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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *bǝźA
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 tongue 2 language
Abkhaz: á-bz 1
Abaza: bzǝ 1
Adyghe: bza 2
Kabardian: bza 2
Ubykh: bźa 1
Comments: PAT *bǝzǝ (cf. also Bz. á-bz). PAK *bza 'language'; in the meaning 'tongue' PAK employed a compound *bza-gʷǝ́ (lit. 'tongue's center') > Ad. bzagʷǝ, Kab. bzagʷ. In Ub. the variants bźa and bza coexist, the latter being obviously loaned from AK.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *mĕlc̣_ĭ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Proto-Nakh: *moṭṭ
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *mic̣:i
Proto-Tsezian: *mɨc A
Proto-Lak: maz
Proto-Dargwa: *mec:/*lec:mi
Proto-Lezghian: *melc:
Proto-Khinalug: mic̣
Proto-West Caucasian: *bǝźA
Notes: A common NC root with perfect correspondences. See Trubetzkoy 1930, 277; Abdokov 1983, 78.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *moṭṭ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Chechen: mott
Ingush: mott
Batsbi: moṭṭ
Comments: Obl. base *maṭṭi- (cf. Chech. metta-, Ing. metto). 6th class in all languages.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *mic̣:i
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Avar: mac̣:
Chadakolob: mac̣
Andian language: mic̣:i
Akhvakh: mic̣:i
Chamalal: miṣ
Tindi: mic:i
Karata: mac̣:i
Botlikh: mic̣:i
Bagvalal: mic̣:
Godoberi: mic:i
Comments: Av. paradigm C (mac̣:álzul/mac̣:í-l, mác̣:a-l). Not quite clear is the -a- vowel in Kar. (cf. also Masht., Chab. marc̣:i - with preservation of the old Inlaut resonant?).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *mɨc A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Tsezi: mec
Ginukh: mec
Khvarshi: mec
Inkhokvari: mɨc
Bezhta: mic
Gunzib: mɨc
Comments: PTsKh *mɨc; PGB *mɨc.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: maz
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Lak form: maz
Comments: 3d class.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *mec:/*lec:mi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Akusha: lezmi, mez
Chiragh: mec:
Comments: The Darg. dialects reflect two forms: *mec: and *lec:mi/*lemc:i which are obviously old dialectal variations of a single stem *melc:(i) (regularly > *mec:; with metathesis > *lec:mi/*lemc:i). Cf., on one hand, Chir. mec:, Ak. mez, Ur. miʒ, Gapsh. mec; on the other - Ak. lezmi, Kad. limzi, Mek. liʒmi, Sirg. liʒme, Kait. luc:umi, Kharb., Tsud. limc:i. In some dialects the two forms coexist (cf. the Ak. situation, and also Kub. muc:ul / mic, Tsud. limc:i / mec). This all is due to intensive dialectal mixture within Darg. (see also notes to *lāmV 'lick').
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *melc:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Lezghian: mez
Tabasaran: melz
Agul: mez
Rutul: miz
Tsakhur: miz
Kryz: mez
Budukh: mez
Archi: mac
Udi: muz
Comment: Oblique base *melc:e-, cf. Lezg. mec:i-, Rut. mizi-, Tsakh. mize-. 3d class in all class-distinguishing languages.

    See Бокарев 1961, 59; Лексика 1971, 127; Гигинейшвили 1977, 70, 84; Талибов 1980, 293.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: mic̣
North Caucasian etymology: 102
Meaning: tongue
Khinalug form: mic̣
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *mĕ́ɫc̣ĭ
Meaning: tongue
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *mĕlc̣_ĭ
Sino-Tibetan: *lăj(H) ( / *lăt; m-)
Burushaski: *-júmus (?*juŋus)
Basque: *minhi
Comments and references : HGC 23, LV A18.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *lăj(H) ( / *lăt; m-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Chinese: *lajʔ (~-eʔ) to lick; 舌 *lat tongue.
Tibetan: lće tongue; blade; flame.
Burmese: hlja tongue, LB *s-lja.
Kachin: šiŋlet2 the tongue, (H) lai id.
Lushai: lei tongue, KC *m-lei.
Lepcha: lí, a-lí the tongue
Comments: PG *lè; Mikir de; BG: Garo sre, Dimasa salai; Namsangia thali; Kham sē; Kanauri le; Rgyarung smi; Rawang phǝlɛ, Trung 3-lăi2; Vayu li; Newari me ~ mye. Sh. 40, 121, 124, 136, 166, 434; Ben. 64.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: shì
Preclassic Old Chinese: lajʔ (~ -eʔ)
Classic Old Chinese: láj
Western Han Chinese: láj
Eastern Han Chinese: źáj
Early Postclassic Chinese: źáj
Middle Postclassic Chinese: źáj
Late Postclassic Chinese: źáj
Middle Chinese: źé
English meaning : to lick
Russian meaning[s]: лизать, вылизывать
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 135
Four-angle index: 6686
Karlgren code: 0867 f
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-júmus (?*juŋus)
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: tongue
Yasin: -júŋus
Hunza: -úmus
Nagar: -úmus
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *minhi
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tongue
Bizkaian: min, miiñ, miñ, (arc) mĩi, mĩ
Gipuzkoan: mii, mi, min-gain
High Navarrese: mi, mĩ
Low Navarrese: mihi
Salazarese: mi
Lapurdian: mihi
Baztanese: min-gain
Aezkoan: mi
Zuberoan: mihi [mĩhĩ]
Roncalese: mĩ, mi
Comments: Trask (1995, 1999) reiterates Michelena's reconstruction *bini 'tongue', though Jacobsen (1995) suggests instead *mini. However we think *bini or *mini (without *h) cannot account for the attested BNV forms such as [mixja] 'the tongue' with strong fricative (Moutard 1975). See the note to *bihi. The original sibilant remains in BZK GIP mizto (*mis-to) 'sting (of bees or snakes)', lit. 'little tongue' (see Michelena 1961: 186), and *minco (assim. < *milso) 'word, speech'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : MVLCV
Meaning : tongue, lick
Sino-Caucasian : *mĕ́lc̣ĭ
Austric : PAA *lɛ:t 'lick'
Amerind (misc.) : *lat (? *mVlat) 'tongue' (R 770)
African (misc.) : Cf. Bantu *-mèd- 'swallow'?
globet-meaning,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *lVt
Meaning: lick
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *lɛ:t
Austroasiatic meaning: to lick
Munda parallels: M leṭʔe to nibble grain
Miao-Yao parallels: MY *Nbljet tongue
Proto-Austronesian: *zilat (not in B)
Austronesian meaning: lick
References: Ja 66, Peiros 1998, 157 (also comparing Khm. kǝnlaǝt 'uvula'), 162, Schmidt 1906, N 178.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-mun,austr-myao,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-bibl,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *lɛ:t
Meaning: to lick
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: EK *lɛ:t
Proto-Bahnaric: *l<ǝNp>iat
Proto-Palaungic: PaWa *lɛt
Proto-Khmu: *lɛ:t
References: Kh 776
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,aaet-bib,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *lɛ:t
Meaning: to lick
Presyllable: pǝ- / tǝ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: BRU liǝt.B < BAH?
Proto-East Katuic: *lɛ:t
References: P-294
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

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West Katuic etymology :

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Proto-West Katuic:
Meaning: to lick
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru: liǝt.B
Bru meaning: to lick
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,

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East Katuic etymology :

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Proto-East Katuic: *lɛ:t
Meaning: to lick
Presyllable: pǝ- / tǝ-
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: plɛ:t
Pakoh meaning: to stick tongue in and out
Lao Katu: talɛ:t
Lao Katu meaning: to put the tongue out
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-lka,ekatet-lkame,

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Bahnar etymology :

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Proto-Bahnaric: *l<ǝNp>iat
Meaning: tongue
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Bahnar: rǝpiet
Bahnar meaning: tongue
Proto-North Bahnaric: *piat.T, rǝ-
Proto-South Bahnaric: *piǝt, lǝ-
Proto-West Bahnaric: *piǝt, lǝN-
Proto-Northwest-Bahnaric: *piat, hǝN-
Harak: mpiat (A)
References: PNB-228, JS-251, TB5.55
banet-meaning,banet-prpr,banet-prnum,banet-bah,banet-bahme,banet-nob,banet-sob,banet-web,banet-nwb,banet-har,banet-refer,

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North Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-North-Bahnaric: *piat.T, rǝ-
Meaning: tongue
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Rengao form: rǝpet.T
Rengao meaning: tongue
Jeh form: rǝpiat.T
Jeh meaning: tongue
Sedang form: rǝpe.L, rǝpie.L
Sedang meaning: tongue
Hre form: pupɛt.T
Hre meaning: tongue
Mo'dra: piʔ.T
Didra: xpiʔ.T
References: PNB-228, GS-79
nobet-meaning,nobet-prnum,nobet-ren,nobet-renme,nobet-jeh,nobet-jehme,nobet-sed,nobet-sedme,nobet-hre,nobet-hreme,nobet-modr,nobet-didr,nobet-refer,

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South Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-South Bahnaric: *piǝt, lǝN-
Meaning: tongue
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Chrau form: lǝpiet
Chrau meaning: tongue
Stieng form: lǝpiet
Stieng meaning: tongue
References: SBS-386
sobet-meaning,sobet-prnum,sobet-chr,sobet-chrme,sobet-sti,sobet-stime,sobet-refer,

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West Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-West- Bahnaric: *piǝt, lǝN-
Meaning: tongue
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Jaru form: piat
Jaru meaning: tongue
Lavi: hapiǝt
Juk: lapiǝt
Nhaheung form: piat
Nhaheung meaning: tongue
Brao form: mpiat
Brao meaning: tongue
Other WB languages: tongue
References: JS-251
webet-meaning,webet-prnum,webet-jr,webet-jrme,webet-lve,webet-jk,webet-nha,webet-nhame,webet-brao,webet-brame,webet-other,webet-refer,

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North-West Bahnaric etymology :

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Proto-North-West- Bahnaric: *piat, hǝN-
Meaning: tongue
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Tariang: hapiat, piat
Kaseng: ʔǝpiǝt
Yaeh: mpiǝt
nwbet-meaning,nwbet-prnum,nwbet-tr,nwbet-ks,nwbet-yh,

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Harak etymology :

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Proto-Harak: *piat, hǝm-
Meaning: tongue
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Alak: mpiat
haret-meaning,haret-prnum,haret-alak,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa: *lɛt
Meaning: to lick
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-Wa: *lɛt; *liak
Proto-De'ang: *liat
Riang: liɛt.2
Riang meaning: to lick
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-prwa,pawaet-prde,pawaet-riang,pawaet-rimeam,

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Wa etymology :

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Proto-Wa:
Meaning: to lick
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Paraok: lɛt.B
Paraok meaning: to lick
Wa: lɛt.B
Wa meaning: to lick
Ava: let
Lawa: lɨǝk, kh- ???
Lawa meaning: to lick
References: WW-536
prwaet-meaning,prwaet-prnum,prwaet-praok,prwaet-praokme,prwaet-meng,prwaet-mengme,prwaet-mas,prwaet-lawa,prwaet-lawame,prwaet-bib,

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De'ang etymology :

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Proto-De'ang: *liat
Meaning: to lick
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
De'ang: liat
De'ang-1: liaʔ
De'ang-2: let.1
prdeet-meaning,prdeet-prnum,prdeet-dea,prdeet-dea1,prdeet-dea3,

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