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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *tèmò ( ~ -a)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: root; strength, soul
Russian meaning: корень; сила, душа
Turkic: *dạmor
Mongolian: *daŋ-gi ( < *dam-gi)
Japanese: *tàmà
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 285, Лексика 264-265. Mong. tamir 'sinew; strength, force' is borrowed from Turkic (to judge from its phonology; see Щербак 1997, 153); but the comparison with daŋgi 'root' may be accepted only if one assumes a secondary assimilation *dam-gi > daŋgi.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *dạmor
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 vein, artery 2 root
Russian meaning: 1 жила, сосуд 2 корень
Old Turkic: tamar, tamɨr 1 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: tamur (MK, KB), tamar (MK-Oghuz) 1
Turkish: damar 1
Tatar: tamɨr 2
Middle Turkic: tamur 1, 2 (Sangl., Abush., MA)
Uzbek: tɔmir 1, 2
Uighur: tomur, temir 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: tamɨr 1
Azerbaidzhan: damar 1
Turkmen: damar 1
Khakassian: tamɨr 1, 2
Oyrat: tamɨr 1, 2
Chuvash: tɨmar 1, 2
Yakut: tɨmɨr 1
Dolgan: tɨmɨr 1
Tuva: damɨr 1
Tofalar: damɨr 1
Kirghiz: tamɨr 2
Kazakh: tamɨr 1, 2
Noghai: tamɨr 1, 2
Bashkir: tamɨr 1, 2
Balkar: tamɨr 1, 2
Gagauz: damar 1
Karaim: tamur 1, 2
Karakalpak: tamɨr 1, 2
Salar: tamɨr 1
Kumyk: tamur 1, 2
Comments: VEWT 460, EDT 508, ЭСТЯ 3, 143-144, Лексика 107-108, 264-265, Stachowski 238. There are also some forms with -o-: Oyr. tomur- 'to uproot', Kirgh. tomor 'name of a plant, from the root of which dye is produced', Kaz. tomar id., KKalp. tomar 'root' - possibly contaminations with *Tomar 'block, log' (v. sub *t`ome).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *daŋgi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: root; origin, generation
Russian meaning: корень; происхождение, поколение
Written Mongolian: daŋgi
Kalmuck: däŋgǝ
Comments: KW 82.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tàmà
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: soul
Russian meaning: душа
Old Japanese: tama
Middle Japanese: tàmàsìfì
Tokyo: támashii
Kyoto: támàshìì
Kagoshima: tamashíi
Comments: JLTT 539, 540.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *tV(H)mV
Meaning: root, bone (?)
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *tèmò ( ~ -a) root, sinew
Uralic: *tuŋa [in fact, rather *tumŋa]
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *hǝ̆thǝm (*thǝm-)
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-chuk,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1678
Proto: *tuŋa
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: kernel
German meaning: Kern
Finnish: tuma, dial. tuuma, tuumi 'Kern, Zellkern'
Estonian: tuum (gen. tuume, tuuma) 'Kern (in der Samenschale)' ( ? > Wot. tūmi 'Stein der Beere, Kern')
Mordovian: tov, toŋ (E), tov (M) 'Kern (Nußkern etc.)'
Mari (Cheremis): toŋ (KB), tomŭ (JU), tom (C) 'Kern'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mrd,uralet-mar,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *hǝ̆thǝm (*thǝm-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): кость
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ʁǝ̣tʁǝ̣m, *ʁǝ̣m-, *-ǝ̣tʁǝ̣m-
Proto-Itelmen: *kthʷǝm, *-t(h)ǝm
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *ʁǝ̣tʁǝ̣m, *ʁǝ̣m-, *-ǝ̣tʁǝ̣m-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): кость
Chukchee: ʔǝttʔǝm, ʔǝ́ttǝm, ʔǝm-, -ǝtʔǝm (I)
Koryak: hǝthǝm, (-t)hǝm- (III)
Palan: hǝthǝm, hǝm-, -thǝm-
Alutor: hǝthǝm, (-t)hǝm-
Comments: Пал. kaɣ-thǝm=lŋǝn 'кисть руки' (ЯПК 252).
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-pal,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *(k)thʷǝm, *-t(h)ǝm
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): кость
Itelmen: (k)thăm (kthmi-'n pl., kthm-'in poss.)
Itelmen meaning: кость
West Itelmen: ktxo̯ǝm (ktxmi-n pl.)
West Itelmen meaning: os
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): kość
South Itelmen: tǝk-tǝn (tǝka-t pl.) 1, inǝ-tau̯ 2
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): os 1, pectus 2
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): kość 1, pierś 2
Number in Volodin 1976: 27, 37, 164
Comments: Юж. камч. вариант -ta, -tau̯ из -taw < *tham.
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,itelet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : TVMV
Meaning : root, bone (??)
Eurasiatic : *tV(H)mV root, bone (?)
Afroasiatic : *dam- blood (cf. also *dimāɣ- 'brain')
Sino-Caucasian : *ṭŭmhV 'kernel'
Notes : Extremely shaky (one has to suppose: a) *sinew > vein > blood; b) *sinew > root > bone).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-notes,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *dam-
Meaning: blood
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *dam-, *ʔa-dam- 'blood'
Berber: *-damm- 'blood'
Egyptian: dmꜣ (Med.) verb related to the blood in the heart
Western Chadic: *HV-dam- 'blood'
Omotic: *dam- 'blood'
Notes: Cf. HSED, 639 (Sem. *dam-, Brb., WCh, Om.); 640 (Eg.: non-existent Arm. 'to wound')
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-wch,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 90
Proto-Semitic: *dam-, *ʔa-dam-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: blood
Akkadian: damu OA-OB on [CAD d 75], dāmu [AHw 158] 'blood'; also adamatu (and adanatu, with assimilation of m > n before d?) 'black blood' SB [CAD a1 94], [AHw 10]; adamu 'blood' (lex. Akkadogr. in Hitt.) [CAD a1 94], quoted as 'rotes Blut' as one of the meanings of adam(m)u 'rot' in [AHw 10]
Ugaritic: dm [DLU 132], /damu ?/ [Huehner 119]
Phoenician: PUN dume (sing. suff. 1st pers. sing.) [HJ 251] (highly uncertain); ʔdmy 'su parentesco, su sangre' [Fuentes 60] (cf. Augustine: "punice edom sanguis dicitur" [KB 15])
Hebrew: dām [KB 224]; ʔadmātō (hap. in Dt 32:43) 'red blood' [ibid. 15-16]
Aramaic: OLD OFF dm [HJ 251]
Judaic Aramaic: dǝmā (also 'life') [Ja 312]; ʔădām, ʔadmā, ʔidmā [ibid. 17]; ʔydmh [Sok 35]
Syrian Aramaic: dǝmā [Brock 156]
Modern Aramaic: MAL ed_ma 'Blut' [Berg 21] BAH ed_ma 'Blut' [Cor 138] TUR ädmo 'blood' [R Ṭūrōyo 113] MLH dmo 'Blut' [J Mlah 172] HRT demma 'Blut' [J Hert 185] NASS dimä 'blood' [Tser 056] ZKH dǝmma 'blood' [R Zakho 106] MMND dǝmā, edmā 'blood' [M MND 494] AZR dimma 'blood' [Garb 303] IRAN dimmâ 'il sangue' [Pen 72]
Mandaic Aramaic: dma [DM 111] (as for zma, ʕzma with the same meaning [ibid. 168], see *zam- (?), No. ); adma, ʕdma [ibid. 8, 111]
Arabic: dam- [BK 1 736]
Modern Arabic: NYEM damm [Behnstedt 387] (same form in most ARB DIAL)
Epigraphic South Arabian: SAB dm [SD 36]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): dam
Tigre: däm, dämät (also 'blood-guiltiness') [LH 514]
Tigrai (Tigriñña): däm
Amharic: däm [K 1716]
Gafat: dämʷä [LGaf 196]
Harari: däm
Gurage: däm [LG 206] (quoted without specifying the dialects)
Mehri: dǝm 'pus' [JM 71]
Jibbali: dihm do. [JJ 39]
Soqotri: dīm do. [SSL 3 94]; also dem [SSL LS 1454]
Notes: *ʔadam- with the ʔa- prefix is reconstructed on the PSEM level.

    In *dam-, MSA dīm 'pus', with -i- vs. *-a- in other SEM and a different meaning, is not unquestionably related.

    [Fron 42] (*dam- /GEZ, ARB, SYR, HBR, UGR, AKK/ ); [DRS 269]: AKK, UGR, HBR, PUN, ARM, ARB, SAB, ETH (*dam-); [DRS 9]: JUD, PUN (connects with ʔdm 'to be red'); [KB 224]: HBR, UGR, ESA, ARM, ARB, GEZ, TGR, AKK (also forms with a-); [KB 15-16]: HBR, JUD, MND, PUN; [LGz 133]: GEZ, ETH, AKK, ARB, ARM, ESA, UGR, HBR; [Holma 7]: AKK (dāmu), HBR, ARB, SYR, AKK (adamatu), PHO, SYR, JUD (incl. verbs meaning 'to be red')

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-phn,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-new,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-dial,semet-sar,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-amh,semet-gaf,semet-hrr,semet-gur,semet-mhr,semet-jib,semet-soq,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *damm-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blood'
Ghadames: dǝmm-ǝn
Nefusa: i-dǝmm-ǝn
Siwa: i-damm-ǝn
Zenaga: dǝmm-ǝn
Semlal: i-damm-ǝn
Izdeg: i-damm-ǝn
Mzab: i-dam-ǝn
Iznassen: idammen
Snus: eddem
Shenwa: i-d_amm-ǝn
Shawiya: i-d_amm-ǝn
Qabyle (Ayt Mangellat): i-d_am-ǝn
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ghd,brbet-nfs,brbet-siw,brbet-zng,brbet-sml,brbet-izd,brbet-mzb,brbet-izn,brbet-snu,brbet-shn,brbet-sha,brbet-qbl,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: dmꜣ
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: (Med.) verb related to the blood in the heart (e.g. to a bad state of the blood) [EG V 453]
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *HV-dam-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blood'
Mupun: tòom [FrM]
Sura: tɔ̀ɣɔ̀m [JgS]
Angas: tōm [Fl]
Ankwe=Goemai: tyem {CLR: 30]
Bolewa: dòm [CLR]
Dera=Kanakuru: dõm [CLR}
Tangale: tɔm {CLR}
Ngamo: dɔ̀m [Kr N 74]
Maha: dom {NmM]
Bele: dòm̀ [ShB]
Kifri=Giwo: n-dàamé [ShB]
Gera: n-dòomá [ShB]
Galambu: ǯàamá [ShB]
Geruma: ndùumá [ShB]
Ngizim: dǝ́dǝ́m [ShN]
Bade: tǝ-dm [CLR]
Notes: in the sura group: *ḥV-dam- > dVHVm > tV(HV)m
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-gwn,wchet-sur,wchet-ang,wchet-ank,wchet-bol,wchet-der,wchet-tng,wchet-ngm,wchet-mah,wchet-bel,wchet-krf,wchet-ger,wchet-glm,wchet-grm,wchet-ngz,wchet-bad,wchet-notes,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *dam-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blood'
Kafa (Kaficho): damoo
Mocha: damo
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,omoet-mch,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ṭŭmhV
Meaning: kernel of fruit, seed
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ṭŭmhV ( ~ *ṭwĭ-,-ħ-)
Sino-Tibetan: *[t]ŏmH (~-ŭ-)
Burushaski: *tumá-
Comments and references : WFR 102, MCGD 3.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ṭŭmhV ( ~ *ṭwĭ-,-ħ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: kernel,stone (of fruit,nut); marrow
Proto-Nakh: *ṭum
Proto-Lak: ṭuṭi
Proto-Lezghian: *ṭum(:)ul /*ṭum(:)uṭ
Proto-West Caucasian: *ṭVmIa
Notes: The Lak. form and part of Lezghian forms are reduplicated (Lak.ṭuṭi < *ṭumṭi); otherwise correspondences are quite regular. The root must have originally meant 'kernel, fruit-stone', whence, on the one hand, meanings like "grape", "plum" and "peach", on the other hand - "marrow".

    Klimov (1964, 181) marks the similarity of PN *ṭum with Kartvelian *ṭwin- "brain"; it is most probable that the Kartvelian root is an old loanword from NC.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ṭum
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: marrow; kernel (of a fruit, nut)
Chechen: ṭum
Ingush: ṭum
Batsbi: ṭum
Comments: 4th class in all languages. Obl. base *ṭam-or-, cf. Chech. ṭamar-, Ing. ṭomar-.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: ṭuṭi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: grape
Lak form: ṭuṭi
Comments: The Lak. form was probably borrowed in Darg.: cf. Ak., Ur. ṭuṭi, Chir. ṭuṭe etc. It is also probable that the Av. dialectal form ṭuṭí 'gooseberry' is borrowed from Lak. or Darg.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ṭum(:)ul /*ṭum(:)uṭ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 grape 2 plum
Lezghian: cip:ic̣ 1
Tabasaran: ṭumuṭ 1
Agul: ṭibiṭ 1
Rutul: ṭɨmɨl 1
Tsakhur: ṭumɨl'1
Budukh: ṭombul 2
Archi: ṭummul 1
Udi: t:ul 1
Comment: A complicated root, partly reduplicated, partly provided with a suffix *-ul. Some languages (Lezg., Ag.) reflect a variant with front vocalism (*ṭim:iṭ, with regular palatalisation in Lezg.). In Inlaut Lezg., Ag., Tsakh., Arch. and Ud. reflect PL *-m:-; however, Tab., Rut. and Bud. reflect a weakened variant *-m- (in Bud. with a secondary epenthetic -b-). Bud. > Khin. ṭumbol 'damson' (Ud. damp:ul 'plum' is also an old loan from Shakh-Dagh languages). All these complicated interrelationships probably reflect active interborrowing of this important cultural term; there is, however, little doubt in the genuine character of the root as a whole.

    We should also note Av. Andal. ṭimiṭ 'besom': this may be an old loan from some Lezgian language (explained by using grape branches for sweeping).

    See Лексика 1971, 161; Гигинейшвили 1977, 70, 107; Талибов 1980, 285.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-cak,lezget-bud,lezget-arc,lezget-udi,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ṭVmIa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 peach 2 apricot
Abkhaz: a-ṭamá 1
Abaza: ṭama (Ashkh.) 2
Ubykh: ṭǝmIá 1
Comments: PAT *ṭama. The Abkh. form is obviously the source of Georg. aṭami 'peach' (whence further Osset. aṭami, see Abayev 1958, 82).
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-abk,abadet-aba,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *[t]ŏmH (~-ŭ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: seed, fruit kernel
Chinese: *toŋʔ seed, different kinds of grain.
Kachin: tum1, ǝtum1 seed, kernel as of fruit.
Comments: Cf. also Wancho (Konyak) hatuŋ 'seed'.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zhǒng zhòng
Preclassic Old Chinese: toŋʔ toŋʔs
Classic Old Chinese: tóŋ
Western Han Chinese: tóŋ
Eastern Han Chinese: ćóŋ
Early Postclassic Chinese: ćóŋ
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ćóŋ
Late Postclassic Chinese: ćóŋ
Middle Chinese: ćö́uŋ ćö̀uŋ
English meaning : seeds; cereals
Russian meaning[s]: 1) семя, семена; 2) раса; род; порода; 3) сорт, вид; 4) суффикс счетно-указательных слов, обозначающий разновидности; [zhòng] 1) сеять, засевать; обрабатывать землю; 2) прививать; прививка; 3) разводить (скот, рыбу)
Comments: Also read *toŋʔ-s, MC ćö̀uŋ (FQ 之用), Mand. zhòng 'to sow'. The word also means 'kind, sort, race' ( < 'seed'), which is reflected in a colloquial Viet. loanword (from another dialectal source) giống 'kind, sort; race, breed, strain'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 115
Four-angle index: 463
Karlgren code: 1188 d
Vietnamese reading: chu`ng
Jianchuan Bai: cü̃1, cü̃2
Dali Bai: cü1, cü3
Bijiang Bai: -ćõ1, ćõ2, ćü4
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1866
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 通合三上腫章; B: 通合三去用章
ZIHUI: A: 4429 2663; B: 4429 2668
Beijing: A: c̣uŋ 2; B: c̣uŋ 3
Jinan: A: c̣uŋ 2; B: c̣uŋ 3
Xi'an: A: pfoŋ 2; B: pfoŋ 3
Taiyuan: A: cuŋ 2; B: cuŋ 3
Hankou: A: coŋ 2; B: coŋ 3
Chengdu: A: coŋ 2; B: coŋ 3
Yangzhou: A: cɔuŋ 2; B: cɔuŋ 3
Suzhou: A: coŋ 2; B: coŋ 31
Wenzhou: A: ćyɔ 21; B: ćyɔ 31
Changsha: A: c̣oŋ 2; B: c̣oŋ 11
Shuangfeng: A: ćin 2; B: ćin XH
Nanchang: A: cuŋ 2; B: cuŋ 31
Meixian: A: cuŋ 2; B: cuŋ 3
Guangzhou: A: cuŋ 21; B: chuŋ 31
Xiamen: A: ciɔŋ 2; B: ciɔŋ 31
Chaozhou: A: ceŋ 21; B: ceŋ 31
Fuzhou: A: cyŋ 2; B: cöyŋ 31
Shanghai: A: coŋ 3; B: coŋ 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: čiuŋ 2; B: čiuŋ 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *tumá-
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: nutshell
Yasin: tumá
Hunza: tumáỵ
Nagar: tumáỵ
Comments: Sh. tumā́
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,buruet-notes,

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