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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kuǯur-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to cover, bury (with soil)
Russian meaning: заваливать (землей)
Negidal: kuǯuj-
Comments: ТМС 1,424 (an isolated Negidal form, but with probable external parallels).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-neg,tunget-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯aǯurV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: sand, steppe, earth
Russian meaning: песок, степь, земля
Turkic: *Kạjɨr
Mongolian: *kuǯir
Tungus-Manchu: *kuǯur-
Comments: VEWT 222 (Turk.-Mong.), АПиПЯЯ 287, Лексика 97. A Western isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kạjɨr
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 salt steppe 2 sandbank 3 gravel 4 sand
Russian meaning: 1 солончак 2 песчаный берег 3 гравий 4 песок
Karakhanid: qajɨr 1, 4 (MK Oghuz)
Turkish: kajɨr 2
Middle Turkic: (OKypch.) qajɨr (Houts. 94, AH 74)
Uzbek: dial. qɛjir 3
Turkmen: dial. Gajɨr 3, 4
Chuvash: xъjъr 4
Yakut: xajɨr tās 3
Tuva: xajɨr 1
Kazakh: qajɨr 2
Noghai: qajɨr 4
Karakalpak: qajɨr 2
Kumyk: qajɨr 3
Comments: VEWT 221-222, EDT 678, ЭСТЯ 5, 206, 217, Лексика 97. Turk. > WMong. qajir, Kalm. xǟr (KW 180).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-tuv,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kuǯir
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: salty earth
Russian meaning: солончак
Written Mongolian: quǯir (L 994)
Middle Mongolian: qǝǯǝr (IM)
Khalkha: xuǯir
Buriat: xužar
Kalmuck: xuǯr
Ordos: xuǯir, Guǯir
Dagur: xod́ir (Тод. Даг. 176; MGCD xoǯir)
Shary-Yoghur: χuǯir
Monguor: xoʒ́ir 'soude' (SM 170)
Comments: KW 195, MGCD 385. Mong. > Man. xuǯiri (see Doerfer MT 104, Rozycki 112 - but not Evk. kudu).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ki[ǯ]V
Meaning: sand
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *g'eis-
Altaic: *ki̯aǯurV
Uralic: *kOčV
Kartvelian: Georg. kviša, Svan. kwiše 'sand' ?
Dravidian: *kesar_- (*-i-)
Comments: Georg. ḳenč̣- 'pebble' ?
References: Blazh. KM 135; ND 954 *[k][ü]šʔV 'gravel, sand'; 990a *ḳećV 'clay, dirt'; 1103 *ḳ[E]ŋć̣V 'gravel, pebbles' (with a lot of confusion).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *g'eis-
Meaning: gravel
Baltic: *ǯeĩs-r-ā̂ f., -a- c., *ǯis-r-a- c.
Germanic: *kís-a- m., n., *kís-il-a- m.
Russ. meaning: щебень, гравий
References: WP I 553
piet-meaning,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ǯeĩs-r-ā̂ f., -a- c., *ǯis-r-a- c.
Meaning: gravel
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: žiezdrà `Grand, Korn', pl. žiẽzdrōs `Sand', žiẽzdra-s `(Kies-, Grus)sand, Gries', dial. pl. t. žiẽ(g)zdrōs `Grand', žiegzdrà `id.'; žìzdra-s `Kies, grober Sand', dial. žigždra-s `id.'
Old Prussian: sixdo `Sand' V. 26
Comments: For literary Lith. Lyberis gives žiegždrà 'žvirgždas', žiegždrī́nas 'žvirgždynas'. Cf. comment to #1627. (В. Ч.)
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-oprus,baltet-notes,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *kísa-z, -n, *kísila-z
Meaning: gravel
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: ceosel (ceosol, cisil, cysel), -es m. `gravel, sand'
Middle Dutch: kēsel
Old High German: kisil (8.Jh.), kisilī(n) (12.Jh.) `Kieselstein, Hagelstein, Schlosse'
Middle High German: kis st. m., n. 'kies'; kisel st. m. 'kieselstein; hagelstein, schlosse'
German: Kies m., Kiesel m.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-mdutch,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 554
Root: ĝeis-
English meaning: gravel
German meaning: `Kies'
General comments: (gei-s-, wenn nld. kei `Stein' < *keie < *kaijo hierher gehört oder kei < *kagi zu kegel? s. Franck-v. Wijk 298)
Material: Mhd. kis m. n. `Kies', ags. ciosol, cisel m. ds., ahd. kisili, kisel, kisilinc `Kiesel, Steinchen', nnd. keiserling, keserling, kiserling ds.;

    apr. sixdo f. `Sand', lit. žiezdrà, `Kies, Korn', žiẽzdros `Kies, grober Sand', žiẽgzdros ds., auch m. žiẽgzdrai.

    Fragwürdig die Zugehörigkeit des angeblich phryg. γίσσα `Stein' bei Steph. Byz. s. v. Μονογισσα.

References: WP. I 553.
Pages: 356
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 442
Proto: *kOčV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: sand, sandy place
German meaning: Sand; sandige Stelle
Udmurt (Votyak): gi̮ǯ, gi̮ǯi̮ (S), gi̮ǯ́i̮, gi̮ži̮ (M) 'Sandkorn', gị̑žǝ̑ (Uf.) 'feines Sandkorn'
Komi (Zyrian): ke̮ž (Ud.) 'steinige od. kieselige Stelle im Fluß oder am Flußufer', keža (S Lu.) 'Kies, Grieß', ku̇ža., ku̇.ǯa 'галечник, мелкое место в реке с дном из галек'
Khanty (Ostyak): χĭš (Kaz.) '(feiner) Sand', χis (O) ( > Mansi So. χis 'Sand')
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kesar_- (*-i-)
Meaning : mud, mire
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kIsar_-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kIsar_-
Meaning : mud, mire
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : cēr_u (in cpds. cēr_r_u-)
Tamil meaning : mud, mire, slush, liquid of thick consistency
Tamil derivates : (?) ceyyal mire, slush; cēval mud, mire
Malayalam : cēr_u (in cpds. cēr_r_u-)
Malayalam meaning : mire, wet soil (for transplanting rice)
Kannada : kesar_
Kannada meaning : wet soil, mud, mire
Kannada derivates : kesar_ige drain of a bathroom
Tulu : kesarụ
Tulu meaning : mud, mire, dirt
Tulu derivates : kēdụ mud, soft clay
Proto-Nilgiri : *kēr_
Number in DED : 2020
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kēr_
Meaning : tank
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kēr "shallow tank, puddle"
Toda : kȫr_ (obl. kȫt_-) "lake, tank formed by dam"
Additional forms : Also Kota cēr, Toda sör_ mud
Notes : Forms with initial affricates are borrowed from Tamil (maybe already in PN: *sēr_).
Number in DED : 2020
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVCV
Meaning : sand
Eurasiatic : *kiCV
Afroasiatic : *q̇ac̣-/*q̇VwVc̣- (ND 954: Berb. *kwẓ, various Chad.; 1103: Ar. qaδ̣δ̣-, various Cush., Chad.; 990a : Sem. *ḳic̣c̣-, some Chad.)
Sino-Caucasian : ? EC *GoʒV 'dirt'
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *q̇a(wV)c̣-
Meaning: sand
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ḫ/ḥVw/yVṣ- 'sand, gravel'
Western Chadic: *ḳas- 'earth, sand'
Central Chadic: *KVs- 'sand' 1, 'sandy soil' 2
East Chadic: *kVs-kV 'sand'
Central Cushitic (Agaw): *ḳus-
Omotic: *ḳac̣- 'sand'
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-agw,afaset-omo,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1890
Proto-Semitic: *ḫ/ḥVw/yVṣ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sand, gravel'
Akkadian: ḫiṣṣu 'rubble, gravel' CAD ḫ 204
Hebrew: ḥāṣāṣ 'pebble, gravel'
Syrian Aramaic: ḥǝṣāṣā
Mandaic Aramaic: aṣaṣa, ṣaṣa 'gravel'
Arabic: ḥaṣā 'stone, pebble', ḥiṣḥiṣ- 'stones'
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ḫoṣa
Tigre: ḥǝṣä
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ḥuṣa
Soqotri: ḥaṣaḥaṣihin 'gravel'
Notes: LGz 266
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-hbr,semet-syr,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *ḳas-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'earth, sand'
Hausa: ḳásā́
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-hsa,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *KVs-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sand' 1, 'sandy soil' 2
Mbara: tú-kùs 2 [TrMba]
Buduma=Yedina: kēsa 1 [CLR]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-mba,cchet-bud,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *kVs-kV
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sand'
Dangla: kòs-kò [Fd]
Bidiya: kós-ko [JgB]
Notes: ? partial redupl.
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-dng,echet-bid,echet-notes,

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Central Cushitic (Agaw) etymology :

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Proto-Agaw: *ḳus-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sand'
Bilin: ḳusa
agwet-prnum,agwet-meaning,agwet-bil,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *ḳac̣-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'sand'
Kafa (Kaficho): ḳaco
Gimirra (Benesho, She): ḳačay, ḳač
Nao: ḳaṣa
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,omoet-gim,omoet-nao,

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