Change viewing parameters
Select another database

Altaic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Altaic: *ṓt`è
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: old
Russian meaning: старый
Turkic: *ȫtü-
Mongolian: *öte-
Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ut-
Japanese: *ǝ́tǝ́-nà
Comments: EAS 146, KW 302, Poppe 51, 107 (Mong.-Chuv.-Tung.), Дыбо 11, Лексика 85. Despite Doerfer MT 46, TM cannot be borrowed from Mong.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

Search within this database


Turkic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Turkic: *ȫtü-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 old 2 old, abandoned house 3 everything old 4 name of the homeland of the Turks ("old country")
Russian meaning: 1 старый 2 старое, заброшенное жилище 3 старье 4 назв. местности
Old Turkic: ötüken 4 (Orkh.)
Karakhanid: ötüken 4 (MK)
Chuvash: vadъ 1
Yakut: ötöx 2
Dolgan: ötök 3
Tuva: ötükän `name of a mountain ridge in Tuva' (ФиЛ 215)
Tofalar: ötükän `ровное широкое место на белках, удобное для пастьбы оленей' (ФиЛ 215)
Comments: Лексика 85; ДТС 393; Stachowski 201. Chuv. va- points only to PT *ȫ-. Turk. > Bur. ütügen `shaman word for earth' > Yak. ütügen 'неизвестная даль; преисподняя' (Пек. III 3195).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-reference,

Search within this database


Mongolian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Mongolian: *öte-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to be old, old 2 old man
Russian meaning: 1 быть старым, старый 2 старик
Written Mongolian: ötel- 1, ötegü 2 (L 646)
Middle Mongolian: otogu (HY 27, SH), utɛgu (IM), utägu (MA) 2
Khalkha: ötöl 1, ötgös 2
Buriat: ütelhe(n) 1, ütȫ 2
Kalmuck: ötl 1, ötǝgǝ 2
Ordos: ötöl- 'to get old'
Dongxian: očien 2, očielu- 1
Dagur: utel 'constantly, traditionally'; utule- 1, utāči 2 (Тод. Даг. 171)
Monguor: sdōli- (SM 337) 1, sdōgu 2
Mogol: ütäɣǖ 2; ZM otäl (10-3a) 2
Comments: KW 302, MGCD 551, TMN 1, 160.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

Search within this database


Tungus etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *(x)ut-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 old 2 earlier, before 3 old age
Russian meaning: 1 старый 2 раньше, прежде 3 старость
Evenki: utakān 3; utu 1, utēle 2
Even: ute 1, ȫtel 2
Negidal: utēle 2
Udighe: uteli 2
Solon: utaci 'grandfather'
Comments: Cf. also Evn. ụta-qan 'old woman'. See ТМС 2, 293, 294, 295.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

Search within this database


Japanese etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Japanese: *ǝ́tǝ́-nà
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: grown-up man, aged person
Russian meaning: взрослый
Middle Japanese: otona
Tokyo: òtona
Kyoto: òtónà
Kagoshima: òtónà
Comments: JLTT 513.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

Search within this database


Nostratic etymology :

Search within this database
Eurasiatic: *w[e]ṭV
Meaning: year
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *wet- <PIH *w->
Altaic: *ōt`e
Uralic: *oδe (ōδe)
Eskimo-Aleut: *utu-
References: МССНЯ 337; ND 2550 *w[e]ṭV 'year' (w/o Ur.; + Berb.).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

Search within this database


Indo-European etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-IE: *wet- <PIH *w-> (Gr w-)
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: year; of last year
Hittite: witt- c. 'Jahr' (Friedrich 255)
Old Indian: vatsá-, vatsará- m. `year', par-ut `last year'
Armenian: heru `im vergangenen Jahre'
Old Greek: étos n., dial. wétos `Jahr', ion., att. pérüsi(n), dor. pérüti(n) `im vorigen Jahre'
Slavic: *vetъxъ(jь), *vьtъxъ
Baltic: *wet-uš-a- adj.
Germanic: *fir-d=
Latin: vetus, gen. -eris `alt', vetustus `id.', vetulus `der Alte'
Celtic: OIr on hurid `ab anno priore', Ir in-uraidh `im vergangenen Jahre'
Albanian: vjet Jahr
Russ. meaning: год; прошлогодний
References: WP I 251
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-ind,piet-arm,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-alb,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

Search within this database


Vasmer's dictionary :

Search within this database
Word: ве́тхий,
Near etymology: также ве́тох "последняя четверть лунного цикла", укр. ве́тхий, др.-русск., ст.-слав. ветъхъ παλαιός (Клоц., Супр.), болг. ве́тъх, ве́хът, сербохорв. ве̏тах, ве̏т, чеш. vetchý, слвц. vetchý, польск. wiotchy.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. vẽtušas, лтш. vęcs "старый, престарелый, ветхий", лат. vetus, vetustus, греч. ἔτος "год", др.-инд. vatsás "годовалый (о животном)", алб. vjet "год"; см. Траутман, BSW 356; М. -- Э. 4, 517; Вальде2 830. Наряду с u̯etos "год" реконструируется и.-е. *u̯etus-, *u̯etuso- "старый, престарелый" (см. Перссон, IF 26, 63; Glotta 6, 90 и сл.), тогда как Буга (РФВ 67, 246) и Эндзелин (СБЭ 52) выводят лит. слово из *u̯etuḱsos.
Trubachev's comments: [Сюда же согд. wt_šnyy "старый" из ир. *wat(u)šana-; см. Семереньи, ZDMG 101, 1952, стр. 204 -- 205. -- Т.]
Pages: 1,307
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-trubachev,vasmer-pages,

Search within this database


Baltic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Baltic: *wet-uš-a- adj.
Meaning: old
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: vẽtuša- `alt, bejahrt', dial. vetùši-s `alter Mann'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

Search within this database


Germanic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Germanic: *fir-d=
Meaning: last year
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: ī fjorδ `im vorigen Jahre'
Norwegian: iffor
Swedish: dial. ifjor, ifjol
Danish: ifjor
Middle High German: vërt st. n. `ein verflossenes jahr' (/ vërne, vërn, vërnet, vërnent, vërnt); adv. 'im vorigen jahre'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-mhg,

Search within this database


Pokorny's dictionary :

Search within this database
Number: 2197
Root: u̯et-
English meaning: year
German meaning: `Jahr'
Derivatives: u̯etes- n. ds., u̯et-elo- `jährig'; in Ableitungen auch für jährige, junge Tiere
Material: Ai. vatsá, vatsará- m. `Jahr', vatsá- m. `Jährling, Kalb, Rind', vatsaká- m. `Kälbchen', sa-vātárāu N. Du. f. `dasselbe Kalb habend'; sogd. wtšnyy (leg. wat(u)šanē) `alt';

    gr. έτος, ἔτος n. `Jahr', διετής `zweijährig', ἐτήσιος `jährlich', att. εἶς νέωτα, delph. ἐννέωτα `fürs nächste Jahr' (Haplologie aus *νεώ-ετα, s. auch ἐπηετανός Frisk 534, οἰετέας J. B. Hofmann Gr. etym. WB. 227, ση̃τες oben S. 609); gr. ἔτελον, ἔταλον `Jährling von Haustieren' (: lat. vitulus, s. unten);

    alb. vit, Pl. vjet `Jahr', parvjet `vor zwei Jahren', vjetë f. `Kalb', vitsh `Kalb' (aus *u̯eteso-, vgl. lat. veterīnus); messap. atavetes = αυτόετες `vom gleichen Jahr'; lat. vetus, -eris `alt' (gleich ἔτος; der Genet. veteris schließt näheren Zusammenhang mit alit. vetušas aus), vetustus `alt' (wohl aus *u̯etosto-s `bejahrt', Bildung wie onustus : onus), vetulus `ältlich', osk. Vezkeí `*Vetusco', Göttername; lat. veterīnus `Zugvieh'; vitulus `Kalb' = umbr. vitluf `vitulōs' (ital. i statt e vermutlich durch Entlehnung aus einer nicht näher zu bestimmenden idg. Sprache Italiens); osk. Viteliú `Italia', woraus durch unterital.-gr. Vermittlung lat. Italia, eigentlich `das Land der Italī' (`junge Rinder', nach dem Stiergott Mārs);

    mir. feis, corn. guis, abret. guis `Sau' (*u̯et-si-);

    got. wiþrus `jähriges Lamm', aisl. veðr, ahd. widar `Widder' (vgl. oben ai. sa-vātárāu);

    aksl. vetъchъ `alt', alit. vetušas `alt, bejahrt';

    ein Lok. oder möglicherweise Akk. Sg. vom tiefstufigen St. ut- liegt vor in ai. par-út `im vergangenen Jahre', arm. heru, gr. πέρυσι, dor. πέρυτι, aisl. fjorð, mhd. vert ds., air. ónn-urid `ab anno priore' (Vokalumstellung?);

    hitt. witt- `Jahr', hierogl.-hitt. usa-, luv. ušša ds.

References: WP. I 251, WH. I 723, II 776 ff., 807, Trautmann 365, Vasmer 1, 194, O. Szemerényi ZDMG. 101, 204 f., Word 8, 50, Frisk 534, 579 f., 583 f., Kronasser Vgl. Laut- u. Formenlehre 126 A. 20.
Pages: 1175
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

Search within this database


Uralic etymology :

Search within this database
Number: 670
Proto: *oδe (*ōδe)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: year
German meaning: Jahr
Finnish: vuosi (gen. vuoden) 'Jahr' ( > Saam. N vuođđâ ~ vuođâ 'date (year))
Estonian: voos (gen. vooe) 'Jahr; Ernte; Mal'
Saam (Lapp): vuottâ -đ- (N) 'period, suff. of abstract nouns', -vuohta (L) id.
Udmurt (Votyak): va-pum (S), wa-pum (G), va-puŋ (J) 'Zeit, Lebenszeit, Menschenalter', ta-u-be̮riś (MU) 'folgendes Jahr'
Komi (Zyrian): me̮jm-u (S P PO) 'im vorigen Jahre', ta-u (PO) 'heuer'
Khanty (Ostyak): al (V), ot (DN), ɔл (Kaz.) 'Jahr'
Hungarian: -valy in ta-valy 'voriges Jahr, im vorigen Jahre'
Sammalahti's version: FP *ooti
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,uralet-samm2,

Search within this database


Eskimo etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Eskimo: *utu-, *uci-
Meaning: old
Russian meaning: старый
Proto-Yupik: *utu-, *uci-
Proto-Inupik: *utuqqa-
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 383
esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-refer,

Search within this database


Yupik etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Yupik: *utu-, *uci-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: old
Russian Meaning: старый
Sirenik: ūsatájǝʁáχ, usaχ
Chaplino: utúqa (t)
Naukan: utúqaq, cf. ōsǝ 'host'
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: usuqqaʁ- 'to wear out, to fall apart'
Chugach (Birket-Smith): ucīŋụq 'old woman'
Central Alaskan Yupik: utuqa- 'aged (sealskin)'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 383
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-ced,

Search within this database


Inupik etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Inupik: *ụtųqqạ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: old 1, old person 2
Russian meaning: старый 1, старик 2
Seward Peninsula Inupik: utuqaq 1, utuqanāq 2
SPI Dialects: Imaq utúqaq 1, utúqaûʁraq 2, W, KI utoqqaq* 1
North Alaskan Inupik: utuqqaq (ʁ) 1, utuqqanāq 2
NAI Dialects: B, Ingl utoqqaq* 1
Western Canadian Inupik: utuqqaq 1
WCI Dialects: Cor, M utoqqaq* 1
ECI Dialects: Igl utuqqaviksuaq magn. 2 [Ras.]
Greenlandic Inupik: utuqqaq (ʁ) (utorqaq*) 2, utuqqaɫɫak 'old animal'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 383
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-wcis,inupet-ecis,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

Search within this database


Long-range etymologies :

Search within this database
Borean (approx.) : WVTV
Meaning : year
Eurasiatic : *w[e]ṭV
Afroasiatic : Berb. *w[ṭ]- 'year'; ?? Sem. *wdy/n new
Sino-Caucasian : ? ST *Tɨ̆ 'time'
Austric : *tVw 'old'
Amerind (misc.) : *wata 'year' (R 874) [+ A]
Reference : МССНЯ 337; ND 2550; GE 58 *wat (for some reason includes only AN *kawaS and OC *swhats - most probably a loanword).
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-amer,globet-reference,

Search within this database


Austric etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austric: *tVw
Meaning: old
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: tVw
Austroasiatic meaning: old man
Proto-Austronesian: (Ache tuha old)
Proto-Thai: thau.C of old age
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-an,austr-tai,

Search within this database


Austro-Asiatic etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Austro-Asiatic: tVw
Meaning: old man
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Thai: thau.C of old age
Proto-Monic: M thau
Khasi: ktha:w grandfather
References: Kh 717; S-182
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-thai,aaet-mon,aaet-khasi,aaet-bib,

Search within this database


Aslian etymology :

Search within this database
Proto-Aslian: *kǝrɔ:l
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Meaning: knee
Jah-Hut: kǝrwal
Semai: kuro:l
Temiar: karɔ:l
asliet-prnum,asliet-meaning,asliet-jah,asliet-smi,asliet-tmi,

Search within this database

Select another database
Change viewing parameters
Total pages generatedPages generated by this script
24821002
Help
StarLing database serverPowered byCGI scripts
Copyright 1998-2003 by S. StarostinCopyright 1998-2003 by G. Bronnikov
Copyright 2005-2014 by Phil Krylov