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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *hargal
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dung, excrement
Russian meaning: навоз, кизяк
Written Mongolian: arɣal, arɣasu(n) (L 52)
Middle Mongolian: horɣ[a]l (IM), hărɣal (MA)
Khalkha: argal
Buriat: argal
Kalmuck: arɣǝsṇ
Ordos: argal
Dagur: xargal (Тод. Даг. 174)
Shary-Yoghur: harʁal
Monguor: xarGar (SM 161), (MGCD: xarGal)
Comments: KW 14, MGCD 118. Mong. > Chag. arɣasun, see Щербак 1997, 203; > Evk. argahun (see Doerfer MT 130 - but not Man. faǯan!), Russ. dial. argál, argasún (Аникин 94, 95).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *p`arkV
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: excrement
Russian meaning: навоз, экскременты
Turkic: *ark
Mongolian: *hargal
Tungus-Manchu: *parga- ( ~ -rk-)
Comments: EAS 53, 125, Poppe 11, Цинциус 1984, 33. A Western isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ark
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: excrement
Russian meaning: навоз, экскременты
Karakhanid: arq (MK)
Middle Turkic: Kypch. arq (Houts.)
Turkmen: arq (А-Б)
Khakassian: arɨx
Halaj: harq
Comments: EDT 213, VEWT 26.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-khal,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *parga- ( ~ -rk-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: excrement, to defecate
Russian meaning: помет, испражняться
Spoken Manchu: faǯǝn (104, 497, 2327)
Literary Manchu: faǯan, faǯa-
Comments: ТМС 1, 50. Attested only in Manchu (with -ǯ- regularly < *-rg- or -rk-), with probable parallels in Turkic and Mongolian; despite Rozycki 72-73 borrowing from Mong. is extremely unlikely.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *tE[ṗ]V
Meaning: to fly, wing
Altaic: *tĕ́p`é (cf. also *di̯up`ú)
Uralic: BF *tīpe 'wing'
Dravidian: *tū[v]- (possibly several contaminated roots, cf. esp. Kan. tippuṛ, etc.)
References: ND 549 *d[äʔi]pV ~ *d[äʔi]ṗV 'wave, flap, fly, wing' (Alt. + Ur. + Arab. and some scattered Chad.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *tū[v]-
Meaning : feather
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *tūv-
Proto-Telugu : *tū-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *tūv-
Meaning : feather
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : tūval
Tamil meaning : feather, feather of an arrow, quill pen, painter's brush of cat's or squirrel's hair, sprout, shoot
Tamil derivates : tūvi feather or down of birds, peacock's tail, swan's down, swan, quill pen; feather, plumage; tuy cotton
Malayalam : tūval
Malayalam meaning : feather, pen, quill, an arrow's feather, a painter's brush
Malayalam derivates : toppa wool, animal's hair; toppal feather
Kannada : tippuẓ
Kannada meaning : a bird's wing or feather
Kannada derivates : tuppaẓa the plumage on some pigeons' legs; tuppuẓ a feather, the soft plumage or down of birds; the fine soft hair of rabbits; tuppaẓu wool, fine soft hair as of cats; tuppaṭa, tubaṭa wool
Kodagu : toppɨṭa
Kodagu meaning : feather
Tulu : tuyi, (B-K also) suyi
Tulu meaning : feather, quill, the plume of birds
Tulu derivates : (Bhattacharya) sūvi feather
Proto-Nilgiri : *tūv-
Miscellaneous : KOR (M) cippuḍu feather
Number in DED : 3393
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *tūv-
Meaning : feather, bird's tail
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Toda : tūfy
Number in DED : 3393
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-toda,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *tū-
Meaning : dragon-fly
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : tūnī̃ga
Dialectal forms (1) : tūnĩga
Number in DED : 3393
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-dednum,

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