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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *č(i)al-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 turban 2 noose, lasso 3 to plait, wrap 4 to bind by throwing the rope 5 to become entangled 6 to entangle 7 band, strap 8 to bind around, wrap around 9 to plait
Russian meaning: 1 тюрбан 2 аркан, лассо 3 заплетать, заворачивать 4 связывать захлестом, наметывать 5 заплетаться 6 запутать 7 тесьма, завязка 8 обвязывать, обматывать 9 плести
Turkish: čalma 1
Tatar: čal- 4, čalma 1
Middle Turkic: čalma 1, 'flask fastened to the saddle' (Pav. C., Sangl.), 'apron' (Pav. C.)
Uzbek: čal-(mɔq) 4, čalma 1; band, facing
Uighur: čal-ma-š- 5
Azerbaidzhan: čalma 1
Turkmen: čalma 1, čal- 3, čalšɨq 'entangled (of a rope)'
Khakassian: salba (Sag.) 'лычко для метания камней'
Oyrat: čalma 2, dial. (Leb.) čalɨ- 6
Tuva: šalba 2
Tofalar: šalɨšqaq 'criss-crossing'
Kirghiz: čal- 4, čalɣɨč 7, čalma 2
Kazakh: šal- 8
Noghai: šalma 1, šaluw 7
Bashkir: salɨ- 8, salma 1
Balkar: čalma 1, čal- 9, čalman 'wattle'
Gagauz: čal- 8, čalma 1
Karaim: cal- 8, calma 1, calman 'wattle'
Karakalpak: šal- 8
Kumyk: čal- 9, čalma 1
Comments: EDT 420, VEWT 97, Лексика 395. Turk. > Mong. čalma, salma 'lasso', see TMN 4, 316-317, Щербак 1997, 163 (although the meaning 'lasso' is not widely spread in Turkic, Doerfer suggests that it may have been the original, pre-Islamic, meaning of the derivative *čal-ma). Note Chuv. čъʷlɣa- 'to entangle' - usually derived as a loanword < Tat. čulɣa- < PT *čog-la-, but in this case one would rather expect čulɣa- - so the Chuv. form may actually reflect PT *čial-. The root is attested late, but does not seem to be borrowed, or a specialized development of *čal- 'hit, chop' (as suggested in TMN).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`i̯ŏl[m]i ( ~ -e, *č`i̯ăl[m]o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to hobble, tether
Russian meaning: треножить, привязывать
Turkic: *č(i)al-, *č(i)alma
Mongolian: *čilbur
Tungus-Manchu: *čulupkī-
Comments: A Western isogloss. The medial cluster is not quite secure (perhaps one should rather reconstructed *č`i̯ŏli with different suffixes). It is interesting to mention MKor. čjǝ́mpúr 'horse's mudguards' (Nam 426) - perhaps a (somewhat distorted) loanword < Mong. čilbur.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čilbur
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: bridle
Russian meaning: уздечка
Written Mongolian: čilbuɣur, čulbuɣur (L 182)
Middle Mongolian: čilbur (HY 18, SH), čolbor (Lig.VMI), čǝlbur (MA 403)
Khalkha: culbūr
Kalmuck: culwūr
Ordos: čulbūr
Dagur: šolbur (Тод. Даг. 184)
Shary-Yoghur: čǝlbūr
Comments: KW 433-434, MGCD 581. Mong. > Oyr. čɨlbɨr etc.; > Man. čilburi, see TMN 1, 309-310, Doerfer MT 137, Rozycki 48.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čulupkī-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to hobble (a dog) 2 dog-collar
Russian meaning: 1 привязывать (собаку) 2 собачий ошейник
Evenki: čulupkī- 1, čulupkīwun 2
Even: čölipkin 1, čölipkin- 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 413.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ćolmV
Meaning: loop
Altaic: *č`i̯ŏl[m]i ( ~ -e, *č`i̯ăl[m]o)
Uralic: *ćolme
Dravidian: ? SDr *sāl- (2117) 'weaver'
References: МССНЯ 354, ОСНЯ 1, 200; ND 335 *ć̣al̄i (*ćVl̄U) 'wind, tie' ( + Chad.); ND 388 *č[ä]lV 'to plait' (Drav. + dubious FU + Chad.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 68
Proto: *ćolme
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: knot, bundle; to bind
German meaning: Knoten, Bündel; binden
Finnish: solmi (gen. solmen), solmu 'Knoten'; solmi-, solmia-, solmea-, solmua- 'Knoten machen, binden'
Estonian: sõlm (gen. sõlme) 'Knoten, Schleife, Schlinge'
Saam (Lapp): čuol'bmâ -lm- 'knot' (N), tjuol'ma; tjuol'ma- 'knüpfen, knoten' (L), tšŭŏ̯l̄ma (Ko. P) 'Knoten'; tšŭŏ̯l̄mα- 'knüpfen'
Mordovian: śulmo, śulma (E), śulma (M) 'Knoten, Bündel', śulma- (E M) 'knüpfen, binden'
Hungarian: csomó 'Knoten, Bündel; Gruppe, Haufen; Geschwür, Buckel', ? csont 'Knochen, Bein'
Sammalahti's version: *s'olmi
References: FUV; Donn. VglWb. 706; Budenz MUSz. 373; Bár.SzófSz; MSzFgrE; TESz; EtSz; Stein.FgrVok. 47
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-ugr,uralet-samm2,uralet-lit,

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