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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ki̯ăru
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: need, necessity
Russian meaning: нужда, необходимость
Turkic: *gẹrge-
Mongolian: *kara
Tungus-Manchu: *kor-pi-
Korean: *kari- (?)
Comments: Cf. also *k`i̯ùru 'heavy, difficult'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *gẹrge-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to need 2 necessity, necessary 3 to stay away, dare not
Russian meaning: 1 нуждаться 2 необходимость, необходимый 3 не осмеливаться
Old Turkic: kerge- 1 (OUygh.), kergek 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: kerge- 1, kerek 2 (MK, KB)
Turkish: gerek 2
Tatar: kiräk 2
Middle Turkic: kẹrek 2 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: kerak 2
Uighur: keräk 2
Sary-Yughur: kerek 2
Azerbaidzhan: gäräk 2
Turkmen: gerek 2
Khakassian: kirek 2
Shor: kerek 2
Oyrat: kerek 2
Halaj: kerek 2
Chuvash: kir-lǝ 2
Yakut: kerej- 3, kerex 2
Dolgan: kerek 2
Tuva: xerek 2
Tofalar: xerek 2
Kirghiz: kerek 2
Kazakh: kerek 2
Noghai: kerek 2
Bashkir: käräk 2
Balkar: kerek 2
Karaim: kerek 2
Karakalpak: kerek 2
Kumyk: gerek 2
Comments: VEWT 256, EDT 742, 743, ЭСТЯ 3, 25-26, Stachowski 145. Turk. > Mong. kereg (see Щербак 1997, 127).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kara
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 envy 2 in need, jobless 3 miserly
Russian meaning: 1 зависть 2 нуждающийся, безработный 3 скупой
Written Mongolian: qara 1, qaraɣu, qaram 3 (L 934, 935)
Khalkha: xar 1, xarū, xaram 3
Buriat: xara 1
Kalmuck: xarā 2, xarǝm 'compassion; miserliness', xarū 'jealous; miserly; careful' (КРС)
Ordos: xaramči 3
Dagur: xarmači(n) 3 (Тод. Даг. 174), hareme 3 (MD 157)
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kor-pi-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be, make in time
Russian meaning: успеть, сделать к сроку
Negidal: kotpị-
Ulcha: qorpị-
Orok: qụlpị-
Nanai: qorpị-
Comments: ТМС 1, 419.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-neg,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kari-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: miserly
Russian meaning: скупой
Modern Korean: karin-sɨrǝp-, karin-čumǝni
Middle Korean: karin-čumǝni (a comp. with čumǝni 'pocket')
Comments: Liu 20, KED 14 (Martin's derivation < kanrin < Chin. seems dubious).
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *gVrV
Meaning: to wish, need
Indo-European: *g'her[e]-, *ghrē-
Altaic: *ki̯ăru
Uralic: *karma
Dravidian: *kar-
References: ND 673 *garħV ~ *gärħV 'try to obtain, wish, need' (+Arab.). Two roots (IE-Ur and Dr-Alt?). Cf. also PA *gŭjŕe (suggested by V. Glumov), Drav. *kōr- (if different from *kUSar-).
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *g'her-
Meaning: to long for, to wish
Hittite: kari tija- 'willfahren, nachgeben', karija- id. (Tischler 503, 506)
Tokharian: A kar(y)-, B ker(y)- (PT *ker(y)- < *ǵhor-i̯-) 'laugh' (Adams 197)
Old Indian: háryati `to like, delight in'
Avestan: zara- m. `Streben, Ziel'
Old Greek: khái̯rō, aor. kharē̂nai̯, hom. kekháronto, khǟ́rato, pf. (prs.-Bed.) ptc. kekharēóta, kekhárēka, kekhárēmai̯, kekharméno-, va. khartó- `sich freuen'; khári-s, -itos, -in f. `Reiz, Anmut, Gefallen, Wohlgefallen, Gunst, Dankbarkait, Dank', kharǟ́ `Freude', khármǟ f. `Kampfesfreude, Kampflust', khárma n. `Freude, Vergnügen usw.', kharmonǟ́ f. `Freude, Lus, Wonne', -kharḗs `erfreuend, freudevoll etc.'
Slavic: *zārītī
Germanic: *gir-a-, *gir-ja-, *gir-n-a- adj., *gir-n-ia- vb.
Latin: horior (3 sg. horitur), -īrī `antreiben, ermuntern'; hor(i)tor, -ārī `id.'
Other Italic: Osk herest `volet', heriam `arbitrium, potestatem', Herentateís `Veneris'; Paelign Herentas `Veneris', Vestin. hiretum `placitum,, dēdcrētum, Sabin hiretum `decretum'; Umbr heri `vult', heries `voleēs', abl.. pl. heritu consultō, heris ... heris `vel ... vel'
Celtic: OIr gor `fromm', goire `Frömmigkeit, Pietät', MIr do-gar `unglücklich', so-gar `sehr glücklich'
Russ. meaning: стремиться, желать
References: WP I 600 f
piet-meaning,piet-hitt,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *gira-, *girja-, *girna-, *girnian- vb.
Meaning: wish, desire
IE etymology: IE etymology
Gothic: gernī f. (n) `wish, desire', *fɛhu-gɛrn-s (a) `avaricious'; *gɛrnjan wk. `desire, lust after'
Old Norse: gjarn adj. `begierig', adv. gjarna, gjarnan; geri m. `Wolf, Hund, Rabe', ger-r `begierig, hungrig'; girna wk. `gelüsten'
Norwegian: gjerna adv.
Old Swedish: girna vb.; grādh
Swedish: gärna adv.
Old Danish: girne-s vb.
Danish: gerne adv.
Old English: georn `wozu geneigt, worauf begierig', adv. georne; giernan
English: yearn
Old Frisian: adv. jerne; ieria vb., OWFris (bi)iaria
Old Saxon: gerag `gierig'; gern `begierig, eifrig nach etwas', gerno adv.; fehu-giri; girnian
Middle Dutch: gherne, gheerne, ghaerne `begerig, ijverig, gemakkelijk, vaak'; ghēren, beghēren, begāren
Dutch: gaarne adv.; begeren
Old Franconian: geron
Middle Low German: adv. gērne; gēr, gīr adj.
Old High German: giri (8.Jh.), ger `begierig, verlangend' (9.Jh.), gerōn `begehren' (8.Jh.); girī (8.Jh.) `Begierde', girīg `begierig, begehrlich' (9.Jh.); gern(i) `etw. begehrend, eifrig bedacht' (9.JH.), adv. gerno (9.Jh.)
Middle High German: gërn(e) adv. 'begierig u. mit freude, bereitwillig, gern'; { -gern adj. }; gërn wk. 'begehren, verlangen'; gër, gir st. f. 'verlangen, begehren'; gir, gër `begehrend, verlangend'
German: gern, begehren, Gier f.
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-got,germet-onord,germet-norw,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 655
Root: ĝher-1
English meaning: to yearn for
German meaning: `begehren, gern haben'
General comments: z. T. mit Formen von einer Basis *ĝherē(i)- : ĝheri- (s. Persson Beitr. 728)
Material: Ai. háryati `findet Gefallen, begehrt'; av. zara- m. `Streben, Ziel';

    gr. χαίρω (*χαρι-ω), χαρη̃ναι `sich freuen', χάρις f. `Anmut, Gunst', χαρά̄ `Freude', χαροπός `Kampfesfreude blitzend', χάρμα n. `Freude, Vergnügen'; auch χάρμη `Kampf', ursprüngl. `Kampfesfreude'? χαρτός `erfreulich' (?); nach Pedersen 5е décl. lat. 73 hierher χρή usw. S. unten ĝher-6; hierher nach Leumann Homer. Wörter 318109f auch δυσχερής `unfreundlich, unangenehm', εὐχερής `sorglos, ungestört, leicht' (erst später auf χείρ `Hand' bezogen);

    osk. herest (bantinisch, für *heriest), umbr. heriest `volet', heris-heris `vel-vel', osk. heriam `arbitrium, potestatem', Herentateís `Veneris', prälign. Herentas, sabin. hiretum `decretum'; lat. horior, -īrī `antreiben, ermuntern', horitor, synkopiert hortor, -ārī ds.

    Air. gor `fromm', goire `Frömmigkeit, Pietät'; mir. do-gar `unglücklich', so-gar `sehr glücklich' (: gr. χαρά̄); cymr. dyar `traurig', hyar `angenehm' (I. Williams RC 40, 487);

    ahd. ger `begehrend', gerōn `begehren', ahd. girīg, as. gerag `gierig'; got. faíhu-gaírns `geldgierig', aisl. gjarn, ags. georn `wozu geneigt, worauf begierig', ahd. as. gern `begierig, eifrig nach etwas', Adv. ahd. gerno, nhd. gern, Denom. got. gaírnjan, aisl. girna, ags. giernan, as. girnean `begehren'.

    Vielleicht hierher als dh-Bildung von der Basis ĝh(e)rē-: got. grēdus `Hunger', grēdags `hungrig', aisl. grāðr, grāði m. `Gier, Hunger', ags. gnǣd `Gier', nhd. jrāt `Hunger' (Berlin), ags. grǣdig, ahd. grātag `gierig'. Dazu als *ghrǝdh- germ. *graða- `begierig, brünstig' inaisl. graðr `nicht verschnitten', graðungr `Stier'? In mhd. grīt m. `Begierde', grītec `begierig', aisl. grīð f. `Heftigkeit', griðjungr m. `Stier' ein ablaut. idg. *ĝh[e]rēi-dh- oder *ĝh[e]rī-dh- zu suchen, wäre denkbar.

    Mir. grād n. `Liebe' ist aus lat. grātum facere alicui und ähnlichen Wendungen entlehnt(d statt th nach grad `gradus').

References: WP. I 600 f., WH. I 657 f.
Pages: 440-441
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 248
Proto: *karma
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to want
German meaning: wollen
Mordovian: karma- (E M) 'wollen, beabsichtigen' ?
Nenets (Yurak): χarwā- (O) 'wollen, Lust haben, mögen'
Enets (Yen): kóma- (Ch.), koma- (B) 'wollen', kometá- (B) 'lieben'
Nganasan (Tawgi): karbútu 'wollen'
Addenda: Mot. choryndžörga-
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mrd,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-nga,uralet-add,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kar-
Meaning : to intend, desire
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kar-und-
Proto-Telugu : *kar_- (?)
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kar-und-
Meaning : to conceive, intend, recollect
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : karutu (karuti-)
Tamil meaning : to intend, recollect, suppose, consider, regard, desire, ponder
Tamil derivates : karuttu design, purpose, opinion, attention, desire, judgement, mind, will
Malayalam : karutuka
Malayalam meaning : to conceive, think, meditate, aim at, attend to, prepare
Malayalam derivates : karutal care, regard; karuttu id., courage; karuttan resolute
Kannada : karu
Kannada meaning : to point, aim at
Proto-Nilgiri : *kar-ǝnd-
Number in DED : 1283
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kt,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kar-ǝnd-
Meaning : to prepare (to do), have great desire (to do)
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : karnd- (karndy-)
Additional forms : Also Kota kart purpose, aim strenuously striven for
Number in DED : 1283
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-addition,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kar_-
Meaning : thought, idea, reflection, imagination, intention
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kar_ada
Number in DED : 1283
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-dednum,

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