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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čaŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 whitish, blond, grey (of hair) 2 white colour
Russian meaning: 1 беловатый, седой 2 белый цвет
Written Mongolian: čaŋkir , čeŋkir 1, čaŋ 'hoar-frost' (L 164)
Khalkha: caŋ 'hoar-frost'
Buriat: sanxir 1
Kalmuck: caŋ 2
Ordos: čaŋ 'hoar-frost'
Comments: KW 421. Mong. čeŋkir > Yak. ǯeŋke, Dolg. ǯeŋke, d́eŋke 'clear, transparent' (see Kaɫ. IV 88, Stachowski 78).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *šā̀ŋu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: clear, light
Russian meaning: ясный, светлый
Turkic: *čAŋ
Mongolian: *čaŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *šā(ŋ)-
Japanese: *sùm-
Comments: Mong. has also *čaji- / *čeji- 'be white, whitish', associated in the modern language rather with *čaga-ɣan 'white' (see *šā̀k`a), but phonetically rather going back to *čaŋi- < *šaŋu. Despite Rozycki 193, the TM forms are hardly borrowed < Mong.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čAŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 morning dawn 2 mist
Russian meaning: 1 утренняя заря 2 туман, мгла
Karakhanid: čaŋ ( ~ čäŋ) (ЛОК) 1
Turkish: čen 2 (dial.) (?)
Uighur: čaŋ 2 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: čän, dial. čaŋ 2
Khakassian: saŋmarax 'марево'
Chuvash: śan-/śavъn-talъk 'weather, climate' (Федотов 2 84-85; the second part = Tat. täwlek 'day, 24 hours')
Bashkir: šaŋdaq 'glow in the sky (from celestial phenomena or from fire)', dial. saŋɣärt 'марево'
Comments: ДТС 139, Лексика 35, 36. A somewhat dubious root. The words meaning 'mist' may go back to a separate root, PT *čeŋ 'dust'. Other forms (including the late OT one) can be < Mong., but semantics is rather against assuming such a loan.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-hak,turcet-chv,turcet-bas,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *šā(ŋ)-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: white, become white
Russian meaning: белый, белеть
Spoken Manchu: š́aŋan (2426)
Literary Manchu: šaŋǵan, ša-li-bu-
Jurchen: ĉaŋ-gian (619)
Ulcha: ča-m, ča-lịn-
Nanai: čā-m, čā-lā bi
Oroch: čā-m
Udighe: ča-m bie, ča-li-gi
Comments: ТМС 2, 380-382 (confused with *šāk- q. v. sub *šā̀k`a).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *sùm-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to become clear, limpid
Russian meaning: быть чистым, прозрачным
Old Japanese: sum-
Middle Japanese: sùm-
Tokyo: súm-
Kyoto: súm-
Kagoshima: sùm-
Comments: JLTT 759.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *swVNV
Meaning: blue
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *šā̀ŋu 'clear, light'
Uralic: *sine 'blau'
Comments: Cf. also PA *si̯ăŋe(rV) ( ~ z-); PEsk *cuŋa-.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-notes,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1574
Proto: *sine
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: blue
German meaning: Blau; blau
Finnish: sini (gen. sinen) 'blaue Farbe, Blau, Bläue', sininen 'blau'
Estonian: sini (gen. sini) 'Bläue, blaue Farbe', sinine (gen. sinise) 'blau'
Mordovian: seń, säń (E), śeńem (M) 'blau'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mrd,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVNV
Meaning : blue
Eurasiatic : *swVNV
Sino-Caucasian : *śVŋV́
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *ʒa̯N- "blue, green".
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-afr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *śVŋV́
Meaning: blue, green
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *śīnV
Sino-Tibetan: *chēŋ
Yenisseian: *so(ʔ)n-
Burushaski: *diŋ
Comments and references : HGC 19, WFR 76.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *śīnV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: blue, green
Proto-Nakh: *sēn-i(n)
Proto-Dargwa: *š:iniš(:)-
Proto-Khinalug: sɨ-b
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The Khin. word is somewhat dubious (it may belong here only if sɨb < *sɨn-Vb with an old class suffix), but the Nakh-Darg. correspondence is quite satisfactory.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-darg,caucet-khin,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *sēn-i(n)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: blue
Chechen: sīna
Ingush: sīna
Batsbi: sejnĭ, sīnĭ
Comments: Cf. also Cheb. sjēni 'blue'. The pure root is preserved in Chech. sen-dan 'to make blue', Bacb. sen-dalar 'to become blue'.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *š:iniš(:)-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: green
Akusha: šiniša
Chiragh: š:inišze
Comments: Cf. also Kait., Kharb. šiniš-.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-chr,darget-comment,

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Khinalug etymology :

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Khinalug root: sɨ-b
North Caucasian etymology: 626
Meaning: green
Khinalug form: sɨb
Comments: External data apparently indicate that -b is a historical suffix (sɨ-b < *sɨn-b).
khinet-prnum,khinet-meaning,khinet-khi,khinet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *chreŋ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: live, fresh
Chinese: *shreŋ live; fresh (as greens).
Burmese: hraŋ to live, be alive.
Lushai: hriŋ be green (in colour), fresh; to bear,bring forth, KC *hriŋ\.
Kiranti: *h(r)iŋ
Comments: Moshang -lhiŋ; Rawang ǝthiŋ unripe. Sh. 135, 410, 436; Ben. 85. STEDT 146-152 *s-riŋ ~ *s-raŋ. Perhaps etymologically related to *chăr 'fresh' q.v.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-lush,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: shēng
Preclassic Old Chinese: shrēŋ
Classic Old Chinese: shrēŋ
Western Han Chinese: ṣhēŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: ṣhiēŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: ṣhiẹ̄ŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ṣhiẹ̄ŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: ṣhiẹ̄ŋ
Middle Chinese: ṣạ̣̈iŋ
Fanqie: 師亨
Rhyme class:
English meaning : to live; be alive, fresh; be born, grow; birth; life
Russian meaning[s]: 1) жить; живой; жизнь; 2) существование; средства к жизни; быт; 3) родить(ся); рождение; порождать; производить; появляться, возникать; 4) принести (потомство, проценты); 5) сырой; недоваренный; необработанный; незнакомый; непривычный; 6) дикий, неприрученный; непокоренный; 7) несведущий, неопытный; 8) учащийся; ученик; ученый; механик; суффикс соответствующих профессий; 9) название ряда мужских амплуа в театре; 10) суффикс некоторых наречий в устной речи; 11) насильно, через силу; попусту, нерасчетливо; 12) Шэн (фамилия)
Shuowen gloss: 進也. 象艸木生出土上. 凡生之屬皆從生.
Comments: Also read *shreŋ-s, MC ṣạ̀iŋ (FQ 所敬) id. For *sh- cf. Min forms: Xiamen chĩ1, Chaozhou chẽ1, Fuzhou chiaŋ1.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 100
Four-angle index: 385
Karlgren code: 0812 a-b
Vietnamese reading: sinh
Jianchuan Bai: sõ1, sẽ2
Dali Bai: se3
Bijiang Bai: śõ1, se2
Shijing occurrences: 31.4, 35.5
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-fanqie,bigchina-rhyme,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-shuowen,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,bigchina-shijing,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 195
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 梗開二平庚生
ZIHUI: 3932 2483
Beijing: ṣǝŋ 11
Jinan: ṣǝŋ 11
Xi'an: ṣǝŋ 11
Taiyuan: sǝŋ 1
Hankou: sǝn 11
Chengdu: sǝn 11
Yangzhou: sǝn 11
Suzhou: sǝn 11 (lit.); saŋ 11
Wenzhou: siɛ 11
Changsha: sǝn 11
Shuangfeng: śiǝ̃ 11 (lit.); sõ 11
Nanchang: sɛn 11
Meixian: sɛn 11
Guangzhou: šāŋ 11
Xiamen: sîŋ 11 (lit.); sĩ 11; cĩ 11
Chaozhou: sẽ 11
Fuzhou: seiŋ 11
Shanghai: sǝŋ 1
Zhongyuan yinyun: šǝŋ 1
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *h(r)iŋ
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: live
Limbu: hiŋmaʔ
Kulung: hi:ma
Yamphu: hiŋma 'live', hiŋrik 'unripe, green'
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-lim,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: hiNmaʔ, -hiN-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vi.
Meaning: be alive, live
Comments: kɛhiN kɛnchinɛn You'll live; you won't die; cf. hiNmaʔ.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: hi:ma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vt-4 [1: hiN- 2: hiNN- 3: hi:-]
Meaning: raise, bring up (livestock, children), care for
Nepali: pālnu, hurkāunu.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: hiŋma I
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Stem: <hiks- ; hiŋ->
Grammar: v.intr.
Meaning: to live, survive.
Nepali: bācnu
yamet-prnum,yamet-stem,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-nepali,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *son-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: blue, green
Ket: śon (Кастр.), Kell. śon-ś (Werner 2, 221 śʌń-)
Kottish: šueŋa (Бол.) "bluely" (or "it is blue")
Comments: ССЕ 276. Werner 2, 221, 442 <*sʌj / *sʌn>, with a lot of confusion. Kott šueŋa "blue" is identified with Kott. šujaŋa (Bol) "grey", although the latter is certainly a form of the word recorded by Castren as šui "yellow" and as such is to be compared with Pump. tul-si "yellow" and Ket sulemam "yellow" (М., Сл.). In PY we can safely distinguish between *son- (perhaps *sǝn-) 'blue, green', *suŕ 'yellow, grey' and *sur "red, blood", while lumping them together under a pseudoprotoform *sʌj / *sʌn hardly brings us anywhere.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *diŋ
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: green
Hunza: diŋ
Nagar: diŋ
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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