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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *sEŕ- (~-ē-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to feel, understand 2 doubt
Russian meaning: 1 чувствовать, понимать, воспринимать 2 сомнение
Karakhanid: sez- (MK) 1
Turkish: sez- 1
Tatar: siz- 1
Middle Turkic: sez- 1 (Pav. C., Abush.)
Uzbek: sez- 1
Uighur: säz- 1
Azerbaidzhan: sez- 1
Turkmen: seza(wār)
Khakassian: sis- 1
Oyrat: ses- 1, ses 'understanding'
Tuva: sezik 2
Tofalar: sezik 2
Kirghiz: sez- 1, sez 'feeling'
Kazakh: sez- 1
Noghai: sez- 1
Bashkir: hiδ- 1
Balkar: sez- 1
Karaim: sez- 1
Karakalpak: sez- 1
Kumyk: sez- 1
Comments: VEWT 413, EDT 860-861, ЭСТЯ 7. Turk. sezik > WMong. sesig (but seǯig is probably genuine, see under *sàǯV).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sā́ŕi
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to know; beware, feel
Russian meaning: знать;чувствовать, замечать
Turkic: *sEŕ- (~-ē-)
Mongolian: *seri-
Tungus-Manchu: *sā-
Korean: *sari-
Japanese: *sír-
Comments: EAS 71, KW 325, Poppe 29, 82 (Turc-Mong.), Murayama 1962, 111, 1978, 277-278, Miller 1981, 852, ОСНЯ 2, 107-108, Ozawa 228-229, АПиПЯЯ 74, 91, 276, Дыбо 14, Martin 234. TM preserves length in a monosyllabic root after loss of the resonant. Mong. cannot be explained as a loanword, despite Щербак 1997, 144.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *seri-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to wake; notice
Russian meaning: просыпаться; замечать
Written Mongolian: sere-, seri- (L 689)
Middle Mongolian: seri- (HY 35, SH), sere-ba 'to feel, sense' (HY 33), sere- (SH), siri-, sä̆ri- (MA), sīr- (IM)
Khalkha: sere-
Buriat: heri-
Kalmuck: ser-
Ordos: sere-
Dongxian: šieri-
Baoan: sere-
Dagur: sere- (Тод. Даг. 163, MD 211)
Shary-Yoghur: ser-
Monguor: sari- (SM 327), (MGCD serǝ-)
Mogol: serä-
Comments: KW 325, MGCD 600. Mong. > Evk. seri- etc. (see Doerfer MT 38, Rozycki 178).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *sā-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to know
Russian meaning: знать
Evenki: sā-
Even: hā-
Negidal: sā-
Spoken Manchu: sa- (1856)
Literary Manchu: sa-
Jurchen: ĉaŋ-xi (353)
Ulcha: sāwụ
Orok: sā-
Nanai: sā-
Oroch: sā-
Udighe: sā-
Solon: sā-
Comments: ТМС 2, 49-51.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sari-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to beware, be careful, spare oneself 2 wisdom
Russian meaning: 1 быть осторожным, беречься 2 мудрость
Modern Korean: sari- 1, sɨlgi 2
Middle Korean: sɨrkɨi 2
Comments: Nam 321, KED 873, 1027. The -ɨ-vowel in sɨrkɨi is probably a secondary result of assimilation.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sír-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to know
Russian meaning: знать
Old Japanese: sir-
Middle Japanese: sír-
Tokyo: shìr-
Kyoto: shír-
Kagoshima: shír-
Shuri: šij-
Yonakuni: č-
Comments: JLTT 752.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-shu,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *[š]ehŕa
Meaning: to wake
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *sēr- 'to guard'
Altaic: *sā́ŕi
Uralic: *šerV- 'wake' (SKES 71)
Kartvelian: zar- (+zer- 1208)
Eskimo-Aleut: *ciʁǝ- 'hope'?
Comments: Expected *š in Kartv.
References: МССНЯ 331, 333, ОСНЯ 2, 107-108; ND 2172 *šehŕE 'to be awake, watch, feel'; 2757 *ʒ́[E]hrV 'to see, know' (Kartv. + Sem.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-esk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *serw-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to guard
Avestan: haraiti `hat acht, schützt', haurvaiti id., haurva- `beschützend, hütend' (pasuš-haurvō spā `das Kleinvieh, die Schafe beschützender Hund, Schäferhund', harǝtar- `wer worüber wacht, darauf achthat', harǝɵra- `Pflege, Wartung, Unterhalt', hāra- `achthabend, hütend'
Old Greek: ọ̄̂ro-s m. `Wächter, Hüter'
Slavic: ? *stergtī, *stergǭ; *storžь
Baltic: *ser̂g-ē̂- (*ser̂g-), *sar̂g-a- c. (2), *sarg-ā̂ f., *sar̂g-ti- c.
Germanic: *sarw-ia- m., *sarw-a- n., *sarw-ia- vb.
Latin: servāre `erhalten, unversehrt bewahren, erretten, beobachten, aufbewahren'
Other Italic: Osk serevkid `auspiciō'; Umbr ooserclom `*observāculum ?'
Russ. meaning: охранять
References: WP II 498 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: стерегу́,
Near etymology: стере́чь, укр. стерегу́, стеречи́, блр. сцерегу́, сцерегцí, др.-русск. стерегу, стеречи, ст.-слав. стрѣгѫ, стрѣшти φυλάττειν, φρουρεῖν (Супр.), словен. strẹ́či, strẹ́žem "стеречь, караулить", др.-чеш. střěhu, střieci, чеш. střehu, stříci, польск. strzegę, strzec.
Further etymology: Праслав. *stergti, *stergǫ объясняется как контаминация двух основ -- греч. στέργω "люблю", пф. ἔστοργα и др.-лит. sérgmi "стерегу", лит. sérgiu, sérgėti -- то же, sárgas "сторож", лтш. sar̂gs -- то же, sar̂gât, -u "охранять"; см. Педерсен, KZ 38, 319; Брюкнер, KZ 42, 47; Sɫown. 522; М.--Э. 3, 716; Младенов 611. Другие отделяют греч. слово и сближают только с балт. словами (Торбьёрнссон 2, 66; Сольмсен, AfslPh 24, 577; Траутман, Арr. Sprd. 315; ВSW 257 и сл.). В свою очередь Гуйер (LF 41, 430 и сл.) и Нога (ZfslPh 5, 212) предполагают контаминацию *serg- (лит. sérgiu) и *stegō (греч. στέγω "покрываю, защищаю", др.-инд. sthágati "окутывает, укрывает"). Миккола (IF 6, 351) допускает скрещение *serg- с проблематическим *strāg- (якобы в стра́жа, стреха́, но см. соответствующие статьи), Шахматов (ИОРЯС 7, 2, 304) -- скрещение *serg- с формами, родственными остро́г. Лит. sérgėti сближается, далее, с лат. servō, -ārе "сохранять", авест. haraiti, haurvati "защищает"; см. Траутман, там же; И. Шмидт, Vok. 2, 76. Др. ступень чередования гласных представлена в сто́рож, сторожи́ть (см.).
Trubachev's comments: [Сюда же, по-видимому, хетт. ištark- "заболеть", причем знач. "болеть" развилось здесь, как и в лит. sir̃gti -- то же, вторично; см. Трубачёв, ВСЯ, 3, 1958, стр. 125. -- Т.]
Pages: 3,757
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ser̂g-ē̂- (*ser̂g-), *sar̂g-a- c. (2), *sarg-ā̂ f., *sar̂g-ti- c.
Meaning: guard
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Lithuanian: sérgmi 1sg. prs.
Lithuanian: sérgēti (sérgiu), dial. sergḗti 'behüten, bewahren', pasárga 'Warnung, Be-, Anmerkung'; sárga-s 'Wächter, (Be)hüter, Pförtner, Schliesser, Sicherung (an Schusswaffen)', sargà '(Schildwache, (Ob)hut', sárgti-s 'Wache, Bewachung', sargù- 'wachsam'
Lettish: sar̂gs 'Wächter, Hüter'
Old Prussian: absergīsnan acc. 'Schutz', butsargs 'Haushalter'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-olith,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *sarwia-z, *sarwa-n, *sarwian- vb.
Meaning: armour
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: pl. sarwa n. `weapons, armor'
Old Norse: sörvi, pl. sörvar m. `Krieger'
Old English: searo, gen. searwes `Rüstung; Kunstfertigkeit, Kunst, List', sierwan `insidiari, planen'
Old Frisian: sera vb.
Old Saxon: saro `Rüstung, Kunstwerk'
Old High German: { saro, gen. sarawes st. n. `Rüstung, Kunswerk' }
Middle High German: sar, gen. -wes st. n. 'kriegsrüstung'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-oengl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1696
Root: ser-2
English meaning: to guard, watch over, support
German meaning: `sorgend Obacht geben, schützen, bewahren'
Material: Av. haraiti `hat acht, schützt'; haurvaiti ds., haurva- `beschützend, hütend' in pasuš-haurvō spā `die Schafe beschützender Hund, Schäferhund' (wie lat. servō von einer u-Erw.); harǝtar- `Hüter, Wächter', harǝɵra- `Pflege, Wartung'; hāra- `achthabend, hütend', redupl. hišāra- ds.;

    gr. ῝Ηρα `*Schützerin' aus * ῝Ηρα, ἥρως, -ωος (St. ἡρω-, s. oben) `*Hüter' (ἥρωες `Landesschutzgeister'), `hervorragender, mächtiger Mann'; servō, -āre `(den Wächter machen) erretten, erhalten, unversehrt bewahren', osk. serevkid `auspicio, iussu'; umbr. seritu `servato', anseriato Supin. `observatum' vgl. ooserclom etwa `*observaculum' aus *ser-tlom;

    unklar sind aksl. chranjǫ, chraniti `behüten, bewahren', chrana `Speise, Nahrung' usw. (s. Berneker 397 f.); vgl. Machek Slavia 16, 191 f.;

    als Gutturalerweiterung hierher lit. sérg-mi, -u, -iu `behüte, bewache', sárgas `Wächter', sargùs `wachsam', apr. but-sargs `Haushälter', absergīsnan Akk. `Schutz'.

References: WP. II 498 f., WH. II 525 f., Trautmann 257 f.
Pages: 910
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *zar-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: забота, заботиться
English meaning: care, to care
Georgian: zr-
Svan: zar-
Notes and references: EWK 139.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVRV
Meaning : to wake
Eurasiatic : *źwehŕa
Afroasiatic : Sem. šVhr 'be awake'; *zjr / *zrj 'see, know' (Zyhlarz ZAS 70, 115); EChad. *sVr- 'to see'
Sino-Caucasian : *ʒ_wĕrhɨ̆ (?)
Reference : МССНЯ 331, 333, ОСНЯ 2, 107-108; ND 2172.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ʒwĕ́rhɨ̆
Meaning: name, family
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ʒ_wĕrhɨ̆
Sino-Tibetan: *Cǝ̆
Comments and references : DCE 29. Cf. also ND *šʷĭ́h, *šĭ́h 'name'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ʒ_wĕrhɨ̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Proto-Nakh: *c̣e
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣:iri
Proto-Tsezian: *cʷǝ̃ A
Proto-Lak: c̣a
Proto-Dargwa: *zʷe
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣:ʷer
Proto-Khinalug: c̣u
Proto-West Caucasian: *(P)c̣a
Notes: A good common NC root. In PWC labialisation was lost, as often, after the preceding labial (which, in this case, is a prefix). Not quite clear, however, is the absence of palatalisation in PWC (expected before an original front vowel); perhaps, we deal with a case of old vowel alternation.

    See Trubetzkoy 1930, 278; Абдоков 1983, 189-190.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-khin,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *c̣e
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Chechen: c̣e
Ingush: c̣i
Batsbi: c̣e
Comments: Obl. base *c̣ari- (Chech. c̣era-, Ing. c̣ero, Bacb. c̣ari-). 4th class in all languages.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣:iri
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Avar: c̣:ar
Chadakolob: c̣ar
Andian language: c̣:er
Akhvakh: c̣:eri
Chamalal: ṣē
Tindi: c:era
Karata: c̣:eri
Botlikh: c̣:eri
Bagvalal: c̣:er
Godoberi: c:eri
Comments: Av. paradigm C (c̣:arú-l, c̣:ára-l). Cf. also Akhv. Tseg.,Tl., Ratl. c̣:e (without -ri probably by analogy with the obl. base c̣:e-de- < *c̣:er-de-), Cham. Gig. c̣:eri, Gad. c̣:ej, Kar. Tok. c̣:er.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *cʷǝ̃ A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Tsezi: ci
Ginukh: ce
Khvarshi: cã
Inkhokvari: cõ
Bezhta: caro
Gunzib: cɔ̃ru
Comments: The PTs paradigm: dir. *cʷǝ̃, obl. *cʷǝrV-. Cf. PTsKh *cǝ̃, *cǝRo- (reflected, e.g. in Tsez. ci, ciro-), PGB *cɔ̃, *cɔrV- (reflected in Bezht. Khosh. cã, cãra- - although the nasalisation in the oblique base is here secondary). In Bezht. Tl. and Gunz. the oblique base has replaced the direct one. The vowel correlation PTsKh *ǝ : PGB *ɔ points unambiguosly to PTs *ǝ with a preceding labialization.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: c̣a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Lak form: c̣a
Comments: 4th class; obl. base c̣a-ni-.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *zʷe
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Akusha: u
Chiragh: zu
Comments: Cf. also Ur., Muir. i, Kait., Kharb., Tsud., Sirg. zu, Kub. di-bala (a former "double" plural form).
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *c̣:ʷer
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Lezghian: ṭʷar
Tabasaran: č:̌ur
Agul: t:ur
Rutul: dur
Tsakhur: do
Kryz: tɨr
Budukh: tur
Archi: c̣or
Udi: c:i
Comment: Cf. also Lezg. Khl. t:ʷar, Tab. Düb. ʒur. Oblique base *c̣:ʷerɨ-, cf. Tab. Düb. ʒuri-, Ag. t:uri-, Tsakh. dojɨ-. 4th class in all class distinguishing languages.

    Cf. Лексика 1971, 142; Гигинейшвили 1973, 68, 106; Талибов 1980, 297.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-krz,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: c̣u
North Caucasian etymology: 72
Meaning: name
Khinalug form: c̣u
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *(P)c̣a
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name
Adyghe: c̣a
Kabardian: c̣a
Ubykh: ṗc̣a
Comments: PAK *c̣a.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *Cǝ̆
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: name, concept, form
Chinese: *ʒ_ǝs name, family name, concept [Late Zhou].
Tibetan: zo, bzo figure, picture, form.
Burmese: ća writing, letter, paper, document, literature.
Comments: Luce 2. The meaning "character" is late in Chinese, so the Burmese word could be borrowed from Chinese. However, when the meaning "character" evolved in Chinese (around Han time), the character must have been pronounced as *cɨ̀ with falling tone, which hardly explains the phonetic shape ća in Burmese. Tib. bzo is also not explained by the loan theory. We should rather regard the word as Sino-Tibetan, but probably dialectal in Old Chinese, since the meaning 'name, concept' appears only during Late Zhou. The earlier attested meaning 'love, breed, nurture' has certainly nothing to do with the root under consideration: see PST *Că love.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zì
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʒǝʔs
Classic Old Chinese: ʒǝh
Western Han Chinese: ʒǝh
Eastern Han Chinese: ʒjǝh
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʒjɨ̀
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʒjɨ̀
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʒjɨ̀
Middle Chinese: ʒjɨ̀
English meaning : to breed, nurture; love, cherish
Russian meaning[s]: 1) письменный знак; иероглиф; буква; слово; 2) записка; письмо; 3) удостоверение, документ; контракт; условие; 4) название; прозвище; кличка (совершеннолетнего); 5) помолвить (дочь); 6) родить детей; выращивать (кормить) детей; 7) любить (как детей)
Comments: Possibly derived from 子 *cǝʔ 'child' q.v. (but the meaning 'cherish, love' seems to have a separate etymology; cf. also 慈 *ʒǝ 'affectionate, loving'). A later meaning (since Han) of the same word is 'character, letter' (reflected in Viet. as chũ'). Regular Sino-Viet. is tụ'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 39
Four-angle index: 3059
Karlgren code: 0964 n-o
Go-on: zi
Kan-on: si
Japanese reading: ji+;aza+
Vietnamese reading: chũ'
Jianchuan Bai: -cɨ3
Dali Bai: -cɨ3
Bijiang Bai: -ʒɨ̃2
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 257
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 止開三去志從
ZIHUI: 1316 0413
Beijing: ci_ 3
Jinan: ci_ 3
Xi'an: ci_ 3
Taiyuan: ci_ 3
Hankou: ci_ 3
Chengdu: ci_ 3
Yangzhou: ci_ 3
Suzhou: zi_ 32
Wenzhou: zi_ 32
Changsha: ci_ 32
Shuangfeng: ʒi_ 32
Nanchang: chi_ 32
Meixian: chi_ 3
Guangzhou: či 32
Xiamen: ʒi 32
Chaozhou: zi 32
Fuzhou: cei 32
Shanghai: zi_ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: ci_ 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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