Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Turkic: *bakɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 copper 2 patina
Russian meaning: 1 медь 2 налет, патина
Old Turkic: baqɨr 1 (Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: baqɨr 1 (MK, KB)
Turkish: bakɨr 1
Tatar: baqɨr 1
Middle Turkic: baqɨr (MA, Pav. C.) 1
Uzbek: baqir, paqir 1
Uighur: paqir 1
Sary-Yughur: paqɨr 1
Azerbaidzhan: paxɨr 2
Turkmen: baqɨr 1
Khakassian: pāɣǝr (Kyz., Joki) 1
Oyrat: baqras 'brass kettle'
Chuvash: pъʷgъʷr 1
Yakut: baɣaraχ 'pot for boiling milk'
Kirghiz: baqɨr 1
Kazakh: baqɨr 1
Noghai: baqɨr 1
Bashkir: baqɨr 1
Balkar: baɣɨr 1
Gagauz: baqɨr 1
Karaim: baɣɨr 1
Karakalpak: baqɨr 1
Kumyk: baɣɨr 1
Comments: EDT 317, VEWT 58, ЭСТЯ 2, 45-46, Лексика 405-406. Turk. > WMong. baqar, baqur (Kalm. baχr), see KW 29, Щербак 1997, 104. Turk. > Russ. Siber. bakírka (Аникин 111-112).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

Search within this database


Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *bi̯ŏ́k`à(rV) ( ~ *p-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dirt, patina
Russian meaning: грязь, налет
Turkic: *bakɨr
Mongolian: *boki(r)
Japanese: *pǝ́kǝ́rí
Comments: Лексика 406. Jpn. *-ǝ- in the first syllable is irregular, due to assimilation or bad compatibility of *a (which would be expected) and *ǝ.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-jap,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *boki(r)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 taint, patina; chewing gum 2 dirty
Russian meaning: 1 налет, патина; жвачка 2 грязный
Written Mongolian: boki 1, bokir 2 (L 114)
Khalkha: box́ 1, boxir 2
Ordos: boki 1
Monguor: boGodi (: dege ~) 'clopin-clopant' (SM 27)
Comments: Mong. > Evk. boki, see Doerfer MT 125.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-ord,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Japanese etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Japanese: *pǝ́kǝ́rí
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dust
Russian meaning: пыль
Middle Japanese: fokori
Tokyo: hòkori
Kyoto: hókórí
Kagoshima: hokóri
Comments: JLTT 414.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *böḳa
Meaning: dirt
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *bi̯ŏ́k`à(rV) ( ~ *p-)
Uralic: *pEkV 'mould'
Dravidian: *bug-i
Comments: For the Ur. word cf. alternatively: PA *p`ĕk`V 'acid, astringent' or *begV 'a k. of ferment'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,

Search within this database


Uralic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 1535
Proto: *pEkV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: mould
German meaning: Schimmel, Kahm
Mari (Cheremis): pǝ̑kna- (C), pükna- (M) 'schimmeln (Brot, Leder, Wand usw.)' ?
Udmurt (Votyak): (paki̮- 'вонять, дурно пахнуть', pi̮kmi̮- 'стать затхлым' - rejected by Redei)
Komi (Zyrian): bak (S PO), bag (P PO), buk (Ud.) 'Schimmel, Kahm' ?
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,

Search within this database


Dravidian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Dravidian : *bug-i
Meaning : dust
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Telugu : *bugg-i
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *bugg-i
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,

Search within this database


Telugu etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Telugu : *bugg-i
Meaning : ashes, dust
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : buggi
Number in DED : 4243
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

Search within this database


Kolami-Gadba etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *bugg-i
Meaning : ashes, earth
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kinwat Kolami : buggi "ashes"
Salur Gadba : buggi "earth"
Number in DED : 4243
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kol_kin,kogaet-salur,kogaet-dednum,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : PVKV
Meaning : dust, dirt
Eurasiatic : *böḳa
Afroasiatic : *buḳ- (also *bubuk earth, dust)
Sino-Caucasian : *bʕṓqwV
Austric : PAN *apuk 'dust', *la(m)bug 'turbid', PAA *bʔok 'rotten'
Amerind (misc.) : *pok 'ashes' (R 25) [+ A]
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,

Search within this database


Afroasiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *buḳ-
Meaning: rot, be rotten
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *bVḳ- 'rot'
Western Chadic: *ḅwak- < *bwaḳ- 'suppurate, fester' 1, 'rot' 2
Central Chadic: *buk- 'decay'
High East Cushitic: *buḳ- 'rot'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-hec,

Search within this database


Semitic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 1743
Proto-Semitic: *bVḳ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'rot'
Hebrew: bqq
Aramaic: bqq
Mandaic Aramaic: baq
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-mnd,

Search within this database


West Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-WChadic: *ḅwak- < *bwaḳ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'suppurate, fester' 1, 'rot' 2
Sura: ḅwak 1 [JgS]
Boghom: ḅũuk 2 [Cs]
Notes: Shift of emphatization. OS. can't add: CCh Bura buka 'decay' [Ann]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-sur,wchet-bgh,wchet-notes,

Search within this database


Central Chadic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-CChadic: *buk-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'decay'
Bura: buka [Ann]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-bur,

Search within this database


High East Cushitic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-High East Cushitic: *buḳ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'rot'
Burji (Bambala, Dashe): buuḳ-
hecet-prnum,hecet-meaning,hecet-bmb,

Search within this database


Sino-Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *bʕṓqwV
Meaning: dirt, dung
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *bʕōq_wV
Sino-Tibetan: *phāk ( ~ -ɔ̄k)
Yenisseian: *poʔq
Burushaski: *baɣéiŋ
Comments and references : From NC cf. alternatively *pHulq̇ɨ̆ 915 (see HGC 26).
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

Search within this database


North Caucasian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-North Caucasian: *bʕōq_wV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dirt, faeces
Proto-Nakh: *bʕēχu-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *q:ubV-
Proto-Lezghian: *p:oq(a)
Notes: An expressive root, reconstructed for the PEC level. (with some metatheses and aberrations: in PN we would rather expect -q-).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

Search within this database


Nakh etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Nakh: *bʕēχu-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dirty
Chechen: bȫχa
Ingush: bʕeχa
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,

Search within this database


Avar-Andian etymology :

Search within this database
Protoform: *q:ubV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dirty
Avar: q:úba-
Andian language: q:ubi
Chamalal: q:ubu-
Tindi: q:ū-
Karata: q:ubo-
Comments: Av. > Inkh. quba-, Gin. qubaw.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-comment,

Search within this database


Lezghian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Lezghian: *p:oq(a)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 faeces 2 cow's dung
Lezghian: p:ɨχ (Khl.) 1
Rutul: bɨq (Khniukh.) 2
Kryz: bɨq (Al.) 1
Comment: In Lezg. -q > -χ (but cf. erg. p:q:á-di, pl. p:q:a-r). Irregular expressive reflexes of the same root are probably Arch. (with metathesis and abnormal consonant reflexes) qip 'faeces', qup-un 'dried snot in nose', Rut. (Luch.) paq "bear's dung".
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-rut,lezget-krz,lezget-comment,

Search within this database


Sino-Tibetan etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *phāk
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dirt, dregs
Chinese: *phāk dregs.
Tibetan: sbag (p. sbags, i. sbogs) to soil, stain, pollute, ãbag (p. ãbogs, f. dbag) to defile, to pollute oneself, ãbogs (p. phog, f. dbog, dbag, i. phog) to blot, stain, pollute.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,

Search within this database


Chinese characters :

Search within this database
Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: pò
Preclassic Old Chinese: phrāk
Classic Old Chinese: phrāk
Western Han Chinese: phrāk
Eastern Han Chinese: phrāk
Early Postclassic Chinese: phẹ̄k
Middle Postclassic Chinese: phẹ̄k
Late Postclassic Chinese: phẹ̄k
Middle Chinese: phạ̈ik
English meaning : (wine) residue [Tang]
Russian meaning[s]: 糟粕 1) винный осадок, барда; 2) дрянь, отбросы
Comments: The word is attested only in conjunction with 糟 zāo 'wine', and only since Tang. Viet. bã is not a regular reflex.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 119
Four-angle index: 1636
Karlgren code: 0782 p
Vietnamese reading: bã
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,

Search within this database


Yenisseian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yenisseian: *poʔq
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: excrements
Ket: hɔʔq
Yug: fɔʔx / fɔʔq; fɔgej5,6 "to defecate"
Kottish: fago, phago "dirt"; faguākŋ "to defecate"; fōk, fōx, phōk(g), pl. fōgan, fōkan "dirt, dung"; fogar, phogar "podex"
Comments: ССЕ 251. Werner 1, 327 <*phoq / *phoʔq>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

Search within this database


Burushaski etymology :

Search within this database
Common Burushaski: *baɣéiŋ
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: dung (of cows, horses)
Hunza: baɣéiŋ
Nagar: baɣéiŋ
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

Search within this database


Austric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austric: *ʔpuk
Meaning: rotten
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *bʔok
Austroasiatic meaning: rotten
Proto-Austronesian: [*buRuk, *busuk, *buyu'k] cf. also *la(m)bug 'turbid', *apuk dust
Austronesian meaning: rotten
Austronesian code: 5:182; 5:188; 5:216
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-anme,austr-ancode,

Search within this database


Austro-Asiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austro-Asiatic: *bʔok
Meaning: rotten
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: *bʔok / *bʔuk
Proto-Bahnaric: SB *bɔk
Khmer: buk < OK wuk, wwak
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-bah,aaet-kmr,

Search within this database


Katuic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Katuic: *bʔok / *bʔuk
Meaning: decayed, rotten (of wood)
Presyllable: ʔǝ-
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-West Katuic: *bʔ[o]k
Proto-East Katuic: *bʔuk
References: P-711; TK15.120
katet-meaning,katet-prpr,katet-prnum,katet-wkat,katet-ekat,katet-bibref,

Search within this database


West Katuic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-West Katuic: *bʔ[o]k
Meaning: decayed, rotten (of wood)
Presyllable: ʔǝ-
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Bru Van Keu: ʔabok
Bru Van Keu meaning: floated, rotten
Bru: ʔǝbʌwʔ.N V?
Bru meaning: rotten; rǝmbuaʔ.N a hole which is caused by rotten wood on top of a stalk of stump
Kui: phoʔ.N I?
Kui meaning: to be decayed, rotten (wood, book, cloth, etc)
wkatet-meaning,wkatet-wpre,wkatet-prnum,wkatet-vkv,wkatet-vkvme,wkatet-bru,wkatet-brume,wkatet-kui,wkatet-kuime,

Search within this database


East Katuic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-East Katuic: *bʔuk
Meaning: decayed, rotten (of wood)
Presyllable: ʔǝ- / #
Katuic etymology: Katuic etymology
Pakoh: ʔǝbuk
Pakoh meaning: rot - of tree, wood, cloth
Ngeq: buk
Ngeq meaning: rotten
Kri: mbuk, ʔambuk
Chatong: buk
ekatet-meaning,ekatet-epre,ekatet-prnum,ekatet-pak,ekatet-pakme,ekatet-nge,ekatet-ngeme,ekatet-kr,ekatet-ct,

Search within this database


Bahnar etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Bahnaric: *Bɔ̆k
Meaning: mud
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-South Bahnaric: *bɔk
Cua: wuk
References: SBS-496
banet-meaning,banet-prnum,banet-sob,banet-cua,banet-refer,

Search within this database


South Bahnaric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-South Bahnaric: *bɔk
Meaning: mud
Bahnaric etymology: Bahnaric etymology
Chrau form: bɔʔ
Chrau meaning: mud
Stieng form: bɔk
Stieng meaning: mud
References: SBS-496
sobet-meaning,sobet-prnum,sobet-chr,sobet-chrme,sobet-sti,sobet-stime,sobet-refer,

Search within this database


Khmer etymology :

Search within this database
Khmer: buk
Meaning: be rotten; bruk to decay
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Old Khmer: wuk, wwak
Old Khmer Meaning: crumbling, decayed
References: P453, JP196
kmret-meaning,kmret-prnum,kmret-okh,kmret-okmean,kmret-ref,

Search within this database


Pearic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Pearic: *puk.N
Meaning: spoiled, rotten
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Chong: puk.A
Chong meaning: spoiled, rotten
Song: puk.A
Song meaning: spoiled, rotten
Kasong: puk.A
Kasong meaning: spoiled, rotten
Samre: puk.A
Samre meaning: spoiled, rotten
pearet-meaning,pearet-prnum,pearet-chng,pearet-chngme,pearet-song,pearet-songme,pearet-kas,pearet-kasme,pearet-smr,pearet-smrme,

Search within this database


Viet-Muong etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Viet-Muong:
Meaning: mould
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Vietnamese: mốc
Vietnamese meaning: mould
Muong dialect: mok.3 Loan
Proto-Ruc: *po:k.3
Ruc (Russian field rec.): pok-po:k.3
Ruc (Lo'i's rec.): po:k.3 po:k.3
Ruc meaning: mould
Thavung-So: tabu:k.C.1
Thavung-So meaning: mud
References: NVL150
vimet-meaning,vimet-prnum,vimet-viet,vimet-vietme,vimet-anng,vimet-prru,vimet-rucr,vimet-rucl,vimet-rucme,vimet-so,vimet-some,vimet-bib,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
201524911518
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov