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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀ra
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to be
Russian meaning: быть
Turkic: *er-
Mongolian: *ere-
Tungus-Manchu: *eri-
Japanese: *àr-
Comments: Cf. Mong. *a- (MMong. a-) a defective auxiliary verb. This, together with the frequent absence of -r- in Turkic paradigms, may speak in favour of reconstructing monosyllabic *er for PA.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *er-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be (aux.)
Russian meaning: быть (вспом.)
Old Turkic: er- (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: er- (MK, KB)
Turkish: i-
Tatar: i- (i-ken (perf.) 'it appears', i-meš (evident.) '...says that it is')
Middle Turkic: er- (Abush.)
Uzbek: e-, er-ür (fut.)
Uighur: e-
Sary-Yughur: er-
Azerbaidzhan: i-
Turkmen: er-
Khakassian: i-
Shor: e-
Oyrat: e-
Halaj: är- (D. GCh 182)
Yakut: e-/er-
Dolgan: e-/er-
Tuva: e-/ir-
Kirghiz: e-
Kazakh: e-
Noghai: e-
Bashkir: i-
Balkar: e-
Gagauz: i-/ir-
Karaim: e-
Karakalpak: e-
Salar: ir- (Kakuk 182)
Kumyk: e-
Comments: EDT 193-194, VEWT 46, ЭСТЯ 1, 218-220, Stachowski 42, 46. The verb frequently occurs as e-, without the final -r- (see ibid.).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-hak,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-khal,turcet-jak,turcet-dolg,turcet-tuv,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *ere-ɣül
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: healthy, sober
Russian meaning: здоровый, трезвый
Written Mongolian: ere-gül, ele-gür
Middle Mongolian: iläur (MA 152), elor (IM 437), ileur (LH)
Khalkha: erǖl
Buriat: erǖl
Kalmuck: erǖl
Ordos: erǖl
Comments: KW 128. Mong. > Oyr. elǖr etc. (VEWT 41).
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-mmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *eri-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to breathe 2 breath 3 soul
Russian meaning: 1 дышать 2 дыхание 3 душа
Evenki: erī- 1, erīn 2, 3
Even: eri- 1, erin 2
Negidal: ejī- 1, ejgen 2, 3
Spoken Manchu: erǝxǝn 'breath, life' (39, 693, 2965)
Literary Manchu: erge- 'to rest', ergen 2, 3
Jurchen: erin-he ( = erhen) (517)
Ulcha: ersi- 1, erge(n) 2
Orok: er(i)- 1
Nanai: erisi- 1, ergẽ 2
Oroch: egge 3
Udighe: ege 2, 3, dial. eje 2
Solon: ergē 'life'
Comments: ТМС 2, 464.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *àr-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be
Russian meaning: быть
Old Japanese: ar-
Middle Japanese: àr-
Tokyo: ár-
Kyoto: àr-
Kagoshima: àr-
Comments: JLTT 677.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *erV
Meaning: to be
Indo-European: ? *rēy-
Altaic: *ĕ̀ra
Kartvelian: *r-, *ar-
Dravidian: *ir-/*er-
nostret-meaning,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-kart,nostret-drav,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *rēy-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to give; to possess
Old Indian: rā́ti, rarate, rāsate `to grant, give, bestow', ptc. rātá-; rā-s m. (acc. rā́yam, rā́m) `property, possessions', rātí- f. `favour, grace, gift', rāyi- `Gabe, Besitz, Kleinod', revánt- `wealthy'
Avestan: raēvant- `reich'; rā- `gewähren, spenden', rāta- `dargebracht'
Latin: rēs, gen. reī, dat. rē, acc. rem, abl. rē `Sache, Ding, Sachlage; Besitztun, Hab und Gut, Interesee, Vorteil, Nutzen; Ursache, Grund; Geschäft; Rechtssache; Gemeinwesen'; reus, rea `der (die) Angeklagte'
Other Italic: Umbr re-per `prō rē', abl., dat. ri `rē'
Russ. meaning: предоставлять; владеть
References: WP II 343
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-lat,piet-ital,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 1595
Root: rei-4 : rēi-
English meaning: thing; possession
German meaning: `Besitz, Sache'
General comments: nach Burrow (Sanscrit 178, 245) wäre ē aus eH vor entstanden?
Material: Ai. rai- m. f. `Besitz, Reichtum' in rā́ḥ, rāyáḥ (ursprüngl. i-Stamm); das ā von rāḥ nach dem Akk. Sg. rām, der ebenfalls analogisches ā hat (nach gām, oben S. 482); rayí- `Gabe, Besitz, Kleinod' (av. Akk. Pl. raēš, leg. rayīš), rayi-vánt-, meist rē-vánt- `reich'; av. Instr. Sg. raya (leg. rāyā) = ai. rāyā́ (zu rā́ḥ), av. raēvant `reich'; ai. av. rā- `geben' (erweitert ai. rāsatē `gibt'), ai. rātí- `Gabe, Geber'; ai. rāta-, av. rātō `gegeben';

    lat. rēs, reī `Sache, Besitz' (das ē nach dem Akk. rēm aus *reHim?), umbr. re-per `pro rē', Dat. Abl. ri; dazu lat. reus `Prozesspartei, der (die) Angeklagte' (*rēi̯-os); unklar mcymr. rei `Reichtum'.

References: WP. II 343, WH. II 430 f., 432, Wackernagel-Debrunner III 214 ff.; O. Szemerényi nimmt (brieflich) mit Burrow (Sanscrit 178, 245) und Kurylowicz (Études 36 f.) eine Grundform *reHi- für das Nomen und *reH- für das Verbum an (?).
Pages: 860
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-comments,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *r-, *ar-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: быть
English meaning: to be
Georgian: r-, ar-
Megrel: r-, or-
Svan: r-, ar-
Laz: r-, or-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 154-155, EWK 275-276. В МССHЯ 332 сравнивается с урал. *le- 'быть, стать'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-Dravidian : *ir-/*er-
Meaning : to be
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Proto-South Dravidian: *ir-
Proto-Telugu : *ir-
Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *er- (?)
Notes : If PKG does belong here, we have to suggest an old (morphological?) alternation in PDr.
dravet-meaning,dravet-prnum,dravet-sdr,dravet-tel,dravet-koga,dravet-notes,

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South Dravidian etymology :

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Proto-South Dravidian : *ir-
Meaning : to exist, be; to sit
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Tamil : iru (-pp-, -nt-)
Tamil meaning : to exist, remain, sit down, live, belong to (dative of person); auxiliary
Tamil derivates : iruttu (irutti-) to cause to sit, detain, fix permanently; iruvu (iruvi-) to cause to be or abide; irukkai sitting, seat, residence; iruppu seat, residence, condition in life, balance on hand, surplus, stores, merchandise, wares
Malayalam : irikkuka
Malayalam meaning : to sit, remain, be in a place; auxiliary
Malayalam derivates : irikka being; irippu sitting, residence, position; iruttuka to seat, place, detain, settle; iruttikka to cause to seat; irutti a seat; iruttam, iruttu sitting, staying
Kannada : ir, iru (irdu, iddu)
Kannada meaning : to be, exist, remain, stay, delay, belong to (dative of person)
Kannada derivates : irisu to cause to be or stay, place, put, deposit; iravu, irapu being, staying, resting, state, condition; iruvike, iruha being, existing, etc.; irke, ikke being, abode, seat, place
Kodagu : ir- (-ipp-, iñj-)
Kodagu meaning : to be in a place
Tulu : ippuni (itt-)
Tulu meaning : to be, exist, live in; have, possess (dative of person)
Proto-Nilgiri : *ir-
Irula : iru
Irula meaning : be
Notes : Ir. 114.
Number in DED : 0480
sdret-meaning,sdret-prnum,sdret-tam,sdret-tammean,sdret-tamder,sdret-mal,sdret-malmean,sdret-malder,sdret-kan,sdret-kanmean,sdret-kander,sdret-kod,sdret-kodmean,sdret-tul,sdret-tulmean,sdret-kt,sdret-iru,sdret-irumean,sdret-notes,sdret-dednum,

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Nilgiri etymology :

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Proto-Nilgiri : *ir-
Meaning : to exist; to sit
South Dravidian etymology: South Dravidian etymology
Kota : ig- (ir- in one form; it-) "to exist, be in a place"
Toda : ɨr- (ɨɵ-) "to sit, remain, live; perfective-continuative auxiliary"
Additional forms : Also Kota irp collection of property; irpgārn rich man; ? igc- (igc-) to ignite (tic fire); Toda ɨṣt- (ɨṣty-) to seat, keep in a place; ɨṣk lifetime; īṣk dwelling, act of dwelling
Notes : Kota ig- < *ir-ǝ-K-, although the development is irregular. Toda ɨṣt- < *ir-ǝ-t- (= Tam. iruttu).
Number in DED : 480
ktet-meaning,ktet-prnum,ktet-kota,ktet-toda,ktet-addition,ktet-notes,ktet-dednum,

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Telugu etymology :

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Proto-Telugu : *ir-
Meaning : place, abode; firm
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Telugu : iravu
Additional forms : Also iravu-paḍu to become established, firm; iruvu neighbourhood, place, home; irugu neighbourhood; neighbouring; iravāru to become firm, fixed, settled; ikka place, abode, dwelling, seat
Number in DED : 480
telet-meaning,telet-prnum,telet-tel_1,telet-addition,telet-dednum,

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Kolami-Gadba etymology :

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Proto-Kolami-Gadba : *er-
Meaning : to be
Dravidian etymology: Dravidian etymology
Kolami : er- (e-, a-; edd-) "to become, happen, (story) is finished"
Naikri : er- "to become"
Naiki : er-/en- (ed-/edd-)
Parji : er- (eñ-) "to become, happen, be"
Ollari Gadba : er- (ed-, en-) "to be, become, happen, be born"
Salur Gadba : ēr- (edd-, enn-) "to become"
Number in DED : 823
kogaet-meaning,kogaet-prnum,kogaet-kolami,kogaet-naikri,kogaet-naiki,kogaet-parji,kogaet-ollari,kogaet-salur,kogaet-dednum,

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