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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ʎ́A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: blood
Abkhaz: a-š́á
Abaza: š́a
Adyghe: ʎǝ
Kabardian: ʎǝ
Ubykh: ʎa
Comments: PAT *š́a, PAK *ʎǝ. Ub. def. a-ʎá.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ƛĔwnV ( ~ ʎ-, x-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: internal fat; blood
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *xʷamV ( ~ -o-)
Proto-Lezghian: *ʎ(:)VmV-
Proto-West Caucasian: *ʎ́A
Notes: The And-Lezg. name for `internal fat' seems to be a plausible phonetic match for the common WC word for `blood', although the comparison is still questionable (primarily because of scarce attestation within EC and semantic problems).

    The Botl. and God. forms can not be separated from Kar. and Bagv.; thus their separate treatment as being related to PWC *š́:ʷa 'fat, oil' (see Abdokov 1983, 85) is absolutely unacceptable.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *xʷamV ( ~ -o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: internal fat
Karata: xʷajmo
Botlikh: šamu
Bagvalal: χʷam (Leksika)
Godoberi: šamu
Comments: Cf. also Kar. Anch. xʷamu. Botl. š- is irregular (x- would be expected), so a loan from God. is not excluded.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʎ(:)VmV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: internal fat, fat crease
Tsakhur: xɨmɨl'
Comment: Attested only in Tsakh., with possible Andian parallels.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-cak,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ƛĔwŋV́
Meaning: blood, inner fat, interior organs
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ƛĔwnV ( ~ ʎ-, x-)
Sino-Tibetan: *ƛɨăŋ
Burushaski: *multán
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ƛɨăŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: heart
Chinese: *Łaŋ intestines
Lushai: luŋ heart.
Kiranti: *ḷùŋ
Comments: Mat. 184. {Some confusion with *lūm 'womb'.}
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: cháng
Preclassic Old Chinese: Łaŋ
Classic Old Chinese: Łaŋ
Western Han Chinese: laŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: źaŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: źaŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: źaŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: źaŋ
Middle Chinese: ḍaŋ
English meaning : intestines
Russian meaning[s]: 1) кишки; внутренности, утроба; 2) сердце; моральный облик
Comments: For *Ł- cf. Xiamen tŋ2, Chaozhou tŋ2, Fuzhou toŋ2, Jianou tɔŋ2.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 130
Four-angle index: 4388
Karlgren code: 0720 y
Jianchuan Bai: cõ2
Dali Bai: cou2
Bijiang Bai: ṭõ2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1697
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 宕開三平陽澄
ZIHUI: 5214 2281
Beijing: c̣haŋ 12
Jinan: c̣haŋ 12
Xi'an: c̣haŋ 12
Taiyuan: cha_̃ 1
Hankou: chaŋ 12
Chengdu: chaŋ 12
Yangzhou: châŋ 12
Suzhou: zaŋ 12
Wenzhou: ʒ́i 12
Nanchang: chɔŋ 12
Meixian: chɔŋ 12
Guangzhou: čhö_ŋ 12
Xiamen: tiɔŋ 12 (lit.); tŋ 12
Chaozhou: tɨŋ 12
Fuzhou: tuɔŋ 12
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *ḷuŋ
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: heart, liver
Sunwar: luŋgir heart (gir body)
Tulung: duŋ (AD düŋa) liver
Limbu: luŋmā liver
Dumi: lum
Kulung: luma
Yamphu: ruŋma 'stomach', ruŋmaǯuwa 'liver'
Comments: Toba 92 *lum. Cf. *hi-lum.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-sun,kiret-tul,kiret-lim,kiret-dum,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: luNma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: liver; heart
Comments: vide nɛrɛʔl; cf. -luNma himmaʔ, luNma hi:pmaʔ.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Dumi dictionary :

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Entry: lum
Kiränti etymology: Kiränti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: liver
Nepali: kalejo
Comments: cf. thɨtnɨ vt-2a (2b), tsuba.
dumet-prnum,dumet-pspeech,dumet-meaning,dumet-nepali,dumet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: luma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: liver
Nepali: kalejo.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: ruŋma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: stomach.
Nepali: peṭ
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-nepali,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *multán
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: blood
Yasin: multán
Hunza: multán
Nagar: multán
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : LVNTV
Meaning : intestines
Eurasiatic : *lVŋ(d)V
Sino-Caucasian : *ƛĔwŋV́ (cf. also *ƛwɨ̆nʔi (~-e) )
Austric : PAA *(Cǝ)luom 'liver'; *lVŋ 'stomach, soul', Yao liŋ spirit, soul; *lVŋ ' middle, inside'
Amerind (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *ƛ̊nV "liver".
Notes : ST forms with -m may be < AA.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-notes,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *lVŋ(d)V
Meaning: kidney, heart
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *lendhw-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *liŋu-
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-chuk,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *lendhw-
Meaning: kidney, waist
Slavic: *lę̄dvā, *lę̄dvo, *lę̄dvь etc.
Germanic: *lind=, *landw-iō f., *lund-i- c.
Latin: lumbus, -ī m. `Lende'
Russ. meaning: почка (анат.), поясница
References: WP II 438
piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: ля́двея
Near etymology: "ляжка", укр. лíдви, лíдвицi мн., ст.-слав. лѩдвиѩ (Еuсh. Sin.), сербохорв. лéђа мн. "спина", словен. ledǝvjè ср. р., lédjе ср. р., lédjе мн. ж. "бедра", чеш. ledví ср. р. "бедра", слвц. l᾽аdviе, польск. lędźwiе мн. ж. "поясница, крестец", в.-луж. ledźba, н.-луж. laźijo, laźwjo.
Further etymology: Родственно лат. lumbus "ляжка" (из *londhvos), д.-в.-н. lentî ж. "ляжка", др.-исл. lend, мн. lendir, с другой ступенью чередования: норв. lund ж. "бедро, ляжка"; см. И. Шмидт, Pluralb. 6; Бернекер 1, 705 и сл.; Траутман, ВSW 157; Торп 362; Вальде--Гофм. 1, 832.
Pages: 2,550
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *lind=, *landwiō, *lundi-z
Meaning: waist, loins
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: lend f. `Lende', lund f. `Lende, Nierenfett', pl. lundir `Fleisch unter dem Rückgrat'
Norwegian: lend; dial. lund f. `Hüfte, Lende'
Old Swedish: OGutn pl. lündir `Hinterbacken'
Swedish: länd; dial. lond; lünger
Old Danish: lünd
Danish: länd
Old English: pl. lendenu n. `loins, reins', pl. ge-lyndu n. `joints of the backbone', lund-laga, -a m. `rein, kidney', lynd, -e f. `grease, fat, fatness'
Old Frisian: pl. lenderna
Old Saxon: pl. lendin
Middle Dutch: lende, pl. lenden; lendine, lendene, lenden
Dutch: lende f.
Old Franconian: pl. lendin n.
Middle Low German: lende
Old High German: lintī, pl. lentin f. `Nieren, Lende' (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: lɛnde, lɛnte st./wk. f. 'lende'
German: Lende f.
Comments: NGerm *landiō > finn. lantio
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-notes,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1163
Root: lendh-2
English meaning: hip; kidney
German meaning: `Lende; Niere'
Derivatives: londh-u̯o-s ds.
Material: Lat. lumbus, älter nur Pl. lumbī `Lenden' (*londhu̯o-);

    aksl. lędvьję Pl. f. `lumbi', russ. ljádveja `Lende, Schenkel', čech. ledvi n. `Lende', ledvina `Niere';

    ahd. lẹntī f. `Niere', Pl. lentī(n) `Nieren, Lenden' (*londhu̯īn-), ags. lendenu N. Pl. `Lenden', aisl. lend f. `Lende' (ein got. *landjō wird vom finn. Lw. lantio vorausgesetzt); schwundstufig aisl. lund `Lende, Sinn, Art', ags. lendenu N. Pl. `Lenden', lund-laga `Niere', lynd f. `(*Nieren-) Fett', ahd. lunda `Talg', luntu-ssa `pectusculum'.

References: WP. II 438, WH. I 832, Trautmann 157, Specht Idg. Dekl. 86.
Pages: 675
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *liŋu-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): сердце
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *Lịŋ "
Proto-Itelmen: *'liŋ(u) "
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *Lịŋ "
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): сердце
Chukchee: ɫíŋ-liŋ "
Koryak: líŋ-liŋ " (III)
Palan: liŋ-liŋ ", -liŋ
Alutor: liŋliŋ "
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *'liŋ(u) "
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): сердце
Itelmen: liŋč (liŋč-e'n pl.)
Itelmen meaning: сердце
West Itelmen: lin-lgɨ-č, lɨn-lĺ'ɨ-č
West Itelmen meaning: cor
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): serce
South Itelmen: nuju [nujuɣu*]
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): cor
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): serce
Number in Volodin 1976: 51, 127
Stebnitsky reference: 86
Comments: Зап. камч. формы Дыбовского lin-lg-ɨč, lɨn-lĺ'ɨč отражают liŋ-lŋ-ič.
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,itelet-steb,itelet-comments,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *lVŋ
Meaning: stomach, womb
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: lVŋ
Austroasiatic meaning: stomach, soul
Miao-Yao parallels: Yao liŋ.3 spirit, soul
Proto-Austronesian: (Ache kandöng womb)
Notes: May be < ST
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-myao,austr-an,austr-notes,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: lVŋ
Meaning: stomach, soul
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: BRU kǝlâŋ.N
Khmer: brǝlɨŋ
Proto-Vietic: *lVŋ, gǝ-/#
Proto-Palaungic: An *lǝŋ, k-
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-kmr,aaet-vim,aaet-pawa,

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Katuic etymology :

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Proto-Katuic: *luŋ
Meaning: belly, stomach
Presyllable: Pǝ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Notes: BRU kǝlâŋ.N; Kantu pǝluŋ, Katu luoń, Dakkang lu:ń, Pakoh pǝlluŋ, Taoih palluŋ 'belly'.
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-notes,

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Viet-Muong etymology :

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Proto-Viet-Muong: *lVŋ, gǝ-/#
Meaning: belly
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: lòng
Phong: kluŋ.21
Arem: loŋ.B (cirâŋ.B) 'stomach'
Thavung-So: khaluŋ.1
Tum: kloŋ.21
Notes: M.Khoi tloŋ.5; Tho Mon ṭo:ŋ.34ʔ
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-pho,vimet-arem,vimet-so,vimet-tum,vimet-note,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa: *lVŋ
Meaning: stomach
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Riang: luŋ.1, k-
Riang meaning: belly, womb
Proto-Angku: *klǝŋ
pawaet-meaning,pawaet-prnum,pawaet-riang,pawaet-rimeam,pawaet-pran,

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Angku etymology :

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Proto-Angku: *klǝŋ
Meaning: belly, stomach
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
Pangpin: khlǝk.55
Shuangdiang: gu.51 khlǝk.33
Gantang: khlǝk.55
Yongde: nai.31 khlap.55
Mang'an: khrǝk.33
References: WW-264
pranet-meaning,pranet-prnum,pranet-phu,pranet-shj,pranet-ph2,pranet-yde,pranet-mnn,pranet-bib,

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