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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *d(e)ʡeχk (̃-ḳ)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Chechen: däʕaχk
Ingush: ṭeχk
Comments: 4th class in Chech., Ing. Cf. also Kharach. deʕaχk, Pharch. ṭeχk.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ɦreƛ̣_wĕ (~-ĭ)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Proto-Nakh: *d(e)ʡeχk (̃-ḳ)
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *roƛ̣:i
Proto-Tsezian: *ƛʷɨrV B
Proto-Lak: t:arḳ
Proto-Dargwa: *derɣ
Proto-Lezghian: *jirƛ̣:
Proto-Khinalug: inḳ
Proto-West Caucasian: *Ł́ʷa
Notes: A good common NC root with regular phonetic correspondences. See Trubetzkoy 1922, 241. Abdokov (1982, 82) compares the EC root (with a lot of confusion among EC reflexes) with WC *bǝ̃źʷa 'horn' - which is quite impossible for phonetic reasons.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *roƛ̣:i
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Avar: raƛ̣:á
Chadakolob: raƛ̣a
Andian language: roƛ̣:i
Akhvakh: raƛ̣:i
Chamalal: jaƛ̣:il
Tindi: raƛ̣:i
Karata: raƛ̣:e
Botlikh: raƛ̣:ir
Bagvalal: raƛ̣:
Godoberi: raƛ̣:in
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *ƛʷɨrV B
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Tsezi: ƛuza
Ginukh: ƛužej
Khvarshi: ƛazal
Inkhokvari: ƛozol
Bezhta: ƛörä
Gunzib: ƛora
Comments: PTsKh *ƛʷǝza, obl. *ƛʷǝzǝ-RV-, PGB *ƛora. In PTs the oblique base must have been *ƛʷɨrV-z:a-, whence, with metathesis, *ƛʷɨz:Vra- (> PTsKh *ƛʷǝzǝ-RV-; the PTsKh direct base *ƛʷǝza is a secondary analogous building).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: t:arḳ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Lak form: t:arḳ
Comments: 4th class. Obl. base t:urč̣a-.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *derɣ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Chiragh: derg / derɣ
Comments: Isolated in Chir., but very archaic.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *jirƛ̣:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Tabasaran: jirk:i (Düb.)
Agul: irk:
Udi: uq:Iejn
Comment: Cf. also Ag. Bursh. jirk:. Obl. vowel base unknown.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: inḳ
North Caucasian etymology: 129
Meaning: bone
Khinalug form: inḳ
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *Ł́ʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 rib 2 side 3 (preverb) by side of
Abkhaz: á-va-ra 2
Abaza: ʒa-rta 2
Adyghe: cā-ɣa 1
Kabardian: ʒā-ža 1
Ubykh: ʒa- 3
Comments: PAT *ǯʷa in compounds *ǯʷa-rV(-ta) 'side' (Abkh. á-va-ra, Abaz. ʒa-rta), *ǯʷa-c̣ǝs 'rib' (Abkh. a-va-c̣ǝ́s, Abaz. ʒa-c̣ǝ́s); the morpheme *ǯʷa is also used as a preverb 'side, by side of' ( = Ub. ʒa-). PAK *-Ła in a compound *c:a-Łá 'rib(s)' (*c:a- 'tooth, sharp edge'). The correspondence PAK *Ł (Ad. ɣ, Kab. ž) :PAT *ǯʷ (Abkh. v, Abaz. ʒ) : Ub. ʒ points only to PWC *Ł́ʷ. The original meaning "rib" is preserved in PAT and PAK compounds.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ɦréƛ̣wĕ
Meaning: bone, rib
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ɦreƛ̣_wĕ (~-ĭ)
Sino-Tibetan: *rāŋ / *rāk
Yenisseian: *ʔu(ʔ)ĺaʒ
Comments and references : HGC 18. PST (and PY) may also correspond to PNC *ƛ̣ōrǝ̄ (/*rōƛ̣ǝ̄) 'hand, hand-bone' (see LV D11).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *rāŋ / *rāk
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bone
Chinese: *krāk bone (of animal), 胻 *g_rāŋ shinbone [since Han].
Burmese: khraŋ bone.
Kachin: (H) nraŋ bone (but cf. nra1 id., see *răH).
Comments: BG: Garo greŋ, Dimasa gĕ-reŋ; Moshang a-rã, Namsangia a-rāh. Sh. 433.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: gé
Preclassic Old Chinese: krāk
Classic Old Chinese: krāk
Western Han Chinese: krāk
Eastern Han Chinese: krāk
Early Postclassic Chinese: kẹ̄k
Middle Postclassic Chinese: kẹ̄k
Late Postclassic Chinese: kẹ̄k
Middle Chinese: kạ̈ik
English meaning : bone (of an animal)
Russian meaning[s]: 1) кости, скелет (особенно животных); 2) рука, см.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 188
Four-angle index: 1397
Karlgren code: 0766 |c ́
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔuĺaʒ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: rib
Ket: uĺet6, pl. uĺerǝŋ5 (Bak., Sur. uĺedǝŋ5)
Yug: uĺat5,6, pl. uĺadiŋ5
Kottish: ulái, pl. ulajaŋ (cf. also ulai "by the side of", ulār 'side')
Comments: ССЕ 200-201. As in several other cases, the stem contains a body part suffix -Vʒ. The original meaning is definitely "bone of the side" ( = "rib"), cf. the semantics in Kottish. Werner's (2, 338) analysis of the word as *ugǝl-aʔt (in our reconstruction would be *ʔuʔul-aʔd) "smooth bone" is quite unlikely - both for semantic (a highly improbable development "smooth bone" > "rib") and phonetic reasons: Kott. ulai can only go back to *ʔuĺaʒ, and never - to *ʔuĺad. Non-initial *-d- yields Kott. -r-, as shown (definitively) in КС 148 - including the very root for "bone" PY *ʔaʔd (q.v.), reflected in Kottish as araŋ 'limb'. We do in fact have a Kottish formation ulār - but it means only "side" and thus can in no way be derived from "smooth bone", being rather another old derivative from the primary root *ʔuĺ- "bone (of the side)".
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : RVLV
Meaning : bone, rib
Sino-Caucasian : *ɦréƛ̣wĕ
Notes : So far found only in SC.
globet-meaning,globet-scc,globet-notes,

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