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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *sāma
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: sign
Russian meaning: знак, метка
Evenki: sāme
Even: hām
Literary Manchu: samχa
Orok: sama-lkị
Nanai: sāmogdā̃ 'a talisman placed on the breast of the deceased so that the shaman can recognize him when taking his soul to the other world' (Он.)
Comments: ТМС 2, 60-61.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-man,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *sāmo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: shape, appearance
Russian meaning: форма, вид
Turkic: *som
Tungus-Manchu: *sāma
Japanese: *sámà
Comments: The comparison seems probable, despite tonal incongruence between TM and Jpn. Ramstedt (SKE 222) compares Manchu forms with Kor. sam 'a speck or mote in the eye' (that may rather belong to *sḗmi q. v.).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *som
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 number; honour 2 shape, silhouette
Russian meaning: 1 число, счет; почет 2 форма, вид
Khakassian: som 2
Oyrat: som 2
Halaj: soma 2
Chuvash: som 1
Yakut: omoon 2
Tuva: soma 2
Comments: VEWT 427, Федотов 2, 61-62, ЭСТЯ 7. The relationship to *sōm 'whole (piece)' (see ibid.) is not quite clear.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sámà
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: form, shape
Russian meaning: форма, вид
Old Japanese: sama
Middle Japanese: sama
Tokyo: samá
Kyoto: sámà
Kagoshima: sáma
Comments: JLTT 517.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *šamV
Meaning: shape
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *sāmo
Uralic: *šamV
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1628
Proto: *šamV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: shape
German meaning: Form, Gestalt, Gesicht
Finnish: haamu, hahmo 'Gespenst, Schemen; Geist, Schatten' ( > Saam. L hapmō 'Gesichtsausdruck, Aussehen')
Saam (Lapp): (sjipmō (L) 'Gleichheit, Ähnlichkeit' - rejected by Redei)
Mordovian: čama (E), šama (M) 'Gesicht, Antlitz'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVMV
Meaning : name, shape
Eurasiatic : *šamV
Afroasiatic : *(ʔi-)sim-
Sino-Caucasian : *=ēmcŪ́
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *(ʔi-)sim-
Meaning: name
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *(ʔi-)šim-
Berber: *(H)isVm- 'name'
Western Chadic: *sumi
Central Chadic: *ŝim-/*ŝyam-
East Chadic: *sim-
Notes: Irregular *ŝ in CCh. Related to *sim- 'call, speak'.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 602
Proto-Semitic: *(ʔi-)šim-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: name
Akkadian: šum-
Ugaritic: šm
Phoenician: šm
Hebrew: šēm
Aramaic: Pal šēm, šwm
Biblical Aramaic: šum
Syrian Aramaic: šǝm
Modern Aramaic: Urm šimm-
Mandaic Aramaic: šum-
Arabic: ʔism-
Modern Arabic: Leb ʔǝsǝm, Mec ism, Mlt isem
Epigraphic South Arabian: s1̇m
Geʕez (Ethiopian): sǝm
Tigre: sǝm
Tigrai (Tigriñña): sǝm
Amharic: sǝm
Argobba: sǝm
Gafat: sǝmʷä
Harari: sum
East Ethiopic: Wol sum
Gurage: Cha šǝm
Mehri: ham
Jibbali: šum
Harsusi: hem
Soqotri: šem
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-phn,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-bib,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-dial,semet-sar,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-amh,semet-arg,semet-gaf,semet-hrr,semet-east,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-hss,semet-soq,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *(H)isVm-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'name'
Ghadames: ism
Ghat: isǝm
Ayr: ism
Ahaggar (Tahaggart): isǝm
Zenaga: ešǝm
Baamrani: isǝm
Izdeg: ism
Izayan: isǝm
Iznassen: ism
Snus: ism
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): isǝm
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ghd,brbet-ght,brbet-ayr,brbet-ahg,brbet-zng,brbet-bmr,brbet-izd,brbet-izy,brbet-izn,brbet-snu,brbet-qbl,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *sumi
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'name'
Hausa: sū́nā́
Sura: súm {JgS]
Angas: süm [Fl]
Montol: sûm {JgC]
Ankwe=Goemai: sum [Fp]
Gerke=Yiwom: tǝ́m [JgC]
Bolewa: sún- [ShV]
Karekare: sǝm [LkK]
Dera=Kanakuru: yím [NmK]
Tangale: sụmɔ [JgT]
Ngamo: sun [ShV]
Maha: sum [NmM]
Bele: hín-tì [ShB]
Kifri=Giwo: šímí [ShB]
Gera: sǝ́mà [ShV]
Galambu: ším [ShV]
Geruma: šîmí [ShB]
Diri: šin [SkNb]
Pa'a: sim, sun [MS]
Cagu: šim-àn [Sk]
Mburku: šin [Sk]
Jimi: sim [Cs]
Polchi: su/ǝm
Geji: šin [CLR: 248]
Mangas: wusim [Cs]
Zaar: sũm [CLR]
Sayanchi: sũm [Cs]
Boghom: yìsím [Cs]
Guruntum: sin [Cs]
Buli: sam [CLR]
Kir: wùsum [CLR]
Tule: šè:n [CLR]
Tala: sum [Cs]
Fyer: ku-súm [JgR]
Kulere: ʔasím [Jg]
Daffo-Butura: súm [Jg]
Notes: Some of the Warji languages have a -n noun marker, it is not WCh, in some languages*-m > -n.
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,wchet-sur,wchet-ang,wchet-mnt,wchet-ank,wchet-grk,wchet-bol,wchet-krk,wchet-der,wchet-tng,wchet-ngm,wchet-mah,wchet-bel,wchet-krf,wchet-ger,wchet-glm,wchet-grm,wchet-dir,wchet-paa,wchet-cag,wchet-mbu,wchet-jim,wchet-pol,wchet-gej,wchet-mng,wchet-zar,wchet-say,wchet-bgh,wchet-grn,wchet-bul,wchet-kir,wchet-tul,wchet-tal,wchet-fyr,wchet-klr,wchet-dfb,wchet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ŝim-/*ŝyam-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'name'
Tera: z̃im [Nm]
Gaanda: ŝìma [Kr 25]
Gabin: ŝìme [Kr 34]
Boka: s!imà [Kr: 44]
Hwona: ŝìmǝ̀ [Kr: 15]
Bura: ŝim [Ann]
Chibak: ŝimà [Kr: 63]
Kilba: ŝim [CLr]
Ngwaxi: ŝim [Kr: 83]
Margi: ŝǝm [CLR: 248]
Wamdiu: ŝɨmɔ̀ [Kr: 113]
Hildi=Margi Mbazuwa: ŝɨ̄m [Kr: 103]
Mbara: ŝím [TMba]
Higi Futu: ŝi [Kr: 172]
Higi Baza: ŝ-ti [Kr: 142]
Higi Nkafa: ŝi [CLr]
Fali Kiria: ŝɨm (u) [Kr: 182]
Fali Gili: s̃ǝn [Kr: 192]
Kapsiki=Higi Kamale: ŝi [Kr: 152]
Gisiga: s̃im-eḍ [CLR: 249]
Mulwi: s̃úm [CLR: 249]
Daba: z̃ími [Kr: 157]
Gude: lǝ̀má [Hs]
Gudu: li̇m [Kr: 76]
Fali Jilvu: z̃imu~ [Kr: 7]
Fali Muchella: z̃ìmu [Kr: 17]
Mwulyen: lùmǝ́ŋìn [Kr: 57]
Logone: ŝémī {LLog]
Buduma=Yedina: hɛmi [LBud]
Peve: šem-ḍe [Kr]
Zime-Batna: sém [Sa]
Masa: sém-na [CLR]
Mesme: sem
Notes: irregular voicing in the bata group as well as lateralization og the sibilant point to a former prefix (like in ECh): *k-sVm > k-s̃Vm/k-z̃Vm.
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-ter,cchet-gaa,cchet-gbn,cchet-bok,cchet-hwn,cchet-bur,cchet-chb,cchet-klb,cchet-ngw,cchet-mrg,cchet-wmd,cchet-hil,cchet-mba,cchet-hig,cchet-hib,cchet-hnk,cchet-fki,cchet-fag,cchet-kap,cchet-gis,cchet-muk,cchet-dab,cchet-gde,cchet-gdu,cchet-faj,cchet-fam,cchet-mwu,cchet-log,cchet-bud,cchet-lpe,cchet-zbt,cchet-mas,cchet-msm,cchet-notes,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *sim-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'name'
Somrai: súmí [Jg]
Tumak: hīm [Cp]
Ndam: hāḿ [JgD]
Kera: sám [Eb]
Kwang: kà-sǝ̄m [[CLR]
Mobu (dial. Kwang): sè́m [Jg]
Dangla: sĩŋ [Fd]
Migama: sémè [JMig] (pl.)
Bidiya: seme [JBid]
Mubi: sàmè [CLR: 249]
Mokilko: sùmá [JMkk]
Notes: Cf. Sokoro óssō, sìntà, Kabalai kosí, Lele kōndī [CLR} - all < *kV-sVn-t/dV.
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-smr,echet-tum,echet-ndm,echet-ker,echet-kwn,echet-mob,echet-dng,echet-mig,echet-bid,echet-mub,echet-mkk,echet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *=ēmcŪ́
Meaning: to say, tell
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *=[ī]mcŪ
Sino-Tibetan: *cho ( ~ -ǝ, -ū, -ăw)
Yenisseian: *ʔas- / *ʔēs-
Burushaski: *-́s-, *sen-
Basque: *u=se-n, *hic (cf. also *e=śa-n 'say, tell')
Comments and references : HGC 37, (DCE 29), BCD 11.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *=[ī]mcŪ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to speak, to tell, to talk
Proto-Nakh: *=ēbc-
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *=ocVn-
Proto-Tsezian: *=ĩs:- / *=ɨ̃s:- A
Proto-West Caucasian: *c:ʷa
Notes: A common NC verb with good correspondences (except for the first vowel, which is somewhat unclear, probably because of Ablaut correlations).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *=ēbc-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to tell
Chechen: =īc-
Ingush: =uwc-
Batsbi: =epc-
Comments: The Ing. form =uwc- reflects PN *=ēbc-u- (cf. Chech. pres. =ǖcu).
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *=ocVn-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to say, tell
Avar: =íc-ine
Andian language: =osan-
Akhvakh: =ačunu-
Chamalal: =asn-
Tindi: =asin-
Karata: =asan-
Botlikh: =asã-
Bagvalal: =asã-
Godoberi: =asĩ-
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=ĩs:- / *=ɨ̃s:- A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to say, speak
Tsezi: =es-
Ginukh: =es-
Khvarshi: =is-
Inkhokvari: =is-
Bezhta: nis-
Gunzib: nɨs-
Comments: PTsKh *=is-, PGB *n-ɨs- (*=ɨ̃s-).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *c:ʷa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to talk
Abkhaz: a-č̌á-ž̌a-ra
Abaza: čʷa-žʷa-ra
Comments: PAT *c:ʷa-zʷa- (a compound with PAT *azʷa 'word, speech' q.v.).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *cho ( ~ -aw, -ew, -ɨ)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: speak, word
Burmese: ćhǝw to say, speak, tell.
Kachin: (Mat.) su1 to speak, convey news of a tragedy (possibly from Burm.).
Lushai: thu word, saying, news, order.
Comments: There appears to have existed another root *śoj 'say, speak', reflected in Lush. soi, Tib. (dial.) si, Konyak še, Naga *sa, Naxi sǝ, Sichuan *šV - but at least some of these forms can also go back to *cho.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-comments,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔas- / *ʔes-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to shout, call
Ket: dɛ:śij4 (North.), South. dɛśij4 "I shout"; dɛśɔĺej6 'I shouted'; asanǝj6 'to speak'
Yug: dɛ:hsi4 "I shout"; dɛsɔri5,6 "I shouted"; ɛ́s-tej 'to call'
Kottish: ačāʔājaŋ "to call", praet. ačāʔālajaŋ, imp. ačāʔālčex, pass. ačāʔālagi; ače, ači "calling"
Comments: ССЕ 183. The Pump. forms: desɨgań "shout" (Срсл.), desɨgin (Срсл.) are in reality Yug. Cf. also Ket aś-kʌʔt, Yug as-kɛ:ht 'fairy-tale' (a compound with an unclear second component). See Werner 1, 62-63, 241, 258 (without reconstructions).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-́s-, *sen-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: say
Yasin: sén-
Hunza: -́s-, sén-
Nagar: -́s-, sén-
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *u=se-n / *hic
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 name 2 word
Bizkaian: uzen, izen, ixen 1
Gipuzkoan: izen 1, itz 2
High Navarrese: izen 1, itz 2
Low Navarrese: izen 1, hitz 2
Lapurdian: izen 1, hitz 2
Zuberoan: izen 1, hitz 2
Roncalese: izen 1, itz 2
Comments: According to Azkue the form uzen 'name' is restricted to 4 villages in B: Arratia, Bermeo, Orozko, Txorierri. Bsq *u=se-n and *hic (and the verb *e=śa-n 'say, tell') seem to be different permutations of the same PSC root, *=ēmcŪ́.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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