =i-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (auxiliary verb)
Lak form: =u-r, =i-ja
Comments: The form =u- is used in present tense (*u_=i-r > ur, with a further transfer of the -u-vocalism to other forms); =i- (=ija) is used in the past tense.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=u
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (auxiliary verb)
Chiragh: =u
Comments: Used only in the present tense.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʔa / ʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be (an auxiliary verb)
Lezghian: ja
Tabasaran: wu, a
Agul: i, a
Rutul: =iʔ-, a
Tsakhur: wo=, a=
Kryz: =i, ʕä-
Budukh: wi, =eʕ-
Archi: =i, e=
Udi: b-u
Comment: In Lezg. the root -a is also used with preverbs (aw-a, al-a, gal-a, gʷ-a etc.). The two stems (*ʔa and *ʔi; *i sometimes changes to u due to the labialising influence of some class prefixes) are opposed in most languages, but it is difficult to separate them from each other. In some cases they are opposed in tense/aspect (e.g. in Archi), but in most cases *ʔa tends to mean 'to be (available), to have', while *ʔi is a simple verb of existence. The original difference must have been aspectual, and the two stems were probably connected by a usual Ablaut *a / *i.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʔă (~ɣ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to be in, in, at
Chinese: *ʔa to be in, in, at etc.
Burmese: ah marker of an object.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: yú
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʔā
Classic Old Chinese: ʔā
Western Han Chinese: ʔā
Eastern Han Chinese: ʔā
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʔō
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʔō
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʔō
Middle Chinese: ʔo
English meaning : oh!
Russian meaning[s]: 1) с ним; в нем; им; из этого; показатель непереходности предшествующего действия, универсальный предлог в вэньяне, вводящий косвенное дополнение, обозначающее а) местонахождение; б) сферу действия; в) время; г) направление; д) достижение (места); е) исход; ж) действующее лицо в конструкциях пассива; з) сравнение; и) отношение; к) орудие действия; 2) в обстоятельствах времени и места (и соответствующих придаточных предложениях) служит началом соответствующей конструкции, обычно заканчивающейся послелогом места или времени; 3) после 之: отношение к...; 4) древн. быть, вм. 為; 5) древн. быть подобным, вм. 如; 6) древн. начальная восклицательная частица эй!; 7) Юй (фамилия); [wū] стар. междометие, восклицание, вм.
Comments: The character is also widely used for OC *ʔa, MC ʔö (FQ 央居), Mand. yú (2d tone under the influence of a synonymic 于 *wa q.v.), Viet. o`', Go o, Kan yo 'to be in, on, from etc.'. Viet. ồ and o`' are both colloquial readings (ồ is of course onomatopoeic and need not necessarily be borrowed from Chinese); standard Sino-Viet. forms are ô (for MC ʔo) and u' (for MC ʔö).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 70
Four-angle index: 8760
Karlgren code: 0061 e-f
Go-on: u
Kan-on: wo
Japanese reading: o;yo;u;oite;oru;okeru;yori;aa
Vietnamese reading: ồ, ô
Shijing occurrences: 42.1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-viet,bigchina-shijing,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *b-a-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: to be, exist
Yasin: bá-
Hunza: bá-
Nagar: bá-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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