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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *kàru ( ~ k`-)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: black
Russian meaning: черный
Turkic: *Kara
Mongolian: *kara
Japanese: *kùruà-
Comments: EAS 107, Владимирцов 324, ОСНЯ 1, 338, АПиПЯЯ 54-55, 73, 103-104, 274. Despite TMN 3, 427, Щербак 1997, 134, there is no need to regard the Mong. word as borrowed from Turkic (although it is not excluded).
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kara
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: black
Russian meaning: черный
Old Turkic: qara (Orkh., Yen., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: qara (MK, KB)
Turkish: kara
Tatar: qara
Middle Turkic: qara (MA, IM, Pav. C., AH, Бор. Бад.)
Uzbek: qɔrɛ
Uighur: qara, dial. qare
Sary-Yughur: Gara
Azerbaidzhan: Gara
Turkmen: Gara
Khakassian: xara
Shor: qara
Oyrat: qara
Halaj: qara
Chuvash: xora
Yakut: xara
Dolgan: kara
Tuva: qara
Tofalar: qara
Kirghiz: qara
Kazakh: qara
Noghai: qara
Bashkir: qara
Balkar: qara
Gagauz: qara
Karaim: qara
Karakalpak: qara
Salar: Gara
Kumyk: qara
Comments: VEWT 235, TMN 3, 426-432, EDT 643-4, ЭСТЯ 5, 286-289, 299-100, Лексика 592-593, Stachowski 138, Федотов 2, 362.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-tof,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *kara
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: black
Russian meaning: черный
Written Mongolian: qara (L 931)
Middle Mongolian: qara (HY 41, SH), qara (IM), qăra (MA)
Khalkha: xar
Buriat: xara
Kalmuck: xarъ
Ordos: xara
Dongxian: qara
Baoan: xera
Dagur: xara, xar (Тод. Даг. 174), hare (MD 157)
Shary-Yoghur: xara
Monguor: xara (SM 158)
Mogol: qarō; ZM qarā (13-8)
Comments: KW 168, MGCD 328. Mong. > Evk. karā, Man. qara etc. 'black (of horse)' (ТМС 1, 379, Doerfer MT 99, Rozycki 101, 133); > MKor. kara (măr), see Lee 1958, 119).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dun,monget-bao,monget-dag,monget-yuy,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kùruà-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: black
Russian meaning: черный
Old Japanese: kurwo-
Middle Japanese: kùrò-
Tokyo: kuró-
Kyoto: kúrò-
Kagoshima: kuró-
Nase: k`ùrù-
Shuri: kúrú-
Hateruma: ffà-
Yonakuni: kùrá-sá-
Comments: JLTT 833.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-nas,japet-shu,japet-hat,japet-yon,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ḳarV
Meaning: black
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kerǝs-
Altaic: *kàru ( ~ k`-)
Dravidian: *kar-
Eskimo-Aleut: *(ǝ)qruɣ
References: МССНЯ 372, ОСНЯ 1, 337-338. ND 1155 *Ḳarh[ä] 'black'.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-drav,nostret-esk,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kerǝs-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: black
Old Indian: krṣṇá- `black'
Old Greek: *karümnó- 'black': karümnón = mélan Hsch.
Slavic: *čьrnъ
Baltic: *ker̂š-a- adj., *kir[š]-n-a- adj.
Russ. meaning: черный
References: WP I 428 f
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: чёрный,
Near etymology: чёрен, черна́, черно́, черни́ла (см.), чернь ж., укр. чо́рний, блр. чо́рны, др.-русск. чьрнъ, ст.-слав. чрънъ μέλας (Супр.), болг. чърн, че́рен, сербохорв. цр̑н, ж. цр́на, цр̑нӣ, словен. čŕn, чеш. černý, слвц. čierny, польск. сzаrnу, в.-луж. čоrnу, н.-луж. саrnу, полаб. cárne "черный".
Further etymology: Праслав. *čьrnъ из *čьrхnъ, которое родственно лит. Kirsnà -- название реки, др.-прусск. kirsnan "черный", др.-инд. kr̥ṣṇás "черный", далее сюда же лит. kéršas "черно-белый, пятнистый", kéršė "корова-пеструха", kéršis "вол пестрой масти", karšìs "лещ", kiršlỹs "хариус", шв., норв. harr -- то же (прагерм. *harzu-; см. Лиден, РВВ 15; 510); см. И. Шмидт, Vok. 2, 33; Лескин, Bildg. 161; Буга, РФВ 65, 308; Бернекер I, 169 и сл.; Траутман, ВSW 134 и сл., Арr. Sprd. 358 и сл.; Лёвенталь, Farbenn. 8; Педерсен, IF 5, 67; Шпехт 119; Перссон 750; Френкель, Lit. Wb. 245.
Pages: 4,346
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Baltic etymology :

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Proto-Baltic: *ker̂š-a- adj., *kir[š]-n-a- adj.
Meaning: motley (black and white)
Indo-European etymology: Indo-European etymology
Lithuanian: kérša- 'weiss und schwarz gefleckt, schwarzscheckig'
Old Prussian: kirsnan `schwarz' V. 460
baltet-meaning,baltet-prnum,baltet-lith,baltet-oprus,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 942
Root: kers-
English meaning: a k. of colour (black)
German meaning: in Worten für Farben, bes. dunkle, schmutzige
General comments: und wohl auch bloßes ker-; vgl. auch kel-4 und ker-6.
Derivatives: kr̥s-no- `schwarz'
Material: Ai. kr̥ṣṇá- `schwarz' = apr. kirsnan ds., FlN Kirsnappe = abg. črъnъ, russ. čërenъ, skr. cr̂n usw. `schwarz' (*čьrxnъ, *čьrsnъ); ohne -no-Formans lit. kéršas `schwarz und weiß gefleckt', kéršė `bunte Kuh', kéršis `schwarzbunter Ochse', keršulis `Ringeltaube'; karšìs f. `Brassen, Blei (Fisch)', kiršlỹs m. `Asche'; die Intonation von kéršas paßt aber nicht zum Ai.;

    schwed. norw. harr `Äsche' (*harzu-); ags. heard-hara, heardra- m., nhd. holl. harder, herder `Meer-Asche'.

References: WP. I 428 f., Trautmann 118, 134 f.
Pages: 583
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *kar-
Meaning : 1 black 2 to burn
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *kar-
Proto-Telugu : *kar-ŋ-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kar-
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kar-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-gnd,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *kar-
Meaning : black
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : karu
Tamil meaning : black
Tamil derivates : karukkal darkness, twilight, cloudiness, sunburnt paddy crop; karukku (karukki-) to darken by heat, burn, scorch, toast, fry; karuku (karuki-) to be scorched, blackened by fire or sun, become dark in evening; karukal charred rice; karumai blackness; karum pon_ iron; kari (-v-, -nt-) to be charred, scorched, become black; (-pp-, -tt-) to char; n. charcoal, charred wood, lampblack; kariccān_ king crow; kaŋkul darkness, night
Malayalam : kari, karu
Malayalam meaning : black; charcoal, coal
Malayalam derivates : karikkal, karukkal twilight, dusk, frying; karikka to char, burn black, fire (a jungle), scorch; karippu jungle cultivation; karima, karuma blackness; karukkuka to be dusk; kariuka to be scorched, singed; vb. n. karivu; karimpu dark colour, grey; kariśal that which is singed, scorched; kaŋŋal darkness; kaŋŋuka to be singed, burn in cooking
Kannada : kari
Kannada meaning : to be scorched, singed, charred; fry, roast; n. state of being scorched, frying, blackness, charcoal
Kannada derivates : karaku, kariku state of being scorched; karidu black; kar-, ka- id.; kargu to turn black (or with DEDR 1494); kare blackness; kabbiṇa iron; (PBh.) karipu blackness; (Hav.) karañcu to be scorched; karañcaṭe scorched; (Gowda) kǝrṇṭɨ to become charred
Kodagu : kari- (kariv-, kariñj-)
Kodagu meaning : to be singed
Kodagu derivates : (karip-, karic-) to singe; kari black
Tulu : kari
Tulu meaning : soot, charcoal
Tulu derivates : kariya black; karŋka state of being burnt or singed; karŋkāḍuni to burn (tr.); karñcuni to be burned to cinders; karñcāvuni to cause to burn to cinders; kardụ black; karba iron; karvāvuni to burn the down of a fowl by holding it over the fire; karṇṭuni to be scorched; karguḍe a very black man; fem. karguḍi, kargi
Proto-Nilgiri : *kar-
Miscellaneous : KOR (T) kardɨ black
Number in DED : 1278
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-kodder,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-tulder,sdret-kt,sdret-misc,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *kar-
Meaning : black
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : kayr "charcoal, soot"
Toda : kary- (kars-) "to be singed, scorched, fried too much"
Additional forms : Also Kota kar black (or with 1395); kagutm darkness, dark place; Toda kary- (karc-) to heat (new pot, etc., to purify it); kary charcoal; ka, kax, kaxt black; kabɨn iron; kagār_f darkness; ka-pic Jasminum bignoniaceum; ? koš fɨṛ- (fɨṭ-) to dawn (lit. the darkness goes away); ? kāy maḍ, kāye maḍ the black-headed one (i. e. the Toda; in song; maḍ head)
Notes : Toda ka-, etc., all result from sandhi (in cases like kabɨn 'iron' < *kar-ǝm-pon, etc.)
Number in DED : 1278
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *kar-ŋ-
Meaning : to fade
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : kaggu
Telugu (Krishnamurti) : kaggu
Additional forms : Also (K) kaŋgu to be scorched, be burnt, fade; (K) krā̃gu to be burned
Number in DED : 1278
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-tel_kr,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *kar-
Meaning : black; to burn
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kinwat Kolami : kārī "black"
Naiki : karan, karen, kareyan "black"
Parji : ker-, (S) kerv- "to burn (intr.)"
Salur Gadba : karid- "to burn away as rice"
Additional forms : Also Parji kerip- (kerit-), (S) kervip- (kervit-) to burn (tr.); Salur (P) karv- to burn (intr.); karup- id. (tr.); karup din summer
Number in DED : 1278
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kol_kin,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-parji,kogaet-salur,kogaet-addition,kogaet-dednum,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *kar-
Meaning : to burn
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Proto-Gondi : *karv-
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-gon,

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Gondi etymology :

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Proto-Gondi : *karv-
Meaning : to burn (intr.)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Betul Gondi : karw-
Mandla Gondi (Williamson) : karw-
Mandla Gondi (Phailbus) : karv-
Gommu Gondi : karv-
Muria Gondi : kar-, kaṛ-
Maria Gondi : karv-
Koya Gondi : karv-
Adilabad Gondi : karv- (SR)
Additional forms : Also Gondi_Ph karsahtānā, Gondi_Mu kaṛih- to burn (tr.); Gondi_Mu kaṛha field for burning cultivation; Grigson kare area set apart for penda cultivation when left fallow for a term
Number in DED : 1278
Number in CVOTGD : 536, 563
gonet-meaning,gonet-prnum,gonet-gondi_tr,gonet-gondi_w,gonet-gondi_ph,gonet-gondi_g,gonet-gondi_mu,gonet-gondi_ma,gonet-gondi_ko,gonet-gondi_a,gonet-addition,gonet-dednum,gonet-voc_num,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *(ǝ)qruɣ
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: blue, green, dark (sky)
Russian meaning: синий, зеленый
Proto-Yupik: *qǝru-(Г-)
Proto-Inupik: *qIcuɣ
Comments: Cf. *(ǝ)qǝruɣ (-iʁ-) 'wood'.
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 310
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-newcom,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *qǝru-(Г-)
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: green 1, greenery 2, blue 3, bluish reflection in sky from open water 4, to become bluish, bruised 5
Russian Meaning: зеленый 1, зелень 2, синий, голубой 3, голубоватое отражение в небе над водой, дымка 4, синеть 5
Chaplino: qiɣúʁrāk (ɣǝt) 1, qiɣúʁāq 2, //qiɣuk 4, qiɣuʁruk 'smoke, smog'
Naukan: qǝjúʁuɫǝʁē 1, qǝjúʁalŋúq 3, qǝjúk 2
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: qiu- 'to become ripe', qiuq 'colour', qiulʁaq 2, 'fruit, vegetable'
Chugach (AAY): qijuiʁ- neg. 'to lose colour, to fade'
Koniag (AAY): AP qiuɫʁiaq 'berry'
Chugach (Birket-Smith): qiumalāt pl. 'salmonberries', [~ ɔqɔʁolīt pl. 'blueberry']
Central Alaskan Yupik: qiu- 5, qiuq (ʁ) 4, 'blueberry', qiuʁ/ɣliq, qǝzuqliq 3
Chevak (Peripheral): qǝju- 5, qǝjuʁliq 3
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 310
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-chug,yupet-koni,yupet-chgm,yupet-cay,yupet-chev,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *qỊcụɣ
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to be dark cloud over open water
Russian meaning: темные облака над водой
Seward Peninsula Inupik: qizuk
SPI Dialects: W qizuk* (ūk, uit)
North Alaskan Inupik: qisuk
NAI Dialects: B qicuk*
Western Canadian Inupik: qisuk
Eastern Canadian Inupik: qisuk 'vapor given off by sea during intense cold'
Greenlandic Inupik: qisuk (qisuk*) 'darkness in sky which shows open water'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 310
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-nais,inupet-wci,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVRV
Meaning : black
Eurasiatic : *ḳarV
Afroasiatic : *ḳVrh- (Omot. + Ar.)
Sino-Caucasian : *xḳărV́
Amerind (misc.) : *ḳara 'black' (R 64) [+ A K]
Reference : ND 1155; GE 82 *ḳara.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-amer,globet-reference,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *xḳărV́
Meaning: black; coals
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *ḳărV
Yenisseian: *qorVn- (~χ-,-ɔ-,-l-)
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-yen,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *ḳărV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: black; coal
Proto-Nakh: *ḳaru
Proto-Lak: ḳalaš
Proto-Lezghian: *ḳarɨ-
Proto-West Caucasian: *ḳǝ
Notes: There is a good correspondence between the PN, PL and PAK forms. If we take into account the meaning 'coal' in PN and in the PL compound, this etymology of the Lak. form also becomes rather probable. Lak. ḳalaš must be a modification < *ḳa-š:al < *ḳar-š:al, where the second component is most probably PEC *č_Häɫu 'sand, gravel' q.v. (normally reflected in Lak. as š:aIlu).

    Abdokov (1983, 94) compares the Adygh forms with EC descendants of *ḳ_wɨ̆nħV 'smoke' (q.v.), which seems less probable for phonetic reasons.

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-nakh,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Nakh etymology :

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Proto-Nakh: *ḳaru
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: coal
Chechen: ḳora
Ingush: ḳor
Batsbi: ḳor
Comments: 5th class in Chech., Ing., b in Bacb. Cf. also Shar. ḳoro, Khild. ḳoru, Cheb. ḳaru - proving the reconstruction with *-a-. The form ḳor in Bacb. is irregular (*ḳajru should be expected) and still has to be explained.
nakhet-prnum,nakhet-meaning,nakhet-che,nakhet-ing,nakhet-bcb,nakhet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: ḳalaš
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: charcoal
Lak form: ḳalaš
Comments: Gen. ḳulš:u-l (indicating strong š:).
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *ḳarɨ-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: black
Tabasaran: ḳaru
Agul: ḳare-f
Tsakhur: ḳarɨ-n
Comment: Cf. also the PL compound *ḳarV-š:im "black pebbles > charcoal" with somewhat irregular metamorphoses: Ag. ḳarešum, Rut. ḳašen, Kryz. ḳäšin, Bud. ḳǝšɨl.

    See Хайдаков 1973, 104.

lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-cak,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *ḳǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: dark
Adyghe: ṣ́ʷǝ-n-č̣́ǝ
Kabardian: č̣ǝ-f̣
Comments: PAK *c̣ʷǝ(n)-ḳǝ́ / *ḳǝ-c̣ʷǝ́ (in Ad. Bzhed. both ṣ́ʷǝnč̣́ǝ and č̣́ǝṣ́ʷǝ exist; cf. also both variants in Kab. wǝ-n-č̣ǝf̣- / wǝ-f̣ǝnč̣- 'to go out (as light)'). The root *ḳǝ is used within these two compounds with *c̣ʷǝ 'dark, black'; cf. perhaps also PAK *ḳa-ʁʷa / *ṗḳa-ʁʷa 'soot' (Ad. ṗč̣́aʁʷā-sa, Kab. č̣āʁʷa, č̣aʁʷāsa) - a compound with *ʁʷa 'smoke'. See Kuipers 1975, 33, 52, 53.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-adg,abadet-kab,abadet-comment,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *qorVn- (~χ-,-ɔ-,-l-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ashes
Ket: qɔĺǝn6 / qɔllǝn6
Comments: ССЕ 263. Werner 2, 101 <*qolǝn>.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-notes,

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