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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *ka(i)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: day, period of time
Russian meaning: день, период времени
Old Japanese: ke
Comments: The root is also attested as a suffixed -ka (patu-ka '20 days', itu-ka '5 days' etc.), see JLTT 430, 448.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-comments,

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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gi̯òjńu
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: dawn, daylight
Russian meaning: рассвет, дневной свет
Turkic: *gün(eĺ) / *guńaĺ
Mongolian: *gegeɣe < *geɣeɣe
Tungus-Manchu: *giańam
Korean: *kúi
Japanese: *ka(i)
Comments: Лексика 78, Doerfer MT 143. Cf. also Mong. geji- 'to dawn' (KW 137), proving that *geɣe- < *geje-. The Korean form points to a cluster with *-j-, therefore a reconstruction *gi̯òjnu (with subsequent assimilative palatalization -jn- > -jń-) is perhaps more plausible; cf. also the variation *n/*ń in PT. The Jpn. reflex is somewhat problematic: loss of final resonant here may be explained by a standard development before a velar suffix (*ka < *gi̯òjn(u)-gV, cf. Mong. *gege-ɣe, Man. geŋ-ǵe); but one would rather expect a PJ form like *ku(i). The irregular vowel may be due to contraction, cf. a similar case in PJ *ká 'mosquito' < PA *kúńe.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gün(eĺ) / *guńaĺ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 sun 2 day 3 sunny place 4 sun-heat
Russian meaning: 1 солнце 2 день 3 солнечное место 4 солнечный жар
Old Turkic: kün 1, 2 (Orkh., OUygh.), küneš 3 (YB), isig qujaš 4 (OUygh. - Br.)
Karakhanid: kün 1, 2, qujaš 4 (MK), küneš 3 (Tefs.)
Turkish: gün 2, güneš 1, (dial.) gujaš 1
Tatar: kön 1, 2, qojaš 1
Middle Turkic: qujaš 1 (Sangl., Abush., Pav. C.), küneš 1 (Pav. C., Abush., Бор. Бад.), kün 1, 2 (Pav. C., MA)
Uzbek: kun 1, 2, qujɔš 1
Uighur: kün 1, 2, (dial.) qojaš 1
Sary-Yughur: kun 1, 2
Azerbaidzhan: gün 1, 2, günäš 1
Turkmen: gün 1, 2, güneš 1, 4, qujāš 1 (dial.)
Khakassian: kün 1, 2
Shor: kün 1, 2, qujaš 1
Oyrat: kün 1, 2, dial. qujaš 1 (Kumd., Leb.)
Halaj: kin, kün 1, 2, kinäš 'sonnig'
Chuvash: kon 2, xǝʷvel 1
Yakut: kün 1, 2, kuj̃ās 'heat'
Dolgan: kün 1, kuńās 'heat'
Tuva: xün 1, 2
Tofalar: xün 1, 2
Kirghiz: kün 1, 2
Kazakh: kün 1, 2
Noghai: kün 1, 2, qɨjas 4
Bashkir: kön 1, 2, könäs 4, qojaš 1
Balkar: kün 1, 2
Gagauz: gün 1, 2, güneš 1
Karaim: kün 1, 2, küneš 1, qujaš, qujas 1
Karakalpak: kün 1, 2, qujaš 1
Salar: gǖn 1, 2
Kumyk: gün 1, 2 güneš 1
Comments: VEWT 301, 309 (Räsänen separates *gün and *gun'al', which is hardly justified); EDT 679, 725, 734, ЭСТЯ 3, 100-104, 6, 112-113, Лексика 20-21, 64-65, 77-78, Федотов 1 306-307, Stachowski 161, 164. The forms *güńeĺ and *guńaĺ must be old dialectal variants.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *gegeɣe < *geɣeɣe
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dawn, daylight
Russian meaning: рассвет, дневной свет
Written Mongolian: gege(n), gegege(n) (L 373)
Middle Mongolian: gegejen (HY 53, SH), gegen (SH), geji- 'to become light' (SH), gigän (MA)
Khalkha: gegē(n)
Buriat: gegē(n)
Kalmuck: gēn, gegɛ̄n
Ordos: gegē(n)
Baoan: gegaŋ
Dagur: gegēn (Тод. Даг. 131, MD 149), geji- 'to get light (about the sky)' (MD 149)
Monguor: gǝgēn (SM 132)
Comments: KW 132, 135, MGCD 290.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *giańam
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dawn
Russian meaning: рассвет, заря
Evenki: gē̂wan
Even: gǟwụn
Negidal: gē̂wan
Ulcha: Gē̂wa(n)
Orok: Gē̂wa(n)
Nanai: Gịwã
Oroch: gǟawan
Udighe: gē̂äwa
Comments: ТМС 1, 145. The reflexes match almost exactly those of *miańam 'heart', which makes us reconstruct *giańam with a later assimilative development > *giawan. Cf. perhaps also Jurch. gen-gien 'light, clear' = Man. geŋǵen, SMan. giŋiN id. (a contamination with PTM *geŋg- 'clean, clear'? - or the same root?), see ТМС 1, 177.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kúi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: dawn
Russian meaning: рассвет
Modern Korean: häk:wi
Middle Korean: hắis-kúi
Comments: Nam 484, KED 1815.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gojńV
Meaning: dawn
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *gʷhei- 'мерцать' (Pok. 488-489)
Altaic: *gi̯ā̀jńu
Uralic: *koj[ń]e
References: МССНЯ 342, ОСНЯ 1, 230-231; ND 701 *goXyV 'light, sunshine, dawn'; 905 *Kun̄yaHĺE 'sunshine, daybreak'; ND 1080 *Ḳün̄V ~ *Ḳun̄E 'sun, day' (hardly distinguishable; but cf. also Ural. *kuŋe 'moon').
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *gʷhai-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: light, bright
Old Greek: phaió-, phái̯dimo- `glänzend, stattlich', phai̯dró- `hell, klar, heiter, fröhlich, vergnügt', phai̯dǖ́nō `hell machen, reinigen, waschen; erheitern, erfrischen'
Baltic: *geĩd-r-ā̂, *geîd-r-ā̂, *gaid-r-ā̂ f., *geĩd-r-a-, *gaĩd-r-u- adj., *gaĩd-s-a- c., *gid-r-a- adj.
Russ. meaning: светлый, яркий
References: WP I 665, Buck 60.
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-greek,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *geĩd-r-ā̂, *geîd-r-ā̂, *gaid-r-ā̂ f., *geĩd-r-a-, *gaĩd-r-u- adj., *gaĩd-s-a- c., *gid-r-a- adj.
Meaning: hell, clear
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: gaidrà, giedrà, gíedra `wolkenloser Himmel, heiteres, schönes Wetter, Trockenheit', giẽdra-, gaidrù- `hell, heiter (vom Wetter)'; gaĩsa-s `Lichtschein, Röte am Himmel'
Lettish: gàiss `Luft; Atmosphäre; Wolke', gàišs `leuchtend, hell, klar', dzidrs `klar, hell', dzīdrs 'azurblau; hell, klar'; dzìedrs2 `azurblau'
Old Prussian: gaylis `weiss' V. 459, gaidis `Weizen' V. 259, Grunau 9
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 745
Root: (*gʷhēi- :) gʷhǝi-, gʷhǝid- : gʷhīd-
English meaning: bright, shining
German meaning: `hell, leuchtend'
Derivatives: gʷhǝi-d-ro-s ds.
Material: Gr. φαιδρός `klar, hellglänzend, leuchtend; heiter, vergnügt' (= lit. giẽdras), woneben φαιδι- im φαίδιμος `glänzend, stattlich'; φαιός `schummerig, dämmerig, bräunlich, grau' (Gdf. *φαι-ός oder -σός); φαικός λαμπρός Hes.;

    lit. giẽdras, gaidrùs `heiter, klar' (davon giedrà, gaidrà f. `schönes Wetter'), lett. dziedrs `azurblau', ablautend dzīdrums `Klarheit'; lit. gaĩsas (*gʷhǝid-so-s), gaisa `Lichtschein am Himmel', lett. gàiss m. `Luft, Wetter', gaišs (*gaisus) `klar', gàisma f. `Licht', lit. gaĩsras m. `Lichtschein am Himmel, Feuersbrunst; Zorn', gaĩzdras m. `Lichtschein am Himmel'; wohl auch apr. gaylis `weiß'.

References: WP. I 665, Trautmann 75.
Pages: 488-489
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 333
Proto: *koje
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: morning dawn
German meaning: Morgenröte
Finnish: koi 'Morgendämmerung', koitta- 'grauen, dämmern', koite, koitto 'Tagesanbruch'
Estonian: koi-valge 'Abendröte', koit (gen. koitu) 'id.; Morgenröte', koita- 'dämmern'
Komi (Zyrian): ki̮a (S) 'Röte am Himmel'
Khanty (Ostyak): kuńǝl (V), χuńt́ (DN), χuńǝĺ (O) 'Röte am Himmel', χuśl̥ (Syn.), kotǝl (V), χăt (DN), χătǝl (O) 'Tag, Sonne'
Mansi (Vogul): khọj (T), khuj (LM), χuj (N) 'Morgenröte', katǝ.l (TJ), χotǝl (KU), kotǝl (P) 'Tag'
Hungarian: hajnal 'Tagesanbruch, Morgenroth'
Nenets (Yurak): χājerʔ (O) 'Sonne; klar (wetter)'
Enets (Yen): kāja (Ch.) 'Sonne'
Nganasan (Tawgi): kou
Selkup: kuetj (Ta.), kyetj (NP) 'Hitze', k͔uetje (OO)
Kamass: kuja 'Sonne'
Sammalahti's version: FU *koji (Sam > *kaja, vgl. UEW 642)
Addenda: Koib. куя; Mot. кае, кайя; Taig. хая
Yukaghir parallels: χoi 'Gott' [Warum "> juk."?]
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-man,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-samm2,uralet-add,uralet-yuk,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVNV
Meaning : dawn, light
Eurasiatic : *gojńV
Afroasiatic : ?*gin- 'fire' ? *kVhan- 'light' ? (+ WChad *kʷVn- 'day'); Cush., Omot. *agVn- moon
Sino-Caucasian : *[k]wăńɦV
Austric : PAA *kāŋ moon
Amerind (misc.) : ? *qaya 'morning' (R 481) [+ A K]; *kani 'yesterday, evening' (R 879)
African (misc.) : Bantu *-gòndò 'moon, month'. Cf. Macro-Khoisan *k̊nV "day, dawn".
Reference : МССНЯ 342; ND 701 compares Sem. *gVwħ- 'dawn' and Cush. (Oromo) guyy- 'day' (?); ND 1080; GE 74 *kai (with more Amer. data) (cf. also PAA *ḳiḥ- 'moon'?)
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ɦăkwańV́
Meaning: light
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *kwănɦV ( / *ɦăkwanV)
Sino-Tibetan: OC 光 *kʷāŋ 'light'
Yenisseian: *gǝʔn-
Burushaski: [*gon ]
Comments and references : HGC 39, WFR 125. PY *-ʔ- here is irregular (does not correspond to lax phonation in PNC). Bur. g- is also irregular (obviously under the influence, of another root, see *ʁweŋV́].
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *kwănɦV ( / *ɦăkwanV)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: light, torch
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *kʷanʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *kʷã
Proto-Lak: čani
Proto-Dargwa: *=alkʷVn-
Proto-Lezghian: *ʡakʷa(n)
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. The initial *ɦ- (reflected in the PL form) may be a trace of the old derivational prefix. The root is mostly used as a noun or adjective, but there are some traces of its verbal usage (cf. the Darg. form and the Av.-And. evidence).
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *kʷanʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 torch 2 light (n.) 3 bright, light (adj.)
Avar: kan 1
Chadakolob: kán-ti 2
Andian language: kʷana- 3 (Khaidakov)
Akhvakh: kʷani 2
Chamalal: kʷā̃ 1
Tindi: kʷā̃ 1
Karata: kʷano 2
Godoberi: kʷãji 1
Comments: The noun and adjective 'light' in Av.-Andian languages are derived from the noun *kʷanʔi 'torch'. Cf. also Av. kan- 'light' (adj.), kán-ʎi 'light' ( = Chad. kánti, Cham. kʷana-ʎi, Gig. kun-ʎir) > Tsez., Gin., Inkh., Gunz., Bezht. kanʎi; Tind. kʷana 'light' (n.), Cham. kʷanu- (Gig. kuni), God. kʷanu 'light' (adj.).

    There also exists a very close verbal root: Av. =ak- (Chad. =ak-) 'to set fire', PA *=ikʷV(n)- > And. =ikʷ- 'to catch fire', Akhv. Tseg. =uk- 'to set fire', Cham. =ikʷVn- (Gig. =ikVn-) 'to set / catch fire', Tind. =uk- 'to burn', Kar. =ekʷ-, God. =uk- 'to set fire'.

aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *kʷã
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: torch
Tsezi: kʷa
Khvarshi: kʷa (Radzhibov)
Bezhta: kã
Gunzib: kã
Comments: PTsKh *kʷa; PGB *kã (obl. base *kana- > Bezht., Gunz. kana-).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-khv,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: čani
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: light (n.)
Lak form: čani
Comments: Cf. Khosr. čani id.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *=alkʷVn-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: to set fire
Akusha: =alkʷVn- (Ur.)
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ʡakʷa(n)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 light (n.) 2 dawn
Lezghian: ekʷ 1
Tabasaran: akʷ 1
Agul: ʕakʷ 1
Rutul: jakʷ 1
Archi: ak:on 1
Udi: kaj 2
Comment: 4th class in Rut. and Arch. Cf. also Ag. Bursh. ʡakʷ, Fit. eḱʷ, Burk., Tp. ʡäkʷ 'light', Arch. ak:u-kes 'to dawn' ( = Tab. aku xuz id.). External data show that the original form *ʡakʷan (retained in Arch., possibly also in Ud., where kaj may reflect *(ʡa)kʷan with phonetic loss of -n) was reinterpreted in most Lezghian languages as the oblique base from *ʡakʷa (cf., e.g., the Lezg. paradigm: ekʷ, erg. eküni).

    See Бокарев 1961, 63; Лексика 1971, 199; Гигинейшвили 1977, 80.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *gǝʔn-
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: light
Ket: kʌʔn 'light'; kъ̄ńe1, South. kъ̄ń 'dawn'
Yug: kʌʔn 'light', kъ̄ń 'dawn'
Kottish: kinig, *kinīx, pl. kinīgān, (Бол.) knik 'dawn'; tegan, *tekán, pl. teganaŋ 'light' (te- < *de- 'eye'); kanáŋičibán (М., Сл., Кл.), kanaŋgičiban (Срсл.) 'lightning'; Ass. kanan-aǯujban (М., Сл., Кл.), kanan-ičiban (Кл.) "lightning", tɨganá (М., Сл., Кл.), tukantu (Кл.) "light"
Comments: ССЕ 226. Ket kъ̄ńe, Yug kъ̄ń, Kott kinig reflect a compound *gǝʔn + xiʔG "light + day". One should also note Ket kʌńiŋ "people (name of the Kets in "bears' language")" - lit., "the light ones" ( > Selk. qɔ̄nnɨŋ "Ket", see Helimski КС 241). Werner 1, 474 (without reconstruction), 2, 257 (with some hesitation about Kott. tegan).
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-notes,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *gon
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: dawn
Yasin: gon
Hunza: gon
Nagar: gon
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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