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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *ìráŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: furrow
Russian meaning: межа, борозда
Modern Korean: iraŋ
Middle Korean: ìráŋ
Comments: Nam 399, KED 1324.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ī́ŕu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: trace, furrow
Russian meaning: след, борозда
Turkic: *īŕ / *ɨ̄ŕ
Mongolian: *(h)iraɣa-
Tungus-Manchu: *iru-n
Korean: *ìráŋ
Comments: EAS 112, KW 209, Poppe 81, Lee 1958, 113, ОСНЯ 1, 251. Despite Doerfer's (TMN 2, 53) doubts ( "allerdings zweifelhaft" ), the comparison seems completely justified.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *īŕ / *ɨ̄ŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 trace 2 furrow
Russian meaning: 1 след 2 борозда, межа
Old Turkic: iz 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: iz 1 (MK)
Turkish: iz 1
Tatar: ĭz 1, ɨzan 2
Middle Turkic: iz 1 (Бор. Бад., Pav. C.)
Uzbek: iz 1
Uighur: iz 1
Sary-Yughur: is 1
Azerbaidzhan: iz 1
Turkmen: ɨ̄z 1
Khakassian: ĭs 1
Oyrat: is 1
Chuvash: jǝr 1, jъran 2
Tuva: is 1
Kirghiz: iz 1
Kazakh: ĭz 1
Noghai: ɨz 1, ɨzan 2
Bashkir: ĭδ 1, ɨδan 2
Balkar: ɨz 1
Gagauz: jiz 1
Karaim: iz, ɨz 1
Karakalpak: iz 1
Kumyk: hɨzan 2
Comments: EDT 277, ЭСТЯ 1, 383-385, 646, 647, VEWT 175, Егоров 79, 75. There exists a verbal derivative *īŕ-te- 'to follow one's tracks', attested as iste- as early as in OUygh. (see EDT 243) and in many modern languages (see ЭСТЯ 1, 383); but simultaneously there is a variant *īr-te- (with *-ŕ- > -r- according to Helimski's rule), attested already in MK (see EDT 208) and in Yak., Dolg. irdē-, see Stachowski 128.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *(h)iraɣa-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: ripple, riffle
Russian meaning: рябь (на поверхности воды)
Written Mongolian: iraɣa (L 412)
Khalkha: jarāt-
Kalmuck: erɛ̄t-
Comments: KW 124. WMong. iraɣa, iralɣa (Kalm. irlɣǝn) 'ripple (on water)' > Man. iraxi, iren id., see Rozycki 117.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *iru-n
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: furrow
Russian meaning: грядка, борозда
Literary Manchu: irun, jurun
Nanai: irũ
Comments: ТМС 1, 328. Cf. perhaps also *ir- 'to drag, trail' (ТМС 1, 323-324) (< *'to leave a trace').
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-man,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *iŕV
Meaning: trace, to drag
Indo-European: *er- <PIH *erH->
Altaic: *ī́ŕu
Uralic: *jarV
Dravidian: *īṛi-
Comments: PIE "earth" may be included here if it goes back to *'furrow' (?).
References: МССНЯ 368, ОСНЯ 1, 251; ND 69 *ʔir[a] or *ʔiy/ʔr[a] 'drag, pull, push' - rejecting PA *ī́ŕu but listing PTM *ira- 'to drag' (which is probably the same root). Dolg. also includes not the Drav. *īṛi-, but PSD *īr-, as well as a rather dubious Eg. ꜣr- 'push aside'. Same root is probably ND 2647 *yaŕV 'to draw / scratch a sign' (Ural. + part of Drav. + incorr. Alt.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *er- <PIH *-rH->
Meaning: earth, arable land
Hittite: ? irha- 'border', h.l. irha- 'Grenze, meist pl. fines', luw. irhatt- 'série, cercle', Lyk. ere (?) -- cf. #59, Hitt arha- 'Grenze' usw.
Tokharian: ? B yare 'gravel' (Adams 483, without defin. etymology)
Armenian: erkir `Erde' (k nach erkin `Himmel')
Old Greek: érǟ f. `Erde'; érazde `zur Erde'; polǘēro- 'rich in land' Hsch., acc. eresi-mḗtrēn = tḕn geōmetrían Hsch.
Germanic: *írɵ-ō(n-) f., *árɵ-ō f.
Celtic: MIr ert `Erde, Grund'; es-ert `Mann ohne Grundbesitz'; Cymr erw, pl. erwi, erwydd f. `Feld', Corn erw, ereu `Feld', OBret, Mbret eru `Furche', NBret ero `Furche'
Russ. meaning: земля, пахотная почва
References: WP I 142
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *írɵō(n), *árɵō
Meaning: earth
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: ɛrɵa f. (ō) `earth'
Old Norse: jɔrδ f. `Erde'
Norwegian: jord
Old Swedish: run. i Aruɵu
Swedish: jord
Danish: jord
Old English: eorɵe, -an f.; eorɵ, -e f. `earth (in opposition to the sea), ground, soil; eart, terrestrial globe'
English: earth
Old Frisian: irthe, erthe, erde
Old Saxon: ertha
Middle Dutch: aerde, eerde
Dutch: aarde f.
Old Franconian: ertha
Middle Low German: ērde
Old High German: erda f. (8.Jh.)
Middle High German: ërde st./wk. f. 'bebautes und bewohntes land; festland, erd-, fussboden; erde als wohnstatt der menschen; erde als stoff'
German: Erde f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 499
Root: er-4 (er-t-, er-u̯-)
English meaning: Earth
German meaning: `Erde'
Material: Gr. ἔρᾱ `Erde', ἔρα-ζε `zur Erde' (vielleicht davon ἐράω, s. unten S. 336; mit Zusammendehnung wohl πολύηρος πολυάρουρος, πλούσιος Hes.); ἔνεροι, s. oben S. 312; ἐρεσι-μέτρη γεωμετρίαν Hes.;

    germ. *erþō in got. aírþa, anord. jǫrð, ahd. (usw.) erda `Erde';

    germ. *erō in ahd. ero `Erde';

    u̯o-Erw. in anord. jǫrvi (*erwan-) `Sand, Sandbank', und

    cymr. erw f. `Feld', Pl. erwi, erwydd, corn. erw, ereu ds., abret. mbret. eru, nbret. ero `Furche' (*eru̯i-);

    vielleicht arm. erkir `Erde' (Pedersen KZ. 38, 197), wenn für *erg- (idg. *eru̯-) nach erkin `Himmel'.

References: WP. I 142, Finzenhagen Terminol. 6, Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 424.
Pages: 332
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1780
Proto: *jarV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to write, draw
German meaning: schreiben, zeichnen, malen
Khanty (Ostyak): jeri- (V) 'zeichnen', jȧ̆rip- (Trj.) 'einen Strich ziehen, kratzen, riefeln, schreiben' ?
Hungarian: ír- (írok, dial. ir-) 'schreiben; (dial.) Muster zeichnen, malen')
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *īẓi-
Meaning : to pull, drag
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ī̆ẓ- (cf. also *eẓut- 'to draw, write')
Proto-Telugu : *īḍ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *īṛi-
Proto-North Dravidian : *īc-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ī̆ẓ-
Meaning : to pull
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : iẓu (-pp-, -tt-)
Tamil meaning : to draw, pull, drag along the ground, attract (as a magnet), wheedle, draw out, stretch, draw into (as a whirlpool), engulf, absorb; have convulsions
Tamil derivates : iẓuppu, iẓuval, iẓuvai drawing, pulling; ici (-pp-, -tt-) to contract (as the muscles in spasm), ache (as the muscles from overexertion); pull, draw, drag; icippu pull, strain, spasm, convulsion; icivu spasm, convulsion, labour pains; icuppu sweeping away (as a flood)
Malayalam : iẓukka
Malayalam meaning : to draw, take off clothes
Malayalam derivates : iẓekka to drag, pull; iẓappu propelling force of a current, etc.; īẓkkuka to drag, put off clothes
Kannada : iẓ, īẓ, eẓe
Kannada meaning : to pull, drag, attract, take away by force, etc.; n. pulling, attracting, etc.
Kannada derivates : īḍu, eẓa, eẓavu pulling, dragging, etc.; eẓata pulling; eẓasu, eẓisu to cause to drag; (PBh.) iẓkuḷi attraction; i. goḷ to attract, captivate
Kodagu : ɨ̄ḷ- (ɨ̄p-, ɨ̄t-)
Kodagu meaning : to drag
Tulu : igguni
Tulu meaning : to draw, pull
Proto-Nilgiri : *iṛǝ-
Number in DED : 0504
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *iṛǝ-
Meaning : to drag
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : iḷv- (iḷt-) "to drag on ground (intr.); drag (tr.), suck"
Toda : ɨxy- (ɨxc-) "(calf) sucks"
Additional forms : Also Kota ? iv- (ivt-) to pull out or off; Toda īṣf- (īṣt-) to drag, pull
Notes : Toda ɨxy- is somewhat dubious; it is not excluded that ɨxy- = Tulu igguni draw, pull" (< *iṛ-g-?), but the phoneme sequence is too rare for the comparison to be certain.
Number in DED : 504
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *īḍ-
Meaning : to pull, haul, drag, draw, attract
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : īḍucu
Dialectal forms (1) : īḍcu
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : īḍu "to milk"
Additional forms : Also [1] īḍupu, [2] īḍpu pulling, delay, convulsion; īḍu-munta milk-pot; iggul-āḍu to pull, haul, drag, jerk; iggul-āṭa jerking, struggling; (B.) iggu to pull, haul, drag; iggā-muggi hauling about, struggle, violence
Number in DED : 504
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *īṛi-
Meaning : to pull, drag
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *iṛ-k-
Konda : īṛis- (-t-)
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ḍri-
Notes : Bisyllabic root and causative conjugation in PGn. The reflexation *ḍr- in PK is strange. Maybe it is possible to connect it with vowel length? (like, for example, *iṛi- > *iṛi- > *ṛi-, but *īṛi- > *ʔṛi- > *ḍri-).
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,gndet-kui,gndet-notes,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *iṛ-k-
Meaning : to drag
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Maria Gondi : iṛk-
Number in DED : 504
Number in CVOTGD : 192
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : īṛis- (-t-)
Meaning: to pull, drag
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Additional forms : Also Konda īṛispis- to make to drag; īṛay ā- to drag oneself along the ground
Number in DED : 504
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-addition,konet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *ḍri-
Meaning : to drag
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : ḍripa (ḍrit-) "to drag, drag away, abduct; n. act of dragging, abduction"
Kuwi (Schulze) : drī'nai "to haul"
Kuwi (Israel) : ḍriʔ- "to drag (leaves and branches to cover the seeds by levelling the soil)"
Number in DED : 504
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_s,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *īc-
Meaning : to draw out, take off
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kurukh : īcnā (īcyas/iccyas) "to draw out, pull out"
Malto : ice "to take off (as cap or shoes)"
Additional forms : Also KUR īcnā (īcyas), īsnā (īsyas) to pluck (an ear of Indian corn); MLT ic-qoṭe to jerk, shake off; icgre to come off, get loose; īce to louse.
Number in DED : 504
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-kur,ndret-mlt,ndret-addition,ndret-dednum,

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