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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *láp`ì
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: flat, broad
Russian meaning: плоский, широкий
Turkic: *jap-
Mongolian: *labta-
Tungus-Manchu: *lapta-
Korean: *nàp- / *nǝ̀p-
Japanese: *nípá
Comments: SKE 160, Poppe 37, Цинциус 1984, 8. Despite Doerfer MT 97, hardly borrowed in TM < Mong. The root should be distinguished from *li̯àp`[à] 'leaf'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *jap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to smooth, level 2 flat
Russian meaning: 1 выравнивать, сглаживать 2 плоский
Karakhanid: japur- (MK) 1
Middle Turkic: japalaq 2 (R.)
Uighur: japilaq 2
Azerbaidzhan: japɨG 2
Tuva: čɨ`pɨt 2
Kirghiz: ǯapalaq 2
Karaim: japalaq 2
Kumyk: japalaq 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 4, 16-17, 130, EDT 879.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-krh,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-krmx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *labta-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be flat, level, down
Russian meaning: быть плоским, ровным, низким
Written Mongolian: nabta- (L 555)
Khalkha: navtgar
Buriat: nabtar
Dagur: lartagar (Тод. Даг. 152)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-dag,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *lapta-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 flat, level 2 fish fins
Russian meaning: 1 плоский, ровный, низкий 2 рыбьи плавники
Evenki: napta- / lapta- 1; lāpčā 2
Even: napča, ńapča 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 494, 584.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *nàp- / *nǝ̀p-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: level, wide
Russian meaning: ровный, широкий
Modern Korean: nap-čak
Middle Korean: nàp- / nǝ̀p-
Comments: Nam 99, 105, KED 311.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *nípá
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: yard
Russian meaning: двор
Old Japanese: nipa
Middle Japanese: nífá
Tokyo: nìwa
Kyoto: níwá
Kagoshima: níwa
Comments: JLTT 498.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *lVṗV
Meaning: flat
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *lēp-, *lōp-
Altaic: *láp`i
Uralic: *lapa, *lappV, *lapta; cf. also *läppV , *lippV
Kartvelian: laṗoṭ- 'large wooden spoon', laper- 'broad flat wooden spoon'
References: ОСНЯ 2, 23-25; МССНЯ 355. ND 1316 *LE(')ṗV (or *Li(')EṗV 'spade, shovel'; 1317 *ḷa(q)ṗa 'palm, sole; smth. flat'; 1323 *laPTa 'flat, low' (vocalism of "spade" and "flat" is indeed different in FU, but apparently nowhere else).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *tlāp-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: palm (of hand), paw
Slavic: *tlā́pā `лапа; нога'
Baltic: *lā̂p-ā̂ (1) f.
Germanic: *lōf-an- m., *labb=, *laff=
Russ. meaning: ладонь, лапа
References: WP II 428 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: ла́па,
Near etymology: также презрительно о руке; укр. ла́па, блр. ла́па, словен. lара, польск. ɫара.
Further etymology: Родственно лит. lópa "лапа (собаки, медведя)", лтш. lãpa "лапа", гот. lōfа "ладонь", др.-исл. lófi -- то же, курд. lарk "лапа"; с другой ступенью вокализма: датск. lab, шв. labb "лапа", лтш. lę̄ра -- то же; см. Буга, РФВ 66, 243 и сл.; 71, 56; М.--Э. 2, 439; Бернекер 1, 690; Перссон 196, 944; Кречмер, Einl. 102; Хольтхаузен, РВВ 66, 266; Траутман, ВSW 160. Сюда же лопа́та (см.). Чеш. tlара, tlápa "лапа, ножища" не является достаточным основанием для реконструкции праслав. *tlара, вопреки Соболевскому (РФВ 70, 95). Звук t- в этом слове вторичен; ср. Ильинский (РФВ 78, 194 и сл.), который допускает влияние нем. Таtzе "лапа", что не имеет достаточных оснований.
Pages: 2,458
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *lā̂p-ā̂ (1) f.
Meaning: paw, claw
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: lṓpa `Pfote, Tatze, Klaue'
Lettish: lãpa `Pfote'
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-lett,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *lōfēn, *labb=, *laff=
Meaning: 1 palm (of the hand), 2 paw, 3 oar-blade
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: lōfa m. (n) `palm of hand'
Old Norse: lōfi m. `flache Hand'; NIsl löpp f. 2
Norwegian: love 1; labb m. 2
Swedish: love 1; labb m. 2
Danish: love 1; lab 2
Old English: lōf, -es m. `fillet, band'
Middle English: lōve `vlakke hand', lōf `riem tot steun van het roer, om de steven tegen de wind te houden'
Middle Dutch: Kil. loef, loeve `dol, roeipen'
Dutch: loef f. `windzijde'
Old Franconian: [ OLG hār-lōf `snood for the hair' ]
Middle Low German: lōf m. `loefzijde'
Old High German: laffa 1, lappo 1, 3
Middle High German: laffe wk. f. 'flache hand'
German: dial. laffe 1
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-mengl,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1172
Root: lēp-, lōp-, lǝp-
English meaning: flat
German meaning: `flach sein; Hand-, Fußfläche, Schulterblatt, Schaufel, Ruderblatt u. dgl.'
Derivatives: lōpā `Hand, Pfote'
Material: Kurd. lapk `Pfote';

    got. lōfа m., aisl. lōfi m. `flache Hand'; mnd. mengl. lōf `Windseite', eigentlich `großes Ruder, womit das Schiff an den Wind gehalten wurde'; ablautend geminiert ahd. laffa f., mhd. und dial. nhd. laffe `flache Hand, Schulter', ahd. lappo m. `flache Hand, Ruderblatt' (auch in nhd. Bärlapp `lycopodium'), norw. schwed. labb m., dän. lab `Pfote', isl. löpp f. < nhd. dial. laff `Löwenzahn'; mit m-Formans norw. dial. lōm `Tatze, Pfote' (*lōƀma-), handlōm `Handfläche', isl. lumma `große Hand';

    lett. lę̃pa f. `Pfote; Huflattig', auch `Seerose, Laichkraut' (vgl. оben nhd. laff `Löwenzahn'); ablaut. ostlett. lùopa, durch Ablautsentgleisung lett. lãpa, lit. lópa `Pfote'; auch lit. lãpas `Blatt', lett. lapa ds.;

    russ. usw. lápa `Pfote, Tatze', poln. ɫapa ds., ɫapiniec `Bärlapp'; čech. tlapa, slovak. dlaba `Tatze', poln. ɫaba = ɫapa;

    lit. lopetà `Schaufel', lett. lâpsta `Schaufel, Spaten, Schulterblatt', apr. lopto `Spaten'; mit anderem Formans und Ablaut ǝ:

    abg. lopata `Wurfschaufel', russ. lopáta `Schaufel', lopátka `Schulterblatt', lopátina `Steuerruder u. dgl.'; alb. lópëtë `Schaufel' ist slav. Lw.

References: WP. II 428, Trautmann 149 f., 160.
Pages: 679
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 466
Proto: *lapta
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: flat
German meaning: platt, flach
Finnish: latakka (dial.) 'platt, flach', lattea ?
Estonian: latak (gen. lataku), latakas (gen. lataka) 'breiter, flacher Gegenstand; breit, flach; nasser Fleck'; latikas (gen. latika 'Brachsen; Abramis Brama' ?
Mari (Cheremis): laptǝ̑ra (KB), lapte (U) 'platt, flach' ?
Khanty (Ostyak): lawtǝk (V) 'geneigt, nicht steil', tăptǝχ (DN) 'Art Teller', лɔptǝχ (Kaz.) 'platt, flach' ?
Nenets (Yurak): lapta (O) 'tiefliegend und eben, Flachland, Niederung'
Enets (Yen): lota 'ebene Stelle'
Addenda: Mot. lapta 'niedrig'; Karag. lapta; Sam *jäpt3 'dünn'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-mar,uralet-khn,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-add,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : LVPV
Meaning : flat
Eurasiatic : *lVṗV
Afroasiatic : *lVp- 'palm, sole, flat' (Chad., Cush., Berb.); cf. also *liʔi/af- fingernail, claw
Sino-Caucasian : *ƛ̣ĭ[ṗ]V̄
Austric : *lVp cover; *lVp / *NVp fingernail, scales
African (misc.) : ? Cf. Bantu *-dàpò 'paddle'.
Notes : Possibly more than one root.
Reference : ND 1317.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-austr,globet-afr,globet-notes,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *ƛ̣ĭṗV́̄
Meaning: flat; slab; spade
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ƛ̣ĕṗV̄
Sino-Tibetan: *ƛēp
Burushaski: *tápi
Basque: *lape
Comments and references : NSC 58 *ƛ̣AṗV, LDC 32, DCE 28, BCD 6.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ƛ̣ĕṗV̄
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone plate or shed
Proto-Nakh: *laṗa
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ƛ̣abV ( ~ -o-)
Proto-Tsezian: *bɔƛ̣V
Notes: Reconstructed for the PEC level. Except for the metathesis in Inkh., correspondences are regular.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *laṗa
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: shed; peak of cap
Chechen: laba
Ingush: laba
Comments: 4th class in both languages.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ƛ̣abV ( ~ -o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 stone 2 mill-stone, whetstone 3 plate, slab
Avar: ƛ̣eb (Ants.) 1
Chadakolob: ṭeb 2
Chamalal: abul (Bokarev) 3
Tindi: aba 3
Comments: Chad. paradigm B (ṭobó-l, ṭabá-l). Cf. also other Antsukh dialectal forms: ṭeb, ṭob (all cited from Микаилов 1959); Cham. Gig. abul, Gad. labul 'stone plate, slab'.
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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *bɔƛ̣V
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: stone plate, stone for fastening the roof
Khvarshi: boƛ̣o
Inkhokvari: boƛ̣o
Comments: PTsKh *boƛ̣o.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-khv,cezet-inh,cezet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ƛēp
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: flat; slice
Chinese: *l(h)ēp tablet.
Tibetan: leb flat, gleb (p. glebs) to make flat, plain; lʒ́ab flat, plain, even.
Burmese: hljap very thin, khjap thin, OB khlap numerative of flat thin things.
Kachin: gǝlep2, (H) lep, kǝlep to slice; gǝlap2 to peel off, to come off in thin layers.
Lushai: lēp a slice; hlep (hleʔ) cut off (cf. also hlīp (hliʔ) take off, lip (lip) to flay, to skin.
Lepcha: líp to slice, to cut in slices as meat, cucumber; lep to press down, to flatten; flat; klip to be collapsed as bag or stomach from emptiness; klep thin (applied to insects); kljóp, a-kljóp flat; klóp-lă broad, flat
Kiranti: *xlép
Comments: BG: Garo rep, Dimasa lep to slice; Lepcha lip id.; PK *p-lèm (/*phlèm) flat. Ben. 48; Luce 36, Gong 50. The root tends to merge with PST *lăp leaf (q. v.), which explains the variation of initials in OCh. and Tib.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-lush,stibet-lepcha,stibet-kir,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: dié
Preclassic Old Chinese: l(h)ēp
Classic Old Chinese: l(h)ēp
Western Han Chinese: l(h)jāp
Eastern Han Chinese: l(h)iāp
Early Postclassic Chinese: d(h)iēp
Middle Postclassic Chinese: d(h)iēp
Late Postclassic Chinese: d(h)iēp
Middle Chinese: diep
English meaning : tablet
Russian meaning[s]: 1) табличка для письма; запись; бумага, официальный документ; повестка; письмо; удостоверение; депеша; 2) родословные записки; 3) Де (фамилия)
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Radical: 91
Four-angle index: 5169
Karlgren code: 0633 g
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *xlép
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: peel
Tulung: khlep-
Kaling: 'khlemnä ('khlebu) peel (with a knife), cut at one point; khlep- peel, shave off (thin slice)
Limbu: hīpmaʔ
Kulung: khemma
Yamphu: reploŋ 'peeling of the skin' (?)
Comments: Toba 93 *'khlep-.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: hi:pmaʔ, -hi:b-/-hi:p-
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vi.
Meaning: be or get planed with a phɛdza, be scraped off (of an outer layer or pellicle); 2) vt., plane, scrape off (an outer layer)
Comments: 2) hi:buN I'm scraping/planing.
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-comments,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: khemma
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: vt-4 [1: khep- 2: khepp- 3: khem-]
Meaning: cut, cut through (e.g. potato), shred
Nepali: kāṭnu.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: reploŋ
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: peeling of the skin.
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *tapi
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: stony terrace
Hunza: tápi
Nagar: tápi
Comments: Sh. trápi, tapi baṭ `dünne Steinplatte'
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,buruet-notes,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *lape
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: shelter ('refugio bajo el alero de un tejado / abri sous un avant-toit' Azkue)
Zuberoan: lape
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-zbr,

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Austric etymology :

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Proto-Austric: *lUp
Meaning: cover
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Proto-Austroasiatic: *Cǝrɨp / *Cǝlɨp (also lVp hat, thatch', *lɛp 'patch, cover'; *rɔ:p, *lɔ:p 'cover')
Austroasiatic meaning: to cover
Miao-Yao parallels: Yao lap.6 a hat
Proto-Austronesian: *kulub 'roof, ridge, cover'; ? PAN *lu(m)pi, *lupiq 'fold, hem';
Proto-Thai: grop to cover, close; klop to cover; hlop to avoide, cover; ZhT *klup, KS *krup 'hat'
References: Peiros 1989.
austr-meaning,austr-prnum,austr-aa,austr-aame,austr-myao,austr-an,austr-tai,austr-bibl,

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Austro-Asiatic etymology :

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Proto-Austro-Asiatic: lVp
Meaning: hat, thatch
Austric etymology: Austric etymology
Proto-Katuic: BRU lɛ:p.N
Proto-Palaungic: De *lV:p
Proto-Khmu: *lɨp
aaet-meaning,aaet-prnum,aaet-kat,aaet-pawa,aaet-kmu,

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Palaung-Wa etymology :

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Proto-Palaung-Wa:
Austro-Asiatic etymology: Austro-Asiatic etymology
Proto-De'ang: *lǝ:p, kh-
pawaet-prnum,pawaet-prde,

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De'ang etymology :

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Proto-De'ang: *lǝ:p, kh-
Meaning: hat
Palaung-Wa etymology: Palaung-Wa etymology
De'ang: khli:p
De'ang-1: khlǝ:p
De'ang-2: klɛ:p.2
References: WW-380
prdeet-meaning,prdeet-prnum,prdeet-dea,prdeet-dea1,prdeet-dea3,prdeet-bibl,

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