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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kúŋe (*kújŋe)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: heart, middle
Russian meaning: сердце, середина
Turkic: *göjŋ-il
Tungus-Manchu: *kuŋ-
Korean: *kà'ón-tắi
Comments: On a possible Mongolian reflex see under *kómp`i.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *göjŋ-il
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: heart, mood
Russian meaning: сердце, дух
Old Turkic: köŋül (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: köŋül (MK, KB)
Turkish: gön-ül; göjün, göjn (dial.)
Tatar: küŋǝl
Middle Turkic: köŋül (Sangl., MA)
Uzbek: kọŋil
Uighur: köŋül
Sary-Yughur: köŋül
Azerbaidzhan: könül
Turkmen: gövün, köŋ-ül (arch. - borrowed from Türki)
Khakassian: kȫl, köŋn-ǝ
Shor: köŋn-ü
Oyrat: kǖn
Halaj: kīil
Chuvash: kǝʷmǝʷl
Yakut: köŋül 'will, freedom'
Dolgan: köŋül 'permission'
Tofalar: xȫl
Kirghiz: köŋül
Kazakh: köŋil
Noghai: köŋil
Bashkir: küŋǝl
Balkar: köl
Gagauz: gön
Karaim: könül, kölün
Karakalpak: köŋil, kewil
Salar: göjŋy
Kumyk: göŋül
Comments: VEWT 291, EDT 731, ЭСТЯ 3, 75-77, Лексика 274, Stachowski 156. Almost all languages reflect a suffixed form (a substantivized adjective in -il, see Gabain AG 75). Khak., Shor reflect a nominalized attributive form of köŋül.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *kuŋ-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to beat (of heart) 2 heart 3 aorta, vein
Russian meaning: 1 биться (о сердце) 2 сердце 3 кровеносный сосуд
Even: kuŋ- 1, kuŋkis 2, kewuŋe (Ol.) 3
Literary Manchu: kuxen 3
Comments: ТМС 1, 427, 433, 442.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-man,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *kà'ón-tắi
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: middle
Russian meaning: середина
Modern Korean: kaun-de
Middle Korean: kà'ón-tắi
Comments: Nam 7, KED 22.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *kuŋV
Meaning: belly, heart
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *kúŋe (*kújŋe)
Uralic: *kunV
Dravidian: *gunḍ-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *kinŭ 'navel' (?; cf. also *kǝniŋvǝ- 'meat')
References: ND 1078a *ḲuǹV 'belly, chest'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-chuk,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 408
Proto: *kunV
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: belly
German meaning: Bauch
Komi (Zyrian): ki̮ne̮m (S), ki̮ne̮.m (PO) 'Bauch'
Khanty (Ostyak): kŏṇ (V), χŏn (DN O)
Hungarian: joh, juh, éh, íh 'das Innere, Bauch, Magen', (altung.) iunhum, yonhan (*ju-χunV) 'Herz, Sinn, Leber, Lende'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-kom,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *gunḍ-
Meaning : heart
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *gunḍ-
Proto-Telugu : *gunḍ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gunḍ-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gunḍ-
Proto-North Dravidian : *konḍ-
Notes : The Malto form is unclear.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,dravet-ndr,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *gunḍ-
Meaning : heart
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : kuṇṭi
Tamil meaning : heart, kidney, roe of fish
Tamil derivates : kuṇṭi-kkāy kidneys, heart
Malayalam : kuṇṭi-kkāyi
Malayalam meaning : cashew fruit without the nut, and other analogies (kidneys)
Kannada : guṇḍige
Kannada meaning : the heart, courage
Kannada derivates : guṇḍi-kāyi the heart (in a physical sense only)
Tulu : guṇḍigè
Tulu meaning : the breast, heart; bravery, courage
Tulu derivates : guṇḍe courage; guṇḍe-kāyi the heart
Number in DED : 1693
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *gunḍ-
Meaning : the chest, heart, courage, boldness
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : guṇḍe
Dialectal forms (1) : guṇḍelu
Dialectal forms (2) : guṇḍiya
Additional forms : Also guṇḍe-kāya the heart; guṇḍā brave, bold; rude, rough
Number in DED : 1693
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_2,telet-tel_3,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *gunḍ-
Meaning : heart
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Naikri : gunḍur-kāya "kidney"
Parji : gunḍer-kāya
Number in DED : 1693
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-parji,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gunḍ-
Meaning : heart; chest
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *gunḍ-
Konda : guṇḍa
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,gndet-kon,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *gunḍ-
Meaning : heart
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : gundur-kāiā "kidney"
Maria Gondi : gunḍe, gunḍru kāya
Seoni Gondi : gunḍe kaya
Koya Gondi : gunḍer kaya
Additional forms : Also Gondi_S gunḍe gizzard; Gondi_Ko gunḍe chest
Number in DED : 1693
Number in CVOTGD : 1119
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_s,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : guṇḍa
Meaning: chest (BB)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Additional forms : Also Konda_BB guṇḍa kāya heart
Number in DED : 1693
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-addition,konet-dednum,

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North Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-North-Dravidian : *konḍ-
Meaning : heart
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Malto : konḍa
Number in DED : 1693
ndret-meaning,ndret-prnum,ndret-mlt,ndret-dednum,

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Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Kamchatkan: *kinŭ
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning (Rus.): шрам, пуп
Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *kinu-
Proto-Itelmen: *k'in "
kamet-prnum,kamet-meaning,kamet-chuk,kamet-itel,

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Chukchee-Koryak etymology :

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Proto-Chukchee-Koryak: *kinu-
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): шрам, рубец 1, иметь зажившие шрамы, покрываться сыпью 2
Chukchee: kínu= 1, kinúw- 2
Koryak: kinu- (I) 1
Comments: Ср. кор. 'мясо' *kịnụŋV (1689) ?
chuket-prnum,chuket-meaning,chuket-chu,chuket-kor,chuket-comments,

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Itelmen etymology :

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Proto-Itelmen: *k'in "
Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology: Chukchee-Kamchatkan etymology
Meaning (Rus.): пупок
Itelmen: k'in-k'in, k'en-k'en**
Itelmen meaning: брюшко рыбы
West Itelmen: kɨn, knɨn-kɨnkɨn
West Itelmen meaning: umbiculus
West Itelmen meaning (Polish): pępek
Number in Volodin 1976: 27
Volodin-Zhukova reference: 336
Comments: В зап. камч. втоpое слово буквально значит "сеpединный пупок".
itelet-prnum,itelet-meaning,itelet-ite,itelet-itemea,itelet-wit,itelet-witmea,itelet-witmep,itelet-vol,itelet-vzhu,itelet-comments,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVNV
Meaning : belly, heart
Eurasiatic : *kuŋV
Afroasiatic : *gVnV(H)-
Sino-Caucasian : *(x)ḳúnHV
Amerind (misc.) : (see KVMV)
African (misc.) : Cf. Macro-Khoisan *k̊nu- "kidney".
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-afr,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *gVnVʔ-
Meaning: interior, stomach, heart
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ga/in(a)n- 'interior; heart'
Egyptian: gnnw 'the fat between and around intestines'
Central Chadic: *ʔa-gwin- ~ *ginuʔ- 'intestines'1, 'stomach' 2
East Chadic: *gVgVn- 'stomach'
Beḍauye (Beja): *ginʔa 'heart'
South Cushitic: *gunuʕ- 'navel'
Notes: Cf. Bla Review 501.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-egy,afaset-cch,afaset-ech,afaset-bed,afaset-scu,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 116
Proto-Semitic: *ga/in(a)n-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: interior; heart
Akkadian: gannu 'part of the body of an animal' SB on [CAD g 41]; 'ein innere Körperteil des Schafes' [AHw 280]
Ugaritic: gngn, ggn, gngnt 'interior, corazón' [DLU 145, 148] (all forms are redupl.)
Hebrew: Cf. gāḥōn 'belly (of snakes and reptiles)' HAL 187
Arabic: ǧanān- 'coeur, esprit, âme' [BK 1 332l, ǧīn- 'intérieure (de toute chose), coeur (chez les poetes)' [ibid.]; ǧanīn- 'embryon' [ibid. 333]
Notes: Scarcely attested and not well definable semantically.

    To ARB ǧanīn- 'embryon', cf. GEZ ganin 'foetus, embrio' [LGz 198] (according to Leslau, borrowed from ARB), TGR ǧǝnna 'foetus, new-born child' [LH 552] (ǧ suggests an Arabism). Besides these two presumed ARB loan-words in ETH, however, there is also TGR gǝnay 'miscarriage, monster; small child' [ibid. 589], which does not look an Arabism and, therefore, creates a problem: if its meanings are comparable to 'foetus, embrio' with plausible semantic shifts, this word should be united with ARB ǧanīn- 'embryo' to make a separate, though poorly attested, SEM root probably to be further compared to the present one.

    Of possible AFRASIAN parallels, cf. N. CUSH: BEJA gínha, gínʔa 'Herz, Brust, Bauch' [Rein Bed 98], ginạ 'heart' [Hudson 46] (unless an Arabism).

    Cf. [DRS 147-8] (Nos. 2, 13 and 14; comparison quite different from this one)

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-ara,semet-notes,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: gnnw
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'the fat between and around intestines'
Notes: Bla Review after Ward.
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,egyet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *ʔa-gwin- ~ *ginuʔ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'intestines' 1, 'stomach' 2
Fali Kiria: gìnuʔ 1 [Kr:181]
Gude: ʔàgínǝ 1 [Hs]
Logone: ŋgùn 2 [LLog]
Buduma=Yedina: ŋun 2 [LBud]
Gulfey: um-guén 2 [Lk: 147]
Kusseri: nguén 2 [Lk: 145]
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-fki,cchet-gde,cchet-log,cchet-bud,cchet-gul,cchet-kus,

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East Chadic etymology :

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Proto-EChadic: *gVgVn-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'stomach'
Tumak: gègǝ̄n [Cp]
echet-prnum,echet-meaning,echet-tum,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: ginʔ- @
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'heart'
Notes: ginạ [Huds 46]; gínha, gínʔa [Rein Beḍ 98] 'Herz, Brust, Bauch'
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

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South Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-South Cushitic: *gunuʕ-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'navel'
Iraqw (Mbulu): gunuʕa
Notes: Ehr HRSC 365
scuet-prnum,scuet-meaning,scuet-irq,scuet-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *(x)ḳúnHV
Meaning: kidney
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ḳ_unHV
Sino-Tibetan: *gjV̆nH (~ G-)
Burushaski: *-́ken
Comments and references : DCE 8.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-buru,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ḳ_unHV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: kidney
Proto-Avaro-Andian: *ḳ:unʔi
Proto-Tsezian: *kõbɔ A
Notes: An Av.-And-Tsez. isogloss. *-bɔ in the PTs form is an original plural suffix.
caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-aand,caucet-cez,caucet-comment,

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Avar-Andian etymology :

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Protoform: *ḳ:unʔi
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 kidney 2 liver
Andian language: ḳ:unu
Chamalal: ḳū̃ 2
Tindi: k:ū̃ 1
Godoberi: k:ũji
Comments: Cf. also Cham. Gig. ḳũj.
aandet-prnum,aandet-meaning,aandet-and,aandet-chm,aandet-tnd,aandet-gdb,aandet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *kõbɔ A
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: kidney
Ginukh: kubo
Bezhta: koma
Gunzib: koma
Comments: PGB *koma.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-bzt,cezet-gnz,cezet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *gjV̆nH (~ G-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: kidney
Chinese: *ginʔ kidney.
Kachin: nkhjun1 flesh on the back side of the body, (H): the kidneys.
Kiranti: *khìŋ
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-kach,stibet-kir,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: shèn
Preclassic Old Chinese: ginʔ
Classic Old Chinese: gín
Western Han Chinese: gjǝ́n
Eastern Han Chinese: gjǝ́n
Early Postclassic Chinese: gjín
Middle Postclassic Chinese: gjín
Late Postclassic Chinese: gjín
Middle Chinese: ʒ́ín
English meaning : kidney
Russian meaning[s]: анат. 1) почки; 2) яичко, семенные железы
Comments: It is interesting to note the preservation of a velar in Chaozhou kiŋ6, Dongshan kian6.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 130
Four-angle index: 3569
Karlgren code: 0369 h
Vietnamese reading: thận
Bijiang Bai: ǯẽr1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-viet,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1502
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 臻開三上軫襌
ZIHUI: 5200 2079
Beijing: ṣǝn 3
Jinan: ṣẽ 3
Xi'an: ṣẽ 3
Taiyuan: sǝŋ 3
Hankou: sǝn 3
Chengdu: sǝn 3
Yangzhou: sǝn 3
Suzhou: zǝn 32
Wenzhou: zaŋ 22
Changsha: ṣǝn 31
Shuangfeng: ɣin 32
Nanchang: sǝn 32
Meixian: sǝn 3
Guangzhou: šan 22
Xiamen: sin 32
Chaozhou: sieŋ 22
Fuzhou: seiŋ 32
Shanghai: zǝŋ 32
Zhongyuan yinyun: šiǝn 3
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Kiranti etymology :

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Proto-Kiranti: *khìŋ
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Meaning: bile
Tulung: khiŋ
Kaling: khaŋ; khi gall bladder
Limbu: khīŋ
Kulung: khiŋ
Yamphu: khiʔwäŋ
Comments: Some interaction with *khä 'bitter' was possible. Toba *kha_ŋ.
kiret-prnum,kiret-meaning,kiret-tul,kiret-kal,kiret-lim,kiret-kul,kiret-yam,kiret-notes,

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Limbu dictionary :

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Entry: khi:N
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: gall bladder
Derivation: [khikmaʔ taste bitter]
limet-prnum,limet-pspeech,limet-meaning,limet-dercomm,

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Kulung dictionary :

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Entry: khiN
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: gall
Nepali: pitta.
kulet-prnum,kulet-pspeech,kulet-meaning,kulet-nepali,

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Yamphu dictionary :

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Entry: khiʔwäŋ
Kiranti etymology: Kiranti etymology
Grammar: n.
Meaning: gall.
Nepali: pittā
yamet-prnum,yamet-pspeech,yamet-meaning,yamet-nepali,

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Burushaski etymology :

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Common Burushaski: *-́ken
Sino-Caucasian Etymology: Sino-Caucasian Etymology
Meaning: liver
Yasin: -́ken
Hunza: -́kin
Nagar: -́kin
buruet-prnum,buruet-meaning,buruet-yas,buruet-hun,buruet-ngr,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *gult- (in *gult-sur̄in)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: kidney
Bizkaian: kuntzurrun, guntzurrun, (Araba) gultzurrun
Gipuzkoan: gultzurrin, gultzurdun, gultzurdin, geltzurrin, giltzurrin
High Navarrese: giltzurdin, gultxurrun, (Lezaka) giltzurrin, (Esteribar) giltzurrun
Low Navarrese: giltzurdin, (Aldude) giltzurrin
Salazarese: giltzurrin, giltzurrun, giltzurdin
Lapurdian: geltzurrin, giltzurrin
Baztanese: gultxurrin
Zuberoan: gültzürrün
Roncalese: giltzurrin, beltzarrún, beltzurrún, beltxurrin, (Uztárroz) beltzurrin
Comments: *gult- exists only in compounds with *-sur̄in (q.v.). A bewildering array of variants, in which there are several secondary ‘folk-etymological’ associations with *urdin ‘blue, gray’, *gilc ‘joint’, and *belc ‘black’ (q.v.).
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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