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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *mi̯uŋo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: suffering
Russian meaning: мучение
Turkic: *buŋ
Mongolian: *muŋ
Tungus-Manchu: *miŋnī- ( ~ -ü-)
Japanese: *munkua-
Comments: Владимирцов 350, Poppe 71. Mong. may be < Turk. The root seems to be different from *mùne q. v.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *buŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: suffering
Russian meaning: мучение, страдание
Old Turkic: buŋ (Orkh.), muŋ (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: muŋ (MK)
Turkish: bun
Tatar: moŋ
Middle Turkic: muŋ (Abush., Sangl.)
Uzbek: muŋ
Uighur: muŋ
Turkmen: muŋ-lɨ 'sorrowful' (dial.)
Oyrat: muŋ
Yakut: muŋ
Dolgan: muŋ
Tuva: muŋ
Kirghiz: muŋ
Noghai: muŋ
Bashkir: moŋ
Gagauz: bun
Karakalpak: muŋ
Kumyk: muŋ
Comments: VEWT 344, EDT 347, ОСНЯ 2, 73, ЭСТЯ 7, Stachowski 182.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-trm,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-gagx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *muŋ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: difficulty
Russian meaning: трудность
Written Mongolian: muŋ (L 551: muŋla- 'to be in need')
Middle Mongolian: muŋ (SH)
Khalkha: munla- 'to be in need, to be exhausted' (БАМРС)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *miŋnī- ( ~ -ü-)
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to nag (of joints, heart)
Russian meaning: ныть (о суставах, сердце)
Evenki: miŋnī-
Comments: ТМС 1, 537. Attested only in Evk., but having probable external parallels.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *munkua-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: horrible
Russian meaning: ужасный
Tokyo: mugó-
Kyoto: múgò-
Kagoshima: múgo-
Comments: JLTT 853. The PJ accent is unclear.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *mVnḳV
Meaning: heavy, labour
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *menk-
Altaic: *mi̯uŋo
Kartvelian: *maḳ-
Dravidian: *muk- (or with PA *mi̯ăk`o) (cf. also *mūŋ- 'dumb')
Comments: Perhaps two roots.
References: МССНЯ 369, ОСНЯ 2, 73; ND 1452 *muŋḲa/U 'make great efforts, be heavy'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *mank- / *menk-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: maimed, mutilation, torment
Tokharian: A, B mänk- 'be deprived of, suffer the loss of; lack' (Adams 452)
Slavic: *mǭ́kā
Baltic: *meñk-a- adj.
Germanic: *mang-ō(n-) f., *mang-Vl=
Latin: mancus, -a `verstümmelt; verkrüppelt; gebrechlich, unvollständig'
Russ. meaning: увечный, увечье, мученье
References: WP II 268 (different in Pok. and Vasm.)
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *meñk-a- adj.
Meaning: little
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: meñka- `gering(fügig), unbeteudend, klein, dürftig, minderwertig, schwach', meñkinti 'verringern, beeinträchtigen, Abbruch tun'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *mangō(n), *mangVl=
Meaning: deformity, fault
IE etymology: IE etymology
Middle Low German: mange f.
Old High German: mangalunga 'Mangel, Verlust' (11.Jh.); mangalōn (9.Jh.); { mangōn `entbehren' }
Middle High German: manc (-g-) st. m., f. 'mangel, gebrechen'; manc adj. 'mangel, gebrechend, habend'; mangen, mangel(e)n wk. 'mangel haben, leiden; entbehren'; { mange f. }; { mangel 'Mangel, Gebrechen' }
German: mangeln, Mangel m.
Comments: ? < spätlat. mancāre
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,germet-notes,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *maḳ-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: тяжелый
English meaning: heavy
Georgian: maḳ-e
Georgian meaning (Rus.): стельная, суягная; maḳen- 'беременеть (о животных)'
Georgian meaning (Engl.): in fawn; maḳen- 'to be pregnant (of animals)'
Megrel: mo(n)ḳa
Laz: monḳa
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 125, EWK 228. В ОСНЯ 2, 73 сравнивается с драв. *mukk- 'напрягаться, делать усилия', алт. *miuŋo 'мука, страдание' < ностр. *mu(n)ḳV.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-grmean,kartet-egrmean,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *muk-
Meaning : 1 to strain 2 to grunt
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *muk-
Proto-Telugu : *mukk-
Brahui : mukk-ing
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-bra,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *muk-
Meaning : to strain
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : mukku (mukki-)
Tamil meaning : to strain as a woman in travail, make great efforts
Tamil derivates : mukkal, mukku straining as in travail, great effort
Malayalam : mukkuka
Malayalam meaning : to strain, grunt, make an effort as in travail or when easing nature
Malayalam derivates : mukkal, mukkam straining, etc.; mikkuka to press, strain at stool
Kannada : mukkir_i, mukkare
Kannada meaning : to strain, make violent efforts in pain, etc.
Tulu : mukkuruni
Tulu meaning : to snort, grunt, growl
Tulu derivates : mukkuru snorting, grunting, growling; (B-K) bukku to strain
Proto-Nilgiri : *muk-
Number in DED : 4896
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *muk-
Meaning : to strain
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : muk- (muky-) "to strain to deliver child, make a strenuous effect"
Toda : muk- (muky-) "to grunt while defecating when constipated; hesitate"
Additional forms : Also Kota muk act of straining, great effort
Number in DED : 4896
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *mukk-
Meaning : to strain, exert with a strain or strenuosly, moan, groan, grumble
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : mukku
Number in DED : 4896
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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Brahui etymology :

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Brahui : mukk-ing
Meaning : to stammer
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Number in DED : 4896
braet-meaning,braet-prnum,braet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : MVNKV
Meaning : pain, wound
Eurasiatic : *mVnḳV
Sino-Caucasian : *ŋwVQV
Austric : PAN *nuka 'sore, wound'
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,globet-austr,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ŋwVQV
Meaning: pain, disease
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *ŋăkʷ
Burushaski: *maq
Basque: *neke
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ŋăkʷ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ague
Chinese: *ŋhakʷ ague.
Burmese: hŋak (hŋak-phja) the pestilential influence of miasma, malaria.
Comments: Luce 66.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: nüè
Preclassic Old Chinese: ŋhakʷ
Classic Old Chinese: ŋhauk
Western Han Chinese: ŋhauk
Eastern Han Chinese: ŋhauk
Early Postclassic Chinese: ŋhauk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ŋhak
Late Postclassic Chinese: ŋhak
Middle Chinese: ŋak
English meaning : ague
Russian meaning[s]: малярия; перемежающаяся лихорадка
Comments: For *ŋh- cf. Meixian ńiɔk7.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 104
Four-angle index: 846
Karlgren code: 1118 c
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1857
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 宕開三入藥疑; B: 宕開三入藥疑
ZIHUI: A: 4061 0381; B: 4061 1493
Beijing: A: nye 3; B: iau 3
Jinan: A: ye 3; B: ye 3
Xi'an: A: ńyo 11; B: ye 11
Taiyuan: A: nyǝʔ 41; B: nyǝʔ 41
Hankou: A: nio 12; B: nio 12
Chengdu: A: ńio 12; B: yo 12
Yangzhou: A: niâʔ 4; B: niaʔ 4
Suzhou: A: ńia_ʔ 42; B: ńia_ʔ 41
Wenzhou: A: ńia 42; B: ńia 42
Changsha: A: ńio 4; B: ńio 4
Shuangfeng: A: ńiû 12; B: ńiû 12
Nanchang: A: ńiɔk 41; B: ńiɔk 41
Meixian: A: ńiɔk 41; B: ńiɔk 41
Guangzhou: A: jö_k 42; B: jö_k 42
Xiamen: A: giɔk 42; B: ʒiɔk 42
Chaozhou: A: ŋiak 42; B: ŋiak 42
Fuzhou: A: ŋyɔʔ 42; B: ŋyɔʔ 42
Shanghai: A: ; B: ńiaʔ 42
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: ; B: niau 43
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *maq
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: rheumatism, pain
Hunza: maq
Nagar: maq
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *neke
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: tiredness, fatigue, difficulty, pain
Bizkaian: neke
Gipuzkoan: neke
High Navarrese: neke
Low Navarrese: nekhe
Salazarese: neke
Lapurdian: nekhe
Zuberoan: nekhe
Roncalese: neke
Comments: This word is commonly attributed to Latin nex (accusative necem) '(violent) death, murder' (Michelena 1961, etc.). It is apparent that there is a big semantic gap: there is no hint of 'violent death' or 'murder' in the Bsq meaningsː Burushaski maq 'rheumatism, pain' is much closer semantically. The nearest Romance reflexes also have quite different meanings: Spanish anegar 'to drown, to flood' < Lat. enecāre 'to kill'.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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