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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *k`úlo
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to roll, turn
Russian meaning: катиться, вертеться
Turkic: *Kul-
Mongolian: *kol-ki-
Tungus-Manchu: *xol- / *xul-
Korean: *kùbɨ̀r-
Japanese: *kǝ́rǝ́-mp-
Comments: АПиПЯЯ 288, ОСНЯ 1, 327 (with literature; Illich-Svitych also compares Mong. qoli- 'to mix', but does not list the Turkic and Japanese forms). Cf. also Mong. kölbe- 'to lie on one side' (KW 238), qolbir- `to slip sidewards'. The attribution of some forms is problematic: Turk. *Kul- may reflect a partial contamination with PA *gi̯ŭldo 'to stretch' (q. v.).; the Jpn. and Kor. forms, due to the merger of *r and *l, can actually also reflect PA *ki̯ṓr[i] q. v.; in Jpn. cf. also koro 'round log', korog- 'to roll, rotate'. Note that the MKor. form with -w-, -'- makes the affiliation of the Korean root questionable - unless it is a dissimilative development < *kurb-ɨr-, in which case it would be a morphological structure *k`úlo-bV- = PJ *kǝ́rǝ́mp-, Mong. kölbe-, qolbir-.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to roll (down), fall 2 round
Russian meaning: 1 скатываться, падать 2 круглый
Middle Turkic: qula- 1 (Буд.)
Uzbek: qulä- 1
Uighur: qula-, ɣula- 1
Sary-Yughur: qula-, Gol- 1
Oyrat: qula- 1
Kirghiz: qula- 1
Kazakh: qula- 1
Bashkir: qola- 1
Karakalpak: qula- 1
Salar: gulɨlüx 2
Comments: VEWT 298, ЭСТЯ 6, 122.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-alt,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-bas,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kol-ki-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be restless, go round and round
Russian meaning: вертеться, не сидеть на месте
Written Mongolian: qolkida- (L 959)
Khalkha: xolxi-
Buriat: xolxi 'shaky, wobbly'
Kalmuck: xoĺgǝdǝ-
Ordos: Golχido-
Comments: KW 182.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *xol- / *xul-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 dance, move in dancing 2 climb down, out (from a vehicle, boat) 3 bend (of a river) 4 to walk around, turn round
Russian meaning: 1 танцевать, двигаться в пляске 2 высаживаться (из лодки), слезать (с телеги) 3 излучина (реки) 4 обходить, объезжать
Evenki: olo-nmū- 1, uli-sin 3
Even: ụlịna 3
Negidal: olị-sịn- 4
Ulcha: χolon- 2, χōlị- 4
Orok: χụlon- 2, χōlị- 4
Nanai: xulun- 2, xōlị- 4
Oroch: xolon-o- 2 ( < Orok.), uli- 4
Udighe: xoli- 4 ( < Nan.)
Comments: ТМС 1, 470; 2, 16, 261.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kubɨr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: roll
Russian meaning: катиться
Modern Korean: kūl-, kurɨ-
Middle Korean: kù'ɨ̀r-, kù'ur-
Comments: Nam 60, KED 199, 217.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kǝ́rǝ́-mp-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: roll
Russian meaning: катиться
Middle Japanese: korob-
Tokyo: kòrob-
Kyoto: kórób-
Kagoshima: korób-
Comments: JLTT 713.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳoĺV
Meaning: round
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kʷel-
Altaic: *k`ulo
Uralic: *kulke (? + Selk. koĺa)
Kartvelian: *ḳwer-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *kǝvlǝ-
References: МССНЯ 345-346 (+ 332 under 'бродить'), ОСНЯ 1, 326-327; ND 1054 *ḳol̄yV 'round, to turn, turn around'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kʷel-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: wheel
Slavic: *kolo, gen. -ese
Baltic: *kel-a- n.
Germanic: *xwil-a- n.
Latin: colus, -ūs f., colus, -ī f.(/m.) 'прялка; спряденная нитка'
Celtic: OIr cul `vehicle' ( < *kʷolā)
Russ. meaning: колесо
References: WP I 514 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: колесо́
Near etymology: -- расширение основы на -еs, др.-русск. коло, им. п. мн. ч. колеса, укр. ко́ло, ст.-слав. коло, род. п. колесе τροχός, ἅμαξα (Супр.), болг. кола́ "телега", диал. коло́ -- то же (Младенов 245), сербохорв. ко̏ло, словен. kоlо̑, чеш., слвц. kоlо, польск. kоɫо, в.-луж. kоlеsо, н.-луж. kólaso.
Further etymology: Родственно др.-прусск. -kеlаn в maluna-kelan "мельничное колесо", греч. πόλος "ось", др.-исл. hvel "колесо", др.-англ. hvéol -- то же, греч. πολέω "двигаюсь вокруг", лат. соlō "возделываю, населяю", др.-инд. cárati "блуждает, двигается", далее с редупликацией -- лит. kãklas "шея" (первонач. "вращающаяся"), др.-инд. cakrás, cakrám "колесо", авест. čаχrа-, греч. κύκλος, тохар. kukäl "повозка"; см. Мейе, Ét. 357; МSL 22, 203; Френкель, ZfslPh 20, 72; Бернекер 1, 549; Траутман, ВSW 125; Арr. Sprd. 355; М.--Э. 1, 368; 2, 138; Ройтер, JSFOu 47, 4, 9; Мейе--Вайан 22, 89. Следует отделять от них гот. hals "шея" (вопреки Норейну (IF 4, 320 и сл.), Бернекеру (там же), Торбьёрнссону (Nord. Stud. till. Nоrееn 257)), потому что иначе здесь ожидалось герм. ƕ-. Знач. коло "повозка" ср. также с др.-русск. кола (мн.) "созвездие Ориона" (Афан. Никит. 24).
Pages: 2,289-290
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *kel-a- n.
Meaning: wheel
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Old Prussian: kelan `Rad' V. 295
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-oprus,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *xwila-n
Meaning: wheel
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: hvel n. `Rad'
Norwegian: dial. kvel
Swedish: dial. hvel
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-swed,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 391
Proto: *kulke-
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to move, walk
German meaning: sich bewegen, gehen (zu Lande und zu Wasser)
Finnish: kulke- 'gehen, wandern, fahren, sich bewegen'
Estonian: kulge- 'sich bewegen, sich begeben'
Saam (Lapp): gǫl'gâ- -lg- (N) 'run (of water), float, leak', kål'kå- (L) 'fließen, rinnen, strömen; sich herumtreiben, vagabundieren', kolki̊- (T), kolke- (Kld. Not.) 'fließen'
Mordovian: koĺge- (E M) 'triefen, rinnen, sickern'
Komi (Zyrian): ki̮lal- (s), ki̮va.v- (P) 'stromabwärts treiben (intr.)', ki̮lt- (S), ki̮vt- (P) 'mit dem Strom fahren od. schwimmen', kølt- (PO) 'auf dem Wasser fließen'
Khanty (Ostyak): kɔɣǝl- (V), χoχǝt- (DN), χǫχǝл- (Kaz.) 'schreiten, laufen'
Hungarian: halad-, dial. hallad- 'fortschreiten, vorwärtskommen, (altung.) sich hinziehen, sich verschieben', halaszt- 'verschieben, verzögern, (altung.) anweisen, verweisen'
Nenets (Yurak): χūlā- (O) 'von der Strömung getrieben schwimmen', ? χū (ō), ḳūw (Nj.) 'vom Wasser an das Ufer getriebener Baum'
Selkup: kuuremba- (Ta.) 'schwimmen', quri̮- (Ta.) 'tragen (der Strom)', qūra- (Ty.) 'schaukeln, schwimmen'
Kamass: kål-, χål- 'gehen, wandern' ?
Sammalahti's version: (FU?) *kulki-
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-mrd,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,uralet-nen,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-samm2,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ḳwer-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: круглый; лепешка
English meaning: round; scone
Georgian: ḳwer-, ḳweḳwer-a
Megrel: ḳwar-; ḳwarḳwal-ia 'round'
Laz: ḳwar-; (?) ḳorḳol-a 'frizzle; sheep excrements'
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 110, EWK 198. Иллич-Свитыч (ОСНЯ 1, 326) добавляет еще сван. (лашх.) ḳwāši 'круглая хлебная лепешка' и восстанавливает варианты *ḳwer- / *ḳwal- (*ḳwaź-?), возводя корень к ностр. *ḳoĺV 'круглый' (ПИЕ *kʷel- 'круглый, вертеться', урал. *koĺa 'круг', алт. *k`ulo 'катиться, вертеться', драв. *kū̆ḷ- id.). Картв. формы, однако, могут иметь и СК происхождение: ср. ПСК *=ăḳur 'катиться, вертеться' (NCED 259-260), *ḳwVrḳV 'нечто круглое' (NCED 740; ср. также под *ḳrḳ-; к формам со значением "лепешка" ср. ПВК *ḳwɨ̆ḳwV̆ 'лепешка', имеющее хурритскую (kakkari) и аккадскую (kakkaru) параллели).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *kǝvlǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): кружиться, оборачиваться
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *kǝ̣fLǝ̣-
Proto-Itelmen: *k'ile-
Comments: Ср. этимологически связанный вариант *kŭvlǝ- 'месяц (временной), круглый' (998).
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,kamet-comments,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *kǝ̣fLǝ̣-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вертеться, кружиться 1, скатиться 2, колесо 3, юла, волчок, (веретено) 4
Chukchee: kúwlǝ- 1, kuwlǝ́-tku- 2, kuwlú-c(ʔ)ǝ-n 3, (АБ) kuul 3, kuúl-kuul ", kúwlǝ-qɛj 4
Koryak: kǝwl-át- 2 (III), kuwlǝ́-chǝ-n 3, kuwli-chǝ-n 4
Alutor: kǝvǝ̀llǝ, kǝvlǝ- 4, kǝvĺǝ-ĺʔat- 1
Comments: Ср. *kǝ̣fL-(uk) с первичным значением 'круглый по форме' (1811), а здесь скорее функциональное значение 'катиться, кружиться, колесо'.
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-alu,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *k'ile- EA
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): вертеться, обернуться, колесо
Itelmen: k'ile-kes
Itelmen meaning: вертеться, кружиться 1, обернуться 2, колесо 3, вертеть 4
West Itelmen: kẹlazǝ-kaz
West Itelmen meaning: circumagi, rotari
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): kręcić się
South Itelmen: kiĺ-si
South Itelmen meaning (Latin): evertus
South Itelmen meaning (Polish): prewracony, obalony
Number in Volodin 1976: 418
Comments: Использование Дыбовским в зап. камч. буквы "ять" указывает на абруптивный характер соседнего заднеязычного.
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-sit,itelet-sitmea,itelet-sitmep,itelet-vol,itelet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVLV
Meaning : round
Eurasiatic : *ḳoĺV
Afroasiatic : *kul- (? *ḳul-)
Sino-Caucasian : *gwǝ[lḳ]wǝ́ (also PST *qhʷăɫ, *qʷǝ̄l); cf. also *=V̆ḳV́ɫ
Reference : МССНЯ 345-346 (+ 332 under 'бродить'), ОСНЯ 1, 326; GE 23 *kol (+ NS).
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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *gwǝ[lḳ]wǝ́
Meaning: round object; skull; head
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *gwɨ[l]gwǝ
Yenisseian: *k[ǝ]ŕga (~g-)
Comments and references : Different in NSC 56.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *gwɨ[l]gwǝ
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: round object; skull
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *gʷVngʷV-
Proto-Tsezian: *gʷɨg(ʷ)V- (~-o-)
Proto-Lak: k:ark
Proto-Lezghian: *k:u[r]k:
Notes: An expressive root with some uncertainty about the medial resonant. It must be distinguished from *gīrgwV 'round' q.v.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *gʷVngʷV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: skull
Avar: gʷangʷára
Comments: Av. gen. gʷangʷára-dul. The Av. word is borrowed in God. gʷangʷara id.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-ava,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *gʷɨg(ʷ)V- (~-o-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: cheek
Bezhta: gogā
Gunzib: gogor
Comments: PGB *gogɔr(u) (cf. also Bezht. Tlad. gugaro, Khosh. gogaro).
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: k:ark
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: edge; top of a round or oval object
Lak form: k:ark
Comments: Lak. k:ark < *k:ʷark:, cf. gen. k:urk:a-l.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *k:u[r]k:
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 skull 2 occiput 3 crown of head 4 pumpkin
Lezghian: k:ug 4
Tabasaran: gug 2,4
Agul: gurga-ħ 1
Rutul: gug-uj 3 (Khniukh.)
Comment: PL obl. base *k:u[r]k:a- (cf. Tab. guga-, Ag. gurga-ħ which is originally a locative form). Reconstruction of *-r- is not very reliable, since it should have been preserved in Tab.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-lzg,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *k[ǝ]ŕga (~g-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: head
Ket: kʌjga
Arin: kolḱā
Pumpokol: kolka
Comments: ССЕ 237. A contracted form is probably present in Ket śuk-kɔĺ 'back of head' (*suga 'back' + *k[ǝ]ŕga 'head') (Werner's 2, 212 analysis as śuk 'back' + hɔĺ 'face, form' seems less likely). The PY reconstruction is somewhat complicated: Werner (1, 460) reconstructs <*kʌj- / *kʌl->, not specifying what he means by such an alternation. The equation Ket kʌjga = Arin kolḱā speaks unambiguously of PY *k[ǝ]ŕga. The word may indeed be an old compound with an unclear second part *-ga (as Werner writes ibid.); for the first part cf. Ket kʌ́je (ibid.) 'head; head, leader' - but this can be just a dialectal (Southern) variant pronunciation of the same kʌjga.
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