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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xarpu- / *xarpi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to rasp, plane 2 plane, knife
Russian meaning: 1 строгать 2 нож (для строгания)
Negidal: atpụgda 2
Orok: χalpịn- 1
Nanai: χarpịčị- 1
Oroch: appili 2
Udighe: afili 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 59.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-neg,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`ăpra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to scrape, rasp, plane
Russian meaning: скрести, строгать
Turkic: *K(i)arba-
Mongolian: *kawra-
Tungus-Manchu: *xarpu- / *xarpi-
Comments: Poppe 17, 82. A Western isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *K(i)arba-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to grope (for smth.) 2 to grasp (with hands or teeth) 3 to swim (grope through water with hands and feet) 4 to rake up
Russian meaning: 1 нащупывать 2 хватать (руками или зубами) 3 плавать (хвататься за воду руками и ногами) 4 сгребать
Old Turkic: qarva- (OUygh.) 1
Karakhanid: qarva- (MK) 1
Turkish: kavra- 2
Middle Turkic: qarba- (Qutb)
Turkmen: Gabra- 2
Khakassian: xarba- 2
Shor: qarba- 2
Oyrat: qarba- 2
Yakut: xarbā- 2,3,4
Dolgan: karbā- 'to row, swim'
Tuva: qarban- 3
Comments: EDT 646, VEWT 243, ЭСТЯ 5, 302-303, Мудрак 103 (with a wrong attribution of Tuva xɨr-). Despite Kaɫ. MEJ 42, Stachowski 139, forms like Yak. xarbā- are hardly borrowed < Mong. qarma- (on which see under *k`aŕa).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kawra-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: file
Russian meaning: напильник
Written Mongolian: qaurai (L 946), qaɣurai (DO 371)
Middle Mongolian: qūra (IM), qurai (MA 313)
Khalkha: xūraj
Buriat: xūraj
Kalmuck: xǖrǟ
Ordos: xūrǟ
Dagur: xaur-dāgu, (Тод. Даг. 175) xaura
Shary-Yoghur: χūrī
Monguor: xụ̄rā- 'se peler, s'écorcher' (SM 184)
Comments: KW 204, MGCD 380. Mong. > Man. χuwara (Rozycki 114).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳVṗV
Meaning: dig, hack
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kep-
Altaic: *k`ăpra
Kartvelian: *ḳap- (also *ḳeṗ- 559)
References: ОСНЯ 1, 317-318, МССНЯ 362; ND 1116 *ḳa(')P_V 'to chop, dig'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *(s)kape- (-ph-)
Meaning: to dig, to mattock
Other Iranian: NPers kāfaδ, kāvaδ `gräbt'
Old Greek: skapánǟ f. `Grabscheit, Spaten', (s)kápeto-s `Grab, Grube'
Slavic: *kopā́tī, *kõpjǭ
Baltic: *kāp=
Russ. meaning: копать, мотыжить
References: WP II 559 f
piet-meaning,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: копа́ть,
Near etymology: копа́ю, копа́ться, укр. копа́ти, болг. копа́я, сербохорв. ко̀пати, ко̏па̑м, словен. kopáti, kора̑m, чеш. kораti, слвц. kораt᾽, польск., в.-луж. kорас́, н.-луж. kораś.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. kapóti, kapóju "колоть, рубить", лтш. kapât, -ãju "сечь, колоть", др.-прусск. еn-kорts "погребенный", лит. kaplỹs "мотыга", лтш. kaplis -- то же, греч. κόπτω "ударяю, рублю, колю", κοπίς "тесак", алб. kер "отесываю камни", kamés "кирка, мотыга". Наряду с этим формы на рh: нов.-перс. kāfaδ "раскалывается"; см. Траутман, ВSW 116 и сл.; Арr. Sprd. 329; М.--Э. 2, 158; Эндзелин, СБЭ 193; Иокль, Stud. 39 и сл.; Буазак 492 и сл. Далее сюда же относят греч. σκάπτω "рою, копаю", σκάπετος, κάπετος "ров, пещера", лат. sсарulа "лопатка"; см. Сольмсен, Beitr. 196 и сл.; Бернекер 1, 562 и сл.; Перссон 884; Буазак 870; Мейе--Эрну 174 и сл.; Мейе--Вайан 24.
Pages: 2,317
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *kāp=
Meaning: dig
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Prussian: enkopts 'begraben' Voc. 755
Comments: Cf. also PIE *kōp-.
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-oprus,baltet-notes,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳap-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: обрезать, рубить
English meaning: to lop, chop
Georgian: ḳap-
Svan: ḳap-
Notes and references: EWK 185-186. В ОСНЯ 1, 317-318 основа сравнивается с ПИЕ *kep- 'рубить, копать' < ностр. *ḳaHpV.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVPV
Meaning : to dig, hack
Eurasiatic : *ḳVṗV
Afroasiatic : *qVbVʔ- ? (Dolg. lists various < *ḳVwVP- meaning 'dig, hew, split')
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *qVbVʔ-
Meaning: break, destroy, kill
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Egyptian: ḫbꜣ 'destroy' (pyr), ḫb, ḫbḫb 'kill' (gr)
Western Chadic: *qV(HV)b- 'split or crack (wall preparatory to falling)' 1, 'break' 2, 'slaughter, cut' 3
Dahalo (Sanye): baḥ 'kill' (met.?)
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-dhl,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: ḫbꜣ (pyr)
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'destroy'; ḫb, ḫbḫb 'kill' (gr)
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *qV(HV)b-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'split or crack (wall preparatory to falling)' 1, 'break' 2, 'slaughter, cut' 3
Hausa: gágábee 1
Tangale: kɛɛbe 2 [JgT], kabi 3 [JgR]
Guruntum: ŋgwabí 2 [Cs]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-tng,wchet-grn,

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Dahalo etymology :

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Dahalo: baḥ
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: kill
Notes: met.?
dhlet-prnum,dhlet-meaning,dhlet-notes,

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