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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *gi̯ŏ̀[k]ó
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to run, send
Russian meaning: бежать, гнать, посылать
Turkic: *Kog-
Mongolian: *güji-
Tungus-Manchu: *gik-
Japanese: *kàká-
Comments: The medial consonant behaves irregularly: the Turk. and Mong. forms point to an intermediate *gi̯ogo, probably a result of assimilation < *gi̯oko.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *Kog-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to drive, pursue
Russian meaning: гнать, преследовать
Turkish: koɣ- (since 17th cent.)
Uighur: qoɣla- (dial.)
Khakassian: xoɣ-
Oyrat: qoɣ-
Yakut: kuolā-
Comments: ЭСТЯ 6, 9-10, VEWT 275 (should be distinguished from PT *Kob-).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-trk,turcet-uig,turcet-hak,turcet-alt,turcet-jak,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *güji-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to run, gallop, flee
Russian meaning: бежать, убегать
Written Mongolian: güi-, güjü- (L 390)
Middle Mongolian: gue- (HY 16, 36), gui'ji- (SH), gui- (MA), guj- (IM)
Khalkha: güj-
Buriat: güj-
Kalmuck: gǖ-
Ordos: güj-
Dagur: gui- (Тод. Даг. 133, MD 153)
Monguor: gwǝ̄- (SM 140), gui- (Huzu)
Mogol: güī-; KT gujä- (10-6a)
Comments: KW 140, MGCD 308.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-mogh,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *gik-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to gallop 2 to send 3 to spy
Russian meaning: 1 бежать рысью 2 посылать 3 разведывать
Even: gịqlị- 3
Literary Manchu: ǵaχala-ča- 1
Ulcha: Gịlta- 2
Nanai: Gịqo- 1, Gịaqta- 2
Oroch: gikta- 2
Comments: ТМС 1, 137, 149.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evn,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *kàká-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to run, gallop, flee
Russian meaning: бежать, скакать, убегать
Middle Japanese: kaka-
Tokyo: kaké-
Kyoto: kàkè-
Kagoshima: kàkè-
Comments: JLTT 702.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *Koki
Meaning: to trace
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *kʷek'-, *kʷAg'-
Altaic: *gi̯ŏ̀[k]ó
Uralic: *koke
Kartvelian: *gog-
Dravidian: *gōk- (?)
References: МССНЯ 335, ОСНЯ 1, 309-310; ND 606 *goki 'track' (Alt., Ur.), 1023 *ḲoḲE 'look, see' (IE + Drav. + sparse SH) - probably one root.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *kʷek'-, *kʷAg'-
Meaning: to show
Tokharian: ? A kaś, B keś (PT *keśä) 'number' (Adams 198 < *kʷoki-)
Old Indian: kā́śate `to be visible, appear; to shine'; caṣte , 2 du. cakṣāthe `to appear, become visible; to see, look at'; cákṣas- n. `radiance, clearness; look, sight, eye', cákṣu- m. `eye'
Avestan: ākasat_ `erblickte'; čašte, čašāite `lehren, Unterricht erteilen', čašman- n. `Auge'
Other Iranian: NPers āgāh `kundig', nigāh `Anblick'; MPers čāšītan `lehren', NPers čašm 'Auge'
Old Greek: tékmar n. `Zeichen, Wahrzeichen; Ziel, Ende', tékmōr n. `Ziel, Ende; Zeichen, Beweis'
Slavic: *kāzā́tī, *kā̃zjǭ; *kāzъ; *kāznь
Russ. meaning: казать
References: WP I 510 f
piet-meaning,piet-tokh,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-iran,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Vasmer's dictionary :

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Word: каза́ть,
Near etymology: -кажу́: вы́казать, показа́ть, сказа́ть, отказа́ть, приказа́ть, также ука́з, прика́з, расска́з и т. д., укр. каза́ти "говорить", ст.-слав. казати, кажѫ δεικνύναι, λέγειν, болг. ка́жа, ка́звам "говорю", сербохорв. ка́зати, ка̑же̑м "сказать", словен. kázati, kâžem "показывать", чеш. kázati "показывать, приказывать", польск. kazać, każę "читать проповедь, приказывать", в.-луж. kazać "показывать, называть", н.-луж. kazaś.
Further etymology: Вероятно предположение о чередовании и.-е. ǵ и ḱ в конце к. (ср. греч. δίκη "предначертание, указание"; δεῖγμα "доказательство" и т. д.) и родстве с др.-инд. kā́c̨atē "появляется, блистает, светит", ākāc̨ya "увидел", авест. ākasat̃ "увидел", нов.-перс. āgāh "сведущий", далее: др.-инд. cáṣṭē "появляется, видит", саkṣаs ср. р. "блеск, сияние, лицо", авест. čašāite "учит, наставляет", ср.-перс. čāšītаn "учить", греч. τέκμαρ "знак"; см. Бругман, Grdr. 1, 561; 592; 660; Уленбек, Aind. Wb. 90; Бернекер 1, 497 и сл.; Махеk, "Slavia", 16, 187; Буазак 950. Неубедительно фонетическое обоснование Агреля (Zwei Beitr. 26 и сл.).
Pages: 2,159
vasmer-general,vasmer-origin,vasmer-pages,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1088
Root: kʷek̂-, kʷōk̂-, kʷek̂-s-
English meaning: to seem, see, show
German meaning: `erscheinen; sehen; zeigen'
Material: Ai. kā́śate `erscheint, glänzt, leuchtet', cakāśiti, cakāśyátē `leuchtet, schaut', kaśa- m. `Sichtbarsein, Schein';

    av. ākasat̃ `erblickte'; npers. āgāh `kundig', nigāh `Anblick'; s-Erweiterung kʷek̂s-: ai. cáṣṭē (3. Pl. cakṣatē) `erscheint; erblickt', in Kompositis auch `ankündigen, zeigen', cakṣas- n. `Schein, Gesicht', cakṣu- `sehend', n. `Helle, Gesicht, Auge'; av. čaš(te, -āite) `lehren' (eig. `gewahr werden lassen'), mpers. čāšītan `lehren', av. apers. čašman- n. `Auge', npers. čašm, ds.;

    gr. τέκμωρ, junger τέκμαρ (nach τεκμαίρω) `Zeichen, Merkmal' (*kʷek̂-m[ō]r-?); anders Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 326;

    mit tönendem Auslaut aksl. kažǫ, kazati `zeigen, mahnen', u-kazъ `ἀπό-δειξις' (auch kaznь `δόγμα, Anordnung'), wohl idg. *kʷeĝ- neben *kʷek̂-?

References: WP. I 510 f., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 326, 519.
Pages: 638-639
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 339
Proto: *koke
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to see, find
German meaning: sehen, besichtigen, finden
Finnish: koke- 'befühlen, versuchen, suchen', koen verkkoja 'Fanggeräte visitieren' ( > Saam. L kåkēm 'Einholen des Fanges aus dem Netze')
Estonian: koge- (dial.) 'fürchten, hüten, sich schämen; испытать, приобрести', koeta- 'hervorbringen'
Saam (Lapp): kuoɔk̀α- 'Fischfanggeräte besichtigen'
Nenets (Yurak): χo- (O) 'finden'
Enets (Yen): koa- (Ch.), kua- (B) 'suchen, finden'
Selkup: qo- (Ta.) 'sehen, finden; spüren, gewinnen', qō- (Tur., Ty.) 'finden', k͔óo-, ko-, kó- 'id.'
Kamass: ku- 'sehen, wählen, prüfen, betrachten'
Addenda: Kar. kuottele- 'versuchen, suchen, etwas kosten' ( > Saam. K A kuttøllø- 'versuchen, schmecken'); Koib. кубамъ 'вижу', куламъ 'нахожу'; Mot. коямъ
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-fin,uralet-est,uralet-saa,uralet-nen,uralet-enc,uralet-slk,uralet-kam,uralet-add,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *gog-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: шагать (величественно)
English meaning: to proceed (solemnly)
Georgian: gog-
Svan: gog-
Notes and references: EWK 87. Ср. алт. *giago (/*giak`o) 'следовать, бежать за'; урал. *koke- 'осматривать, замечать' (алт. и урал. формы сопоставлены в ОСНЯ 1, 309-310).
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *gōk- (?)
Meaning : to look up
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gōk-
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-gnd,

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Gondwan etymology :

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Proto-Gondi-Kui : *gōk-
Meaning : to look up
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Konda : kok- (-t-)
Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *gōk-
Notes : In Konda secondary devoicing by assimilation.
gndet-meaning,gndet-prnum,gndet-kon,gndet-kui,gndet-notes,

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Konda etymology :

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Konda : kok- (-t-)
Meaning: to raise and project the head (while seeing a distant object)
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Number in DED : 2180
konet-meaning,konet-prnum,konet-dednum,

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Kui-Kuwi etymology :

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Proto-Kui-Kuwi : *gōk-
Meaning : to stretch forth
Gondwan etymology: Gondwan etymology
Kui : gōpka (< gōk-p-; gōkt-) "to stretch forth, stretch the neck in order to observe something, crane the head out, put forth the ear (corn)"
Kuwi (Fitzgerald) : gōkhmū "look up!"
Kuwi (Israel) : gōk- "to look up, await"
Number in DED : 2180
kuiet-meaning,kuiet-prnum,kuiet-kui,kuiet-kuwi_f,kuiet-kuwi_isr,kuiet-dednum,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : KVKV
Meaning : to trace
Eurasiatic : *Koki
Afroasiatic : Cush. *gwVg/k- 'go away, road', Om. 'road'
Reference : МССНЯ 335, ОСНЯ 1, 309; ND 606.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-reference,

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