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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *ĕ̀ka (~ -o)
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: bad, weak
Russian meaning: плохой, слабый
Turkic: *ek-
Mongolian: *(h)egel
Tungus-Manchu: *eke
Japanese: *àk-
Comments: Дыбо 12. Mong. may be < Turk.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *ek-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to decrease, be insufficient 2 common, ordinary, low class; fault, faulty
Russian meaning: 1 уменьшаться, быть недостаточным 2 обычный, низкородный; недостаток, недостаточный
Old Turkic: egsü- 1, egil 2 (Orkh., OUygh.)
Karakhanid: egsü- 1 (MK)
Turkish: eksi-, eksil- 1, eksik 2
Middle Turkic: eksü- 1 (Abush.), öksü-, öksül- 1 (Pav. C.), öksük 2 (Abush., Pav. C.)
Uighur: ögsü- 1 (dial.)
Azerbaidzhan: äskik 2
Turkmen: egis-, egsil- 1, egsik 2
Chuvash: iksǝl- 1, jǝksek 2
Kirghiz: öksü- 1, öksük 2
Gagauz: jisil- 1
Karaim: eksil- 1, eksik 2
Comments: ЭСТЯ 1, 257-258, Егоров 77, Мудрак Дисс. 199; EDT 106, 117. The Chuv. Anlaut is not quite clear (iksǝl- < *jǝksǝl-?; one of the cases with prothetic j-, so the openness / closedness of the vowel in PT remains unknown); Федотов 1, 193 derives Chuv. jǝksik from PT *jek (v. sub *ĺā̀k`è), but this is phonetically impossible.
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-chg,turcet-uig,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-chv,turcet-krg,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *(h)egel
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: low, uneducated, not very good
Russian meaning: низкий, необразованный, не очень хороший
Written Mongolian: egel (L 297)
Khalkha: egil
Buriat: egēlej
Kalmuck: egl
Ordos: egel, egēn
Comments: KW 117.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *eke
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to decrease 2 bad, low 3 weak 4 evil
Russian meaning: 1 уменьшаться 2 плохой, низкий 3 слабый 4 зло, злой
Spoken Manchu: eki- 1 (2864), exǝ 4 (2508)
Literary Manchu: eḱe- 1, exe 4
Jurchen: exebe (341) 2
Ulcha: ekeči(n) 3
Orok: ekkē 3
Nanai: ekečĩ 3; exele (Kur-Urm.) 2
Comments: ТМС 2, 444.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-sib,tunget-man,tunget-chu,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *àk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to be bored, satiated
Russian meaning: пресыщаться, наскучивать
Old Japanese: ak-
Middle Japanese: àk-
Tokyo: akí-
Kyoto: àkì-
Kagoshima: àkì-
Comments: JLTT 675.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔVkV
Meaning: bad
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *ag-
Altaic: *ĕ̀ka (~ -o)
Uralic: BF *äka/ä 'anger, wrath, malice'
Dravidian: Cf. SDR *agaḍ-u 'wickedness' (4)
References: ND 18 *ʔäka 'be evil, hate' (IE, FU, Alt).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-drav,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *ag-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: sin, crime
Old Indian: ā́gas- n. `offence, injury, sin, fault'
Old Greek: ágos n. `Fluch, (Blut)schuld; Sühne'
Germanic: *ak-a- vb., *ak-i- c., *akl-a- m.
Russ. meaning: грех, преступление
References: WP I 38
piet-prnum,piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-greek,piet-germ,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *akan- vb., *aki-z, *akla-z
Meaning: bad, evil
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old English: { acan `pijn doen', eke m. }
English: ache
Old Frisian: akelig, aeklig `horridus, miser, vehemens'
Middle Dutch: akel m. `leed, verdriet, nadeel'
Dutch: akelig
Low German: äken `pijn doen'
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-lg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 18
Root: agos-
English meaning: fault, sin
German meaning: `Fehl, Schuld, Sünde'
Material: Ai. ā́gas- n., ablautend mit gr. ἄγος `schwere Schuld, Blutschuld'; ai. ánāgas-, gr. ἀναγής `schuldlos'; ἀγής, ἐναγής `verflucht', ἄγιος μιαρός.

    Diese entschieden ins sittliche Gebiet gewendete Bed. `Schuld, Frevel' ist vielleicht aus sinnlicherem `Schaden, Wehtun' entwickelt: ags. acan, ōc `schmerzen' (engl. ache), ndd. äken `schmerzen, eitern, beulen', mndl. akel `Leid, Unrecht, Schade', nfries. akelig, aeklig `horridus, miser, vehemens'.

References: WP. I 38.
Pages: 8
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVKV
Meaning : bad
Eurasiatic : *ʔVkV
Afroasiatic : *ʔk
Sino-Caucasian : *HāgwV
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *ʔk ???
Meaning: hate, evil
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Notes: Sem, Bed - see NDr 18.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-notes,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HāgwV
Meaning: bad
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
North Caucasian: *HāgwV
Sino-Tibetan: *ʔāk
Basque: *ɦog(ʷ)en
Comments and references : In PNC cf. alternatively *ɦăG_Ă 2057.
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-cauc,sccet-stib,sccet-basq,sccet-notes,

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North Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-North Caucasian: *HāgwV
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: small; bad
Proto-Tsezian: *=igʷV (~-ɨ-,-ǝ-)
Proto-Lak: uIk:ʷi-
Proto-Lezghian: *k:ak:ʷV-lV-
Proto-West Caucasian: *(a)gʷǝ
Notes: The PL form is probably an assimilated compound of *kʷil 'hand' + *-ak:ʷV- 'small, bad' (cf. an analogous compound in Laki).

    [There seems to exist a different EC root, which may be tentatively reconstructed as *k_HwaGV with the same semantic scope: cf. PTs *gʷVqV- / *qʷVqV- > Gin. gaqi 'bad', Gunz. qoq-dās 'left', Arch. qIok:u, qIok-du- id., perhaps also Lak. kuja ( < *kuq̇Ia) id., which could be early borrowed in Av. kʷeʕa- 'left'. The relationship of *k_HwaGV to *HāgwV is not quite clear. It may well be that we deal with one and the same root or its compound with *kwi(l)- 'hand', subject to various irregular changes because of dissimilations and taboos.]

caucet-prnum,caucet-meaning,caucet-cez,caucet-lak,caucet-lezg,caucet-abad,caucet-comment,

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Tsezian etymology :

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Proto-Tsezian: *=igʷV (~-ɨ-,-ǝ-)
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: small
Ginukh: =egʷej
Comments: An isolated Gin. form, but with possible external correspondences.
cezet-prnum,cezet-meaning,cezet-gin,cezet-comment,

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Lak etymology :

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Lak root: uIk:ʷi-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bad
Lak form: uIk:i-s:a
Comments: Cf. also kuIč:a 'left-handed' ( < kʷa-uIk:a, a compound with kʷa- 'hand'), whence kuIč:a-χ-s:a 'left'.
laket-prnum,laket-meaning,laket-lak,laket-comment,

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Lezghian etymology :

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Proto-Lezghian: *k:ak:ʷV-lV-
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: 1 left 2 small
Tabasaran: gagul 1
Agul: gagur-t 1 (Fit.)
Rutul: gagla-d 1
Kryz: gügül 2
Comment: Cf. also Ag. Bursh. gergle-r. The semantic change 'small, bad' > 'left' is attested in several cases.
lezget-prnum,lezget-meaning,lezget-tab,lezget-agu,lezget-rut,lezget-krz,lezget-comment,

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Abkhaz-Adyghe etymology :

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Proto-West-Caucasian: *(a)gʷǝ
North Caucasian etymology: North Caucasian etymology
Meaning: small
Ubykh: agʷǝ́
Comments: In Ub. two roots are usually confused: (a)gʷǝ́ 'small' and gʷǝ- 'to grind' (q.v.); see Vogt 129 about this distinction. The root 'small' seems to have no correlates in WC languages, but has possible parallels in EC.
abadet-prnum,abadet-meaning,abadet-ubk,abadet-comment,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *ʔāk
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: bad
Chinese: *ʔāk bad, evil.
Tibetan: ʔag-po bad.
Comments: Coblin 38.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-tib,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading:
Preclassic Old Chinese: ʔāk
Classic Old Chinese: ʔāk
Western Han Chinese: ʔāk
Eastern Han Chinese: ʔāk
Early Postclassic Chinese: ʔāk
Middle Postclassic Chinese: ʔāk
Late Postclassic Chinese: ʔāk
Middle Chinese: ʔâk
English meaning : evil, evil-doer
Russian meaning[s]: 1) зло; преступление; дурной, скверный, гадкий; дурного поведения; безобразный; грубый; 2) болезнь; 3) грязь; нечистоты; 4) крайне, весьма; [ě] отврщаение; тошнота; [wù] 1) ненавидеть; гнушаться; 2) задеть; разгневать; [wū] 1) как; какой; где; 2) междометие ах!, увы!
Comments: Also read ʔāk-s, MC ʔò (FQ 烏路), Mand. wù, Viet. ố 'to hate'.
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 61
Four-angle index: 8352
Karlgren code: 0805 h
Go-on: aku
Kan-on: aku
Japanese reading: aku;u;o;warui;nikumu;aa
Vietnamese reading: ác
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-go,bigchina-kanon,bigchina-jap,bigchina-viet,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 1379
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : A: 宕開一入鐸影; B: 遇合一去暮影
ZIHUI: A: 1921 0215; B: 1921 0944
Beijing: A: ô 3; B: u 3
Jinan: A: ŋǝ 11; B: u 3
Xi'an: A: ŋô 11; B: u 3
Taiyuan: A: ŋǝʔ 41; B: vu 3
Hankou: A: ŋo 12; B: u 3
Chengdu: A: ŋo 12; B: vu 3
Yangzhou: A: aʔ 4; B: u 3
Suzhou: A: oʔ 41; B: ǝu 31
Wenzhou: A: o 41; B: o 32
Changsha: A: o 4; B: u 31
Shuangfeng: A: û 12; B: ǝu 31
Nanchang: A: ŋɔk 41; B: u 31
Meixian: A: ɔk 41; B: vu 3
Guangzhou: A: ɔk 43; B: uu 31
Xiamen: A: ɔk 41 (lit.); oʔ 41; B: ɔ 31
Chaozhou: A: ak 41; B: u 31
Fuzhou: A: auʔ 41; B: ou 32
Shanghai: A: oʔ 4; B: oʔ 4
Zhongyuan yinyun: A: o 43; B:
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Basque etymology :

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Proto-Basque: *ɦog(ʷ)en
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: ́1 fault, blame, sin 2 harm, injury 3 fraud, deceit 4 decay, downfall 5 innocent (without fault)
Bizkaian: oben 1, 2, 4, oben-baga 5, (arc) ogen 3
Gipuzkoan: oben 1
High Navarrese: oben 1
Low Navarrese: hogen 1, 2, hogen-gabe 5, (Aldude) hoben 1
Salazarese: oben 1
Lapurdian: hoben-gabe 5
Baztanese: oben 1, oben-gabe 5
Zuberoan: ógen 1, 2, ogen-gábe 5
Roncalese: ogen, oben 1
Comments: This is one of the words in which old /g/ has regionally changed to /b/, conditioned by a labial vowel.
basqet-prnum,basqet-meaning,basqet-bzk,basqet-gip,basqet-anv,basqet-bnv,basqet-sal,basqet-lab,basqet-bzt,basqet-zbr,basqet-rnc,basqet-comments,

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