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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gẹr-tü
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: true, truth
Russian meaning: верный, правда
Old Turkic: kertü, kert-gün- 'believe' (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kertü 'oath, truth', kert-gün- 'believe' (MK, KB)
Turkish: ger-ček
Azerbaidzhan: ger-čäk
Turkmen: ger-ček
Khakassian: kirtǝ-n- 'believe'
Yakut: kirdik, kirǯik
Dolgan: kirdik
Noghai: kerti
Balkar: kerti
Gagauz: ger-ček
Karaim: kerti, ker-ček
Kumyk: gerti
Comments: VEWT 257, EDT 738, 741, ЭСТЯ 3, 28-31, Stachowski 149.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-nogx,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gĕ̀rè(bV)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: word, name, witness
Russian meaning: слово, имя, свидетельство
Turkic: *gẹr-tü
Mongolian: *gere(-ɣe)
Tungus-Manchu: *gerbǖ
Korean: *kɨ́r, *kɨ́rwǝ́r
Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ̀, *kǝ̀tǝ̀-pà
Comments: KW 134, Poppe 25, 80 (Turk.-Mong.). Cf. also Old Koguryo *kŭš (Lee reads *kɨl, Miller 1979 emends to *kŭnš, which is hardly correct).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gere(-ɣe)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: witness, agreement
Russian meaning: свидетель, свидетельство, соглашение
Written Mongolian: gere, gereči (L 378)
Middle Mongolian: gärči (IM 437), girä̆ (MA)
Khalkha: gerē, gerč
Buriat: gerē, gerše
Kalmuck: gerǝ
Ordos: gere, gereči
Baoan: ganǯǝŋ
Dagur: gerčin (Тод. Даг. 131), gerē (MD 150), gerčil
Shary-Yoghur: xur (MGCD Gor
Monguor: ganǯǝn
Comments: KW 134, MGCD 293. Mong. > Evk. gereči etc., see Doerfer MT 132, Rozycki 8.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gerbǖ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: name
Russian meaning: имя
Evenki: gerbī
Even: gerbъ
Negidal: gelbi
Spoken Manchu: gevǝ (1005, 1356)
Literary Manchu: gebu
Jurchen: ger-bu (780)
Ulcha: gelbu
Orok: gelbu
Nanai: gerb'i
Oroch: gebbi
Udighe: gegbi
Solon: gerbī
Comments: См. ТМС 1, 180-181.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kɨ́r, *kɨ́rwǝ́r
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 poetry, letter 2 to draw
Russian meaning: 1 поэзия, текст, буквы 2 рисовать, чертить
Modern Korean: kɨl 1, kɨ̄ri- 2
Middle Korean: kɨr, kɨ́r'uǝ́r 1, kɨ́rí- 2
Comments: Liu 98, 103, 104, KED 237, 247.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kǝ̀tǝ̀, *kǝ̀tǝ̀-pà
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: word, speech
Russian meaning: слово, речь
Old Japanese: koto, koto-ba
Middle Japanese: kòtò, kòtò-bà
Tokyo: kotobá
Kyoto: kótòbà
Kagoshima: kotobá
Comments: JLTT 459.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gVrVbV
Meaning: notch, sign
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gerbh-, *greibh-
Altaic: *gĕ̀rè(bV)
Uralic: Ngan. kirba 'brand'
Dravidian: *gīr_-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *kǝrp- 'speech, song'
Comments: Esk. *qaʁaja 'amulet' (?).
References: Cf. *gVrV.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gerbh-, *grebh-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to scratch, to make cuts, notches
Old Greek: lakon. griphā̂sthai = gráphein, hoi dè ksǘein kài amǘssein Hsch.; griphṓmena (Hp., Erot.); gráphō (Melos gróphō), aor. grápsai̯ `einritzen, schreiben', hom. pl. graptǘes f. `Kratzer', graphǟ́ `Ritzung, Gemälde, Schrift etc.', pl. gráphea n. `Schreibzeichen etc.', grammǟ́ `Linie, Start- und Ziellinie', grámma n. pl. `Schreibzeichen etc.', ark. grassma (*graphsmā), arg. pl. gráthmata, aeol. gróppata; grammó-s `das Schreibung (als Handlung)', graptḗr `Schreiber', graphís f. `Griffel'
Slavic: *žerbъ, *žerbьjь
Baltic: *gir̃b-i[a]- n., ? *grīb-s-t-ā̂ f.
Germanic: *kirb-a- vb.; *kur[b]-i- adj.; *krib-Vl-ō- vb.; *krabb-ō- vb.
Russ. meaning: царапать, делать насечки
References: WP I 605 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: же́ребей,
Near etymology: -бья "жребий; кусочек (металла и под.)", др.-русск. жеребеи "резной образец" (XVI в.; см. Миккола, Jagić- Festschr. 361 и сл.), (ср. в семантическом отношении сербохорв. бpȏj "число": брити "резать, брить"), укр. же́реб "жребий", ст.-слав. жрѣбии, ждрѣбии κλῆρος (Супр.), болг. жре́бие, сербохорв. ждри̏jеб, ждре̑б, словен. žrȇb, др.-чеш. hřebí, чеш. hřeb "гвоздь".
Further etymology: Родственно др.-прусск. gīrbin вин. п. "число", д.-в.-н. kërfan, нов.-в.-н. kerben "делать зарубки, нарезать", англос. ceorfan "нарезать, резать", греч. γράφω "пишу, царапаю"; см. И. Шмидт, Vok. 2, 75; Фортунатов, AfslPh 4, 581; Траутман, BSW 87; Apr. Sprd. 338 и сл.; Клюге-Гётце 296; Миккола, Jagić-Festschr. 361, и сл.; Буазак 155.
Pages: 2,47-48
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *gir̃b-i[a]- n., *grīb-s-t-ā̂, -iā̃ f.
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lettish: grīpsta, grīpste `Schramme'
Old Prussian: gīrbin `Zahl'
baltet-prnum,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kirban- vb.; *kur[b]i-; *kribVlVn-; *krabbōn-
Meaning: scratch, make cuts, notches
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: NIsl krabba `kruipen'
Norwegian: krabba `kruipen'
Swedish: krabba `kruipen'
Danish: krabbe `scharren, graspen'
Old English: ceorfan (corfen) `schneiden, kerben'; cyrf f. `Schnitt'
English: carve, carven
Middle Dutch: kerven; cribbelen `knibbelen, afdingen'; crabben `krabben, kakélen'
Dutch: kerven; kribben, kribbelen `kritzeln'; krabben
Middle Low German: kerven; karven; krabben `kratzen, ritzen, schaben'
Low German: kribbeln
Old High German: kerban `inschnitte machen, schneiden'
Middle High German: kërben wk. { ptc. gekurben } `einen Einschnitt machen, aufs Kerbholz einschneiden, feststellen'; kërbe wk. f., kërp (-b-) st. m. 'einschnitt, kerbe; kerbholz; eine art dachziegel'; kribeln 'kitzeln'
German: kerben; Kerbe f., { Kerb }; kribbeln
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-mlg,germet-lg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 579
Root: gerebh-
English meaning: to scratch, write
German meaning: `ritzen' und Verwandtes
Material: 1. gerbh-:

    Gr. γράφω `ritze ein, schreibe' (*gr̥bhō), γράμμα `Buchstabe', γραμμή `Linie', γραφεύς `Schreiber', γραπτύς `Ritzung der Haut' (daneben dialektische Formen mit -ρο- statt -ρα-);

    ags. ceorfan (Partiz. corfen) `schneiden, kerben', ahd. kerban `Einschnitte machen, schneiden', nhd. kerben, mhd. kerbe f. `Einschnitt, Kerbe', kerp m. `Fuge', ags. cyrf m. `Schnitt';

    slav. *žerbъ in aksl. žrěbъ, skr. ždrȉjeb, klr. žéreb `Los' und slav. žerbьjь in aksl. žrěbьjь `Los, Krume' (`*gekerbtes Stäbchen'), apr. gīrbin `Zahl' (`*Kerbung').

    2. grebh-:

    Mhd. krabelen (mit expressiver Verschärfung: mhd. krappeln, mnd. krabbelen, daraus nhd. krabbeln) `kratzen, kriechen', anord. krafla `kriechen', krafsa `kratzen, leicht anrühren', mit expressiver Verschärfung dän. norw. krabbe `scharren, grapsen' (und `krabbeln, kriechen', ursprüngl. `kriechen, indem man sich festhakt'), wozu anord. krabbi m., ags. crabba, mnd. krabbe `Krabbe' und ahd. (krebiz), *kraƀita-, krebaz(o), asächs. kreƀit, nhd. Krebs. - Ganz fraglich gr. γρόμφις `Sau' (besser `die Grunzende'?) als Nasalform.

    3. Daneben *gribh- (mit expressivem i?):

    Gr. γριφα̃σθαι γράφειν. Λάκωνες. οἱ δε ξύειν καὶ ἀμύσσειν Hes. (vgl. von sker-: gr. σκαρῑφάομαι, lat. scrībō), ἀγρίφη, ἀγρει̃φνα `Harke, Rechen' (ἀ- aus *- `ἐν', `einritzen'?);

    holl. kribbelen `murren', kribelen `jucken', mhd. md. kribeln `kitzeln (von der Sinuenlust)', nhd. kribbeln, und mit germ. pp: ahd. kripfan `rasch und wiederholt wonach greifen', nhd. kripfen `bes. vom Wegkratzen einer Riefe';

    lett. grīpsta `Schramme'.

References: WP. I 606 f., Trautmann 87.
See also: Vgl. gred- `kratzen', grēb(h)o-s `Weißbuche'.
Pages: 392
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-seealso,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *gīr_-
Meaning : line; to draw lines
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *gīr_-
Proto-Telugu : *gīr_-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gīr- (*-r_-)
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gīr-
Notes : Unclear whether Central Dravidian forms are original or re-borrowed. PGn has *-r rather than *-r_, but it is based only on Konda evidence: gīr, and we cannot exclude the possibility of *-r_ > *-r in Konda. PN form is also probably re-borrowed or influenced by Tamil, because of initial *k-.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *gīr_-
Meaning : to scratch, draw lines
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kīr_u (kīr_i-)
Tamil meaning : to scratch, draw lines, scribble, write; n. scratch, mark, stroke, scrawl, writing
Tamil derivates : kīr_al scratching, marking, drawing lines, writing; kīr_r_u stroke, line, mark, stripe; kir_ukku (kir_ukki-) to scribble, write illegibly, cancel, score out; n. scribble, scoring out anything written; kir_ukkal scribbling, scoring out; (Tinn.) kīcu to scratch
Malayalam : kīr_u
Malayalam meaning : a stripe
Malayalam derivates : kīr_uka to scratch, draw lines; kir_ukka to erase, strike out; kīcukka to scratch (as fowls)
Kannada : gīr_u
Kannada meaning : to scratch, scrape, draw lines or streaks; n. a line, streak, stripe
Kannada derivates : kīr_u to scratch, scrape; gīṭu a line, stroke; gīku to scratch, scrape, etc.; gīcu id., to scrawl, scribble, draw a line or lines over with a pen; n. scratch, line made with a pen, scrawling; gīju to draw a line or lines over with a pen; kir_uku to scratch out, erase
Kodagu : gīc- (gīci-)
Kodagu meaning : to make a mark by scratching
Tulu : kīruni, gīruni
Tulu meaning : to scratch, wound slightly by the nails
Tulu derivates : kīrụ, gīrụ, gīru scratch, superficial wound; gīṭụ line, stroke, mark; gīcuni to scratch over with a pen, scrawl, draw lines; gerè a line, row, stroke
Proto-Nilgiri : *kīr (*-r_)
Miscellaneous : KOR (T) kīt- to scrape
Number in DED : 1623
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kīr (*-r_)
Meaning : a mark, line
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kīr
Number in DED : 1623
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *gīr_-
Meaning : to scratch, scrape, (K. also) comb with fingers
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : gīr_u
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : gir_upu "to pass fingers through (as feathers of a bird, etc.), pat, stroke"
Additional forms : Also gīruḍu scratching, scraping; [1] gīr_a, [2] gī̃ta stroke, line; gī̃ku to scratch, scrape, erase; [1] gīcu, [2] gīyu to scratch, scrape, draw (as a line on a surface); gīṭu line, mark, stroke; kīṭu layer, stratum, (B also) line, mark, stroke; [1] gir_uku, [2] giluku to scribble; jilugu a cursive hand or writing, illegibility; (K also) vb. to write letters illegibly without leaving spaces; (K) jīru to scratch, scrape; jīra line, streak, stripe; ger_a line
Number in DED : 1623
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gīr- (*-r_-)
Meaning : line, mark
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : kīra "stripe"
Naiki : khīr "line"
Parji : gīr
Poya Gadba : gīri "line"
Number in DED : 1623
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-parji,kogaet-poya,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gīr-
Meaning : line
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : gīr
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *gīr-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,gndet-kui,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : gīr
Meaning: line (BB)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 1623
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *gīr-
Meaning : line
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : gīra "line, mark, scrape"
Kuwi (Schulze) : lōki garri grīnai "to underline"
Tekriya Kuwi : giri
Kuwi (Israel) : gīra "line on the palm of the hand"
Notes : Kuwi_S grīnai < *gīr-inai.
Number in DED : 1623
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_t,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-notes,kuiet-dednum,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *kǝrvi(-ɫǝqt-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): беседовать, разговор
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *kǝrbi-
Proto-Itelmen: *kez- (~ -a-)
Comments: Ср. ител. замствование *kirwiɫhet- 'беседовать, разговаривать' (1065).
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,kamet-comments,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *kǝrbi-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): разговаривать, болтать, сплетничать 1, беседовать 2, интересный, заинтересовать 3
Koryak: kǝcví-lhet- 1, kǝcví-tvi- 2, e-kǝ́cvi-ke 3
Alutor: kǝrvi- 3
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-kor,chuket-alu,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *kez- (~ -a-)
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): говорить, декламировать, читать
West Itelmen: kazǝn ɫo-kaz
West Itelmen meaning: loqui
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): mówić
South Itelmen: kalu-kazdu-s
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): librum legere
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): czytać książkę
Comments: В зап.-камч. глагол *ɫo- сам по себе значит 'говорить' (375). В юж.-камч. kalu- 'пестрый, книжка', см. *keli- (*kʷ-) (219).
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : to scrape
Eurasiatic : *ḳirV; cf. also *gVrV scratch, *gVrVbV notch, sign
Afroasiatic : *ḳaraʕ cut; *garaʕ id.
Sino-Caucasian : *ḳirV knife
Austric : *KVr 'scrape, dig'; *KVr 'shave'.
African (misc.) : Bantu *-kùd- 'scrape'.
Notes : Obviously several roots that have to be sorted out.
Reference : GE 30 *gir (+ NS).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-afr,globet-notes,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ḳaraʕ-
Meaning: cut
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ḳVrVʕ- ~ *ḳVʕVr- 'to tear, rend' 1, 'cut (trees)' 2
Western Chadic: *ḳar- 'cut', slaughter' 1 , 'cut off' 2
Central Chadic: *kVr/Vw/-
East Chadic: *kVr- 'carve'
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ḳaraʕ- 'cut'
Low East Cushitic: *ḳar- 'sharp, point' (v.)
High East Cushitic: *ḳar- 'be sharp'
Warazi (Dullay): *ḳar- 'sharp'
Dahalo (Sanye): ḳeer- 'cut'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-agw,afaset-lec,afaset-hec,afaset-wrz,afaset-dhl,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 539
Proto-Semitic: *ḳVrVʕ- ~ *ḳVʕVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'to tear, rend' 1, 'cut (trees)' 2
Hebrew: ḳrʕ 1 KB 1146
Arabic: ḳʕr [-a-] 2
Notes: Metathesis
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-hbr,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut', slaughter' 1 , 'cut off' 2
Hausa: ḳírà 2
Bolewa: kàrā́ 1 [ShV]
Pero: kara- 1 [Sh]
Ngamo: kara-1 [Sh]
Notes: ireegular vowel in Hausa
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-bol,wchet-per,wchet-ngm,wchet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *kVr/Vw/-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut grass with a sickle to prepare a new field'
Mofu-Gudur: -kǝ́rw- [BMo]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mof,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *kVr-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'carve'
Ndam: kǝrâ [JgD]
Notes: Cf. Bidiya koor 'scrape, plane' [JBid]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-ndm,echet-notes,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *ḳaraʕ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
Bilin: ḳaraaʕ y-
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-bil,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sharp, point' (v)
Somali: qor-
Oromo (Galla): qara
Notes: Cf. also LEC *ḳor- "cut, carve" (Som qor-, Or qor-, Arb qor-), *ḳar- "shave oneself" (Arb qar-)
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-oro,lecet-notes,

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High East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-High East Cushitic: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'be sharp'
Sidamo: ḳar-aaʔm-
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-sid,

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Warazi etymology :

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Proto-Warazi: *ḳar-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sharp'
Gawwada (Gawata): qaru
wrzet-prnum,wrzet-meaning,wrzet-gaw,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: ḳeer-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'cut'
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ḳirV́
Meaning: knife
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ḳirV
Sino-Tibetan: *Krij
Comments and references : ? Cf. PAN *kǝ[L]it' 'dagger' (Peiros 1998, 222).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ḳirV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: knife, axe
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳirV
Proto-Lezghian: *ḳir(a)
Notes: An Av.-And.-Lezg. isogloss.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ḳirV
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: big knife, hatchet
Avar: ḳerelo (Unt.)
Akhvakh: ḳeru (Tlan.)
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-akv,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ḳira
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 hook,stick with a hook 2 fang 3 hatchet, small axe
Lezghian: ḳir 1,2
Tabasaran: ḳir 2
Rutul: ḳiruw 3 (Khnov.)
Tsakhur: ḳera 3
Kryz: ḳir 1
Budukh: ḳir 1
Archi: ḳiri 3
Comment: Obl. base *ḳirä- (cf. the Tsakh. form and Tab. ḳira-). Arch. and Rut. reflex a suffixed form *ḳirä-j / *ḳiru-j ( > ḳiruw). 4th class in all class-distinguishing languages.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *Krij
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: brass, copper
Tibetan: gri knife.
Burmese: krijh copper, brass, LB *krijx .
Kachin: mǝgri1 brass (cf. also (H) n-khji a small knife)).
Lushai: KC *M-Gre ? iron.
Comments: Midzhu teŋ-gri. Sh. 184; Ben. 22; Mat. 177; Luce 10.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *KVr
Meaning: scrape, dig
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *ki:r
Austroasiatic meaning: scrape, dig
Proto-Austronesian: *karkar 'dig' or *ukir 'carving'
Austronesian meaning: dig
Notes: or ANB *kahiR scratch, scrape, rake; cf. *KVr 'shave, scrape'.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-notes,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *ki:r
Meaning: scrape, dig
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Khmer: kiǝr, kiǝl
Proto-Monic: *ki:r
Proto-Palaungic: Pr gi
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kmr,aaet-mon,aaet-pawa,

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Khmer etymology :

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Khmer: kiǝr, kiǝl
Meaning: to scrape
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
References: JP18
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-ref,

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Monic etymology :

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Proto-Monic: *ki:r
Meaning: dig
Presyllable: #
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Mon: ki:r
Nyakur: ci:r.L
Nyakur meaning: dig
References: N215; S-40
monet-meaning,monet-prpr,monet-prnum,monet-om,monet-tc,monet-tcme,monet-bib,

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