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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *săk`V
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to ferment
Russian meaning: бродить, сочиться
Turkic: *sakɨŕ / *sagɨŕ
Mongolian: *saga- / *saka-
Tungus-Manchu: *saku
Korean: *sàk- / sǝ̀k-
Comments: EAS 91, KW 308, SKE 220 (Doerfer's skepticism in TMN 3, 255 is hardly justified). The variation of *-g- and *-k- in Turkic and Mongolian is suspicious (cf. also the Nanai form pointing rather to *-k-), perhaps indicating that we are dealing with a merger of two different roots - cf. also the variety of reflexes in Korean; cf. also *sak`o and *zi̯úko.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *sakɨŕ / *sagɨŕ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: gum, resin
Russian meaning: смола, мастика
Karakhanid: saɣɨz, saqɨz (MK)
Turkish: sakɨz
Tatar: saɣɨz
Middle Turkic: saqɨz (IM, Pav. C.)
Uzbek: saɣiz
Uighur: seɣiz
Azerbaidzhan: saɣɣɨz
Turkmen: saqɨz
Khakassian: sās
Oyrat: saŋɨs
Chuvash: soɣъr
Yakut: ɨas
Dolgan: ɨas
Tuva: sāt
Kirghiz: saɣɨz
Kazakh: saɣɨz
Noghai: saɣɨz
Bashkir: haɣɨz
Gagauz: saqɨz
Karaim: saqɨz
Karakalpak: saɣɨz
Kumyk: saɣɨz
Comments: EDT 817-818, VEWT 396, Лексика 117-118, ЭСТЯ 7, Федотов 2, 70, Stachowski 258. Cf. also *sakɨŕ 'clay' (Лексика 375, ЭСТЯ 7 ibid.). MK glosses saɣɨz as 'gum, resin', and saqɨz as 'any viscous substance', so a merger of two original roots is not excluded.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *saga- / *saka-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to ferment, to trickle
Russian meaning: бродить, сочиться
Written Mongolian: saɣa-
Khalkha: saga-
Buriat: haxaj- 'to become covered with mud' (?)
Kalmuck: saxǝ-
Comments: KW 308.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *saku
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 stale water, muddy water 2 to become turbid, make turbid (of water)
Russian meaning: 1 застоявшаяся, ржавая вода 2 мутнеть, мутить (воду)
Evenki: šaka- (Kamn.) 2
Even: saq 1, saqab- 2 (Arm.)
Nanai: saqo / saqụ 1
Comments: ТМС 2, 56, 80-81.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *sàk- / *sǝ̀k-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to exude, effervesce, ferment 2 to rot, become spoiled 3 ferment, yeast
Russian meaning: 1 киснуть, бродить, выделяться (о поте, пузырьках из воды etc.) 2 гнить, портиться 3 фермент, закваска
Modern Korean: sak- 1, s:ǝk- 2, sǝgim 3
Middle Korean: sàk- 1, sǝ̀k- 2, sǝ̀kím 3
Comments: Liu 435, 448, 450, KED 888, 940.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *sVḳV ( ~ š-)
Meaning: juice, ferment
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *su̯okʷ-, *soukʷ-
Altaic: *săk`V
Comments: Cf. *[s]iKV
References: МССНЯ 366; ND 2193 *ŝ/śu(ʔa)ḲV(ŕV) 'resin, gum' (with dub. Ur.; on Drav. cf. *CiKV); 2697 *ẑUḲ[ü] 'juice' (IE + diff. Alt. + Irq.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *s(w)okʷ- (Gr *h-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: juice, pitch, tar
Tokharian: A saku, B sekwe (PT *sekwe) 'pus' (Adams 698)
Old Greek: opó-s m. `Pflanzensaft', insbes. `der Saft des Feigenbaums, der zum Gerinnen der Milch gebraucht wurde, Feigenlab'
Slavic: *sòkъ
Baltic: *sak-a- m., *sak-ā̂ f., *swak-ā̂ f., -a- c, *swek-a- c.
Albanian: ǵak Blut
Russ. meaning: сок, смола (живица)
References: WP II 515 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: сок
Near etymology: I, род. п. -а; также "заболонь дерева", колымск. (Богораз), укр. сiк, род. п. со́ку, блр. сок, др.-русск., ст.-слав. сокъ χυλός (Супр.), болг. сок, сербохорв. со̑к, род. п. со̏ка, словен. sọ̑k, род. п. sо̣̑kа, sоkа̑, польск. sok, в.-луж., н.-луж. sоk "чечевица".
Further etymology: Родственно лит. sakaĩ мн. "древесная смола", др.-прусск. sackis -- то же; др. ступень чередования: лтш. svek̨i мн. "смола", алб. gjak "кровь" (Г. Майер, Alb. Wb. 136; Педерсен, KZ 36, 285), греч. ὀπός "сок" (Сольмсен, Unters. gr. Lautl. 207 и сл.; РФВ 49, 46 и сл.; Траутман, ВSW 248; М.--Э. 3, 645, 1142; Мейе, Ét. 238; Миккола, IF 23, 126; Перссон 127). Неясно отношение к лат. sūcus "сок" (Мейе--Эрну 1170; Шпехт 56). Махек (Studiе 54) пытается установить связь с ся́кнуть Ср. осока, чечеви́ца.
Pages: 3,708
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *sak-a- m., *sak-ā̂ f., *swak-ā̂ f., -a- c, *swek-a- c.
Meaning: pitch, tar
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: sãka-s `Harztropfen, -stück', pl. sakaĩ `Harz'; (Miežinis) sveka-s `Harz'
Lettish: sakas pl. (Elger Diction., 137) 'Harz', (Westkurland) saki pl. `Harz'; pl. svakas `Harz', svaki pl. `Milch vor der Geburt'; svęki pl. `Harz'
Old Prussian: sackis `Harz' V. 598
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,baltet-oprus,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVKV
Meaning : sour, ferment
Eurasiatic : *sVḳV ( ~ ś-, š-, ć`-)
Afroasiatic : *sVḳʷ- (or to Nostr. *SiḳV- 'urinate, pour' 814?)
Sino-Caucasian : *c̣ǟ́xḳwV
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *c̮ku "dew" or *cVkV "sap".
Reference : ND 2036, 2042
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-afr,globet-reference,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *sVḳʷ-
Meaning: drink
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *šVḳ- 'drink' 1, 'give a drink' 2
Western Chadic: *suḳ- 'give water (to a child)'
Central Chadic: *sVḳwa- 'drink'
Notes: Cf. also *sVḳw- 'honey' (Cush., Chad., see ND 2037).
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-wch,afaset-cch,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1469
Proto-Semitic: *šVḳ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'drink' 1, 'give a drink' 2
Akkadian: šaqû 2
Ugaritic: šqy 1
Hebrew: šqh 2
Arabic: sqy 1, 2
Jibbali: šeḳe 2
semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-ara,semet-jib,

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West Chadic etymology :

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Proto-WChadic: *swaḳ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'give water (to a child)'
Tangale: soke [JgT]
wchet-prnum,wchet-meaning,wchet-tng,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *sVḳwa-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'drink'
Higi Nkafa: sexwì {KrN 338]
Higi Ghye: sɛgwi [Kr]
Fali Gili: sɛgwi
Kapsiki=Higi Kamale: sakwù [CLR: 111]
Notes: spirantization of a velar under the influence of a sibilant in anlaut
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-hnk,cchet-hgh,cchet-fag,cchet-kap,cchet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *c̣ǟ́xḳwV
Meaning: sour, bitter
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *c̣_ǟḳwV
Sino-Tibetan: *săk
Burushaski: *ṣuqúr
Basque: *gac
Comments and references : DCE 30. Basque derivatives: *gasi 'salty, sour', *gasta-na 'cheese', *gas-hur 'whey'.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *c̣_ǟḳwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sour, raw
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *c̣:iḳ:ʷV-
Proto-Tsezian: *c[ɨ]q- / *c[ɨ]q̇-
Proto-Lak: c:iχku-
Proto-Dargwa: *c̣iḳʷ-
Proto-Lezghian: *c̣äḳʷɨ-
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. A possible WC parallel see under *ɦmVjć̣_wĂ 'sour'.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-darg,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *c̣:iḳ:ʷV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sour
Avar: c̣:éḳa-b
Chadakolob: c̣éḳa-b
Andian language: c̣:iḳ:u
Akhvakh: č̣:iḳ:u-da-
Chamalal: ṣiḳu-b
Tindi: c:ik:u-b
Karata: c̣:iḳ:o-b
Botlikh: c̣:iḳ:u
Bagvalal: c̣:iḳu-
Godoberi: c:ik:u
Comments: For Avar the Av.-Rus. dictionary gives c̣:eḳa-b (with ḳ), but Gudava (1964, 105) writes c̣:eḳ:a-b; the variant with weak -ḳ- may be due to dissimilation. Unclear is č̣:- in Akhvakh (all other languages uniformly point to *c̣:-).
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-avc,aandet-and,aandet-akv,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-krt,aandet-btl,aandet-bgv,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *c[ɨ]q- / *c[ɨ]q̇-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sour
Tsezi: ceq̇(i)ju
Ginukh: ceq̇q̇u
Khvarshi: caqu
Inkhokvari: caqqu
Comments: PTsKh *c[ɨ]qV-ju / *c[ɨ]q̇V-ju. The vowel correspondence is irregular (unclear is -a- in Khvarsh. and Inkh.). The variation *q/*q̇ is rather typical for reflexes of PEC glottalized consonants in "tense" words.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-cez,cezet-gin,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: c:iχku-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sour
Lak form: c:iχku- (Khosr.)
Comments: Attested only in Khosrekh. The normal Laki reflex of PEC *c̣ǟḳ_wV- would be *c:iḳu-. -χk- is not clear (perhaps under influence of c:iχ 'manure, dung'?).
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Dargwa etymology :

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Proto-Dargwa: *c̣iḳʷ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: sour
Akusha: c̣iḳ-si
Comments: Cf. also Tsud. c̣iḳʷ-se, Kharb. c̣aḳ-se, Kait. c̣ig-dihaw id.
darget-prnum,darget-meaning,darget-drg,darget-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *c̣äḳʷɨ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 raw 2 rank, bitter
Lezghian: ciḳi 1
Archi: c̣egʷ-du- 2
Comment: Arch. predic. c̣eḳʷ 'to be rank, bitter'.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-arc,lezget-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *săk
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bitter, pungent
Burmese: sak be bitter.
Kachin: mǝsaʔ2 be sharp, biting to the taste.
Lushai: thak be pungent, hot, peppery.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *ṣuqúr
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: 1 to turn sour 2 sour
Yasin: iṣqórum 2
Hunza: -ṣqur- 1, ṣuqúrum 2
Nagar: -ṣqur- 1, ṣuqúrum 2
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *gac
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: salt
Araban: gatz
Bizkaian: gatz
Gipuzkoan: gatz
High Navarrese: gatz
Low Navarrese: gatz
Salazarese: gatz
Lapurdian: gatz
Baztanese: gatz
Aezkoan: gatz
Zuberoan: gatz
Roncalese: gatz
Comments: Derivatives: *gasi 'salty, sour', *gasta-na 'cheese', *gas-hur 'whey'. The Bsq words are related to PEC *c̣_ǟḳwV by metathesis < PSC *ḳǟc̣(w)V, or (without glottal assimilation) *gǟc̣(w)V.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-arb,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-azk,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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