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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *éča
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: early, morning
Russian meaning: рано, недавно, утро
Tungus-Manchu: *esī
Korean: *àčhắm
Japanese: *àsâ
Comments: Martin 236. An Eastern isogloss.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *esī
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: now, just now, not long ago
Russian meaning: сейчас, только что, недавно
Evenki: esī
Even: esi-me
Negidal: esī
Literary Manchu: esi 'yes, certainly'
Ulcha: esi
Orok: esi
Nanai: esi
Oroch: esi
Udighe: esi
Solon: eš́ī
Comments: See ТМС 2, 467-468.
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-evn,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-ulc,tunget-ork,tunget-nan,tunget-orc,tunget-ude,tunget-sol,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *àčhắm
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: morning
Russian meaning: утро
Modern Korean: ačhim
Middle Korean: àčhắm
Comments: Nam 342, KED 1077/
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *àsâ
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: morning
Russian meaning: утро
Old Japanese: asa
Middle Japanese: àsà
Tokyo: ása
Kyoto: àsâ
Kagoshima: asá
Comments: JLTT 384.
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-ajp,japet-mjp,japet-tok,japet-kyo,japet-kag,japet-comments,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *ʔVcwV
Meaning: early, dawn
Borean: Borean
Indo-European: *aus- ?
Altaic: *éča
Uralic: *aćV (*oćV) (cf. also *waśe)
Kartvelian: *ac̣-
References: ND 112 *ʕawĉV (or *ʕaĉwV) (Ur.-IE, but also Kui-Kuwi *ōǯ- 'bright, beautiful' and Arab. ʕašiy-, ʕašwat- 'dernière partie du jour, obscurité de la nuit' - very dubious).
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-ier,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-reference,

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Indo-European etymology :

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Proto-IE: *aus-
Meaning: dawn, sunrise, east
Old Indian: uṣā́ḥ, acc. uṣásam / uṣā́sam, gen. uṣásaḥ f. `morning light, dawn'; gen. sg., acc. pl. uṣáḥ; usrá- id.; uṣar-, usr- f. id.; vasar-hán `striking in the dawn', vāsará- `relating to or appearing in the morning', m. `day'; uccháti, pf. uvāsa, arr. avasran 'to dawn'
Avestan: ušɔ̄, acc. ušɔ̄ŋhǝm, gen. ušaŋhō 'Morgenröte', ušastara- 'östlich'; usaiti 'leuchtet auf (vom Morgen)'
Old Greek: ion. ēṓs, -ọ̄̂s, ǟọ̄́s, att. héōs, gen., acc. -ō, dor. aṓs, a[w]ṓr, gen. awō̂, aeol. áu̯ōs (Sapph.), boeot. áas = es aúrion Hsch. 'dawn; day', {aeol. áu̯ā f. -not found!}, {locr. kat-āweos - not found!};heasphóros = heōsphóros Hsch.; áŋkh-au̯ros 'dem Morgen nahe' (Ap.Rh.); adv. áu̯rion `morgen', ai̯rinó- (Gl.) `morgend'; <hǟi-kanó-s>: ēikanós = ho alektrüṓn Hsch.
Slavic: *ūstrъ- aestivus: OChSl za ustra `tò prōí'
Baltic: *aũš-r-ā̂ f., *aũš- vb. intr., *aũš-mā̂ f.
Germanic: *aus-tr-a- n.; *aust-an=; *aust=
Latin: aurōra, -ae f. `Morgenröte', auster, -trī m. `Südwind'
Celtic: MIr fair `Sonnenaufgang'; Cymr gwawr `Morgenröte', Bret gwere laouen `Morgenstern'
Russ. meaning: рассвет, восход солнца; восток
References: WP I 26 f
piet-meaning,piet-ind,piet-avest,piet-greek,piet-slav,piet-balt,piet-germ,piet-lat,piet-celt,piet-rusmean,piet-refer,

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Germanic etymology :

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Proto-Germanic: *austra-n; *austan=; *aust=
Meaning: east
IE etymology: IE etymology
Old Norse: austr n. `Osten; nach Osten'; austan `von Osten her'
Old Swedish: oster
Swedish: öster; östan adv.
Old Danish: ostär
Danish: öst(er); 2) östen adv.
Old English: ēast adv. `to the east', ēast, -es m.; ēastan, -an m. `the east', ēast adj. `east, easterly', ēaster (ēastor), gen. ēastres, pl. -o n., ēastre, -an n. `Easter, the fest of E.' etc.
English: east
Old Frisian: āst adv.; āster adv.; fon-āsta
Old Saxon: ōstar `oostelijk'; ōstan(a) `im, von Osten'
Middle Dutch: ooster `östlich', oost `oostelijk, naar of in het oosten', ōsten(e) m.
Dutch: adv. oost; oosten n.; ooster-
Old Franconian: ōster-
Middle Low German: ōst `im Osten', ōster `östlich';
Old High German: ōst (um 800) `im Osten', ōst(a)ra `Osten', ōstarūn `Ostern', ōstana (9. Jh.) `von Osten', ōstar (9. Jh.) `im, nach Osten'
Middle High German: ōsten, ōst st. n., m. 'osten'; ōsten(e) adv. 'nach, im osten', ōster adv. `im osten', adj. 'im osten befindlich, östlich'
German: Ost, Osten
germet-meaning,germet-prnum,germet-onord,germet-oswed,germet-swed,germet-odan,germet-dan,germet-oengl,germet-engl,germet-ofris,germet-osax,germet-mdutch,germet-dutch,germet-olfrank,germet-mlg,germet-ohg,germet-mhg,germet-hg,

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Pokorny's dictionary :

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Number: 141
Root: au̯es-
English meaning: to shine; gold, etc.
German meaning: `leuchten', bes. vom Tagesanbruch
Derivatives: ā̆us-, u̯es-, us-; (ā̆)us-os- f. `Morgenröte'; *aus-tero- `östlich' (von einem Wznomen *aus-, oder als zum s-Stamm gehöriges *aus-[e]s-tero- aufzufassen? s. Brugmann II2 1, 327, wonach diese -tero-Bildung vielleicht erst durch Nachahmung der auf Adverbien fußenden Richtungswörter wie anord. vestr, nor-ðr aufgekommen ist); auso- `Gold'.
Material: Ai. uṣā́ḥ f. Akk. uṣā̆́sam, Gen. uṣásaḥ `Morgenröte', av. ušā̊, Akk. ušā̊ŋhǝm, Gen.ušaŋhō ds. (ušas-tara- `östlich'), woneben ai. Gen. Sg., Akk. Pl. uṣáḥ, av. Lok. Sg.uši-[δā̊, s. *demā- `bauen'] entweder von einem Wznomen *us-, oder als *us-s- zum s-St.; ai. uccháti = av. usaiti (*us-sk̂éti) `leuchtet auf (vom Morgen)', Perf. ai. uvāsa, Aor. avasran `sie leuchteten'; uṣar-, usr `Morgenröte, Morgenfrühe', uṣar-búdh- `früh wach', usrá- `morgendlich, rötlich', auch figürlich `Kuh', m. `Stier' (Frisk, Nominalbildung 3);

    u̯es-, u̯ōs- in ai. vasar-hán- `in der Morgenfrühe schlagend', vāsará- `morgendlich', m. `Tag' (vgl. dazu auch den wurzelverwandten r/n-St. *u̯es-r-, u̯es-n- `Frühling' unterbesonderem Schlagwort);

    gr. hom. ἠώς *(āusōs), Gen. ἠου̃ς (ἠόος), att. (mit Akzentneuerung) ἕως, dor. ἀ̄ώς, ἀFώρ, ablautend äol. αὔως `Morgenröte' (urgr. αυ[σ]ώς), böot. ἄα und Αἰαίη (*ἀαίη); ἄγχαυρος `dem Morgen nahe', αὔριον `morgen' (*αυσρ-); hom. ἤιε Φοι̃βε `morgendlich strahlender'; ἠι-κανός `Hahn' (*āusi- `in der Morgenfrühe singend');

    lat. aurōra f. `Morgenröte' (für *ā̆usōsā); auster (*aus-t(e)ro- = germ. *austra-) `Südwind', austrālis `südlich'; vermutlich auch aurum, sabin. ausom `Gold' als `*rötlich'; zu lit. áuksas (k unerklärt), alit. ausas, аpr. ausis `Gold'; vielleicht toch. A wäs `Gold', aber vgl. arm. os-ki `Gold', finn. vas-ki `Kupfer'; vielleicht Vesuvius (anders untereus- `brennen');

    mir. fāir `Sonnenaufgang', cymr. gwawr `Morgenröte', bret. gwere laouen `Morgenstern' (*u̯ōsri-, Pedersen KG. I 82);

    germ. *austrō in ags. ēastre `Frühlingsgöttin', ēastron Pl. `Ostern' = ahd. ōst(a)ra, ōstarūn; dagegen mit idg. -t(e)ro-, ahd. ōstar `östlich' und Adv. `nach Osten', nhd.Öster-reich, anord. austr n. `Osten' und Adv. `ostwärts', ags. Komp. ēasterra `östlicher', dazu Ostrogothae, älter Austrogoti als `die östlichen Goten'; ahd. ōstan `von Osten', ags. ēaste f. `Osten', anord. austan `von Osten her'; *āusōs in ags. ēarendel `Morgenstern', ahd. MN Orendil;

    lit. aušrà f. `Morgenröte', aũšta `es tagt', lett. àust ds.; lit. auštrìnis (vějas) `Nordostwind', lett. àustra f. `Morgendämmerung', àustrums m. `Osten'; im Ablaut žem. apýūšriai m. `Morgendämmerung';

    aksl. za ustra `τὸ πρωΐ' (über utro, jutro `Morgen' aus *aus(t)ro- vgl. Trautmann 19, Mikkola Ursl. Gr. 179 und Berneker 462 f. m. Lit., wozu Brückner KZ. 46, 212, der auspoln. ŭścić `glänzen' ein sl. *usto `Glanz' erschließt), ustrъ `aestivus' (s. Pedersen IF. 5, 69).

    Vgl. zum Ablaut J. Schmidt KZ. 25, 23 f., Hirt Abl. 134, 147, Reichelt KZ. 39, 69.

References: WP. I 26 f., WH. I 86, 87 f., Trautmann 19, Specht Dekl. 10, Wackernagel-Debrunner Ai. Gr. Ill 213 und 281 f., Kretschmer Gl. 27, 231; Leumann IF. 58, 121 ff., Schwyzer Gr. Gr. I 349, 514, 557.
Pages: 86-87
PIE database: PIE database
pokorny-root,pokorny-meaning,pokorny-ger_mean,pokorny-derivative,pokorny-material,pokorny-ref,pokorny-pages,pokorny-piet,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 1200
Proto: *aćV (*oćV)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: early
German meaning: früh, zeitig, erst
Mari (Cheremis): ažnǝ̑ (KB), ožno (U B) 'früher, vormals', (B) ošso 'alt, früher'
Udmurt (Votyak): vaǯ́ (S), vaź (K), waź 'früh, zeitig, eher, erst'
Komi (Zyrian): voʒ́ (S), oʒ́ (P), uʒ́ (PO) 'früh'
K. Redei's notes: Mari -nǝ, -no are case suffixes, Mari -so is denominative. To separate from Mord. vaśńa (*waśe-) 'zuerst, anfangs'
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-kom,uralet-redei,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *ac̣-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: отныне, теперь
English meaning: from now on, now
Georgian: ac̣(i)-
Megrel: ac̣(i), anc̣(i)-
Laz: ac̣i-, anc̣i-
Notes and references: ЭСКЯ 47. Климов (ibid.) отмечает сходство основы с СК материалом: ПСК *h[ä]nV 'теперь, сейчас' (см. NCED 487, часто с аффрикатными суффиксами: нах. *hin-ca / *hin-ʒa, гунз. hinčo-d etc.). Если носовой в занском исходен (т. е. в ПК реконструируется *anc̣-), можно думать о заимствовании в картвельском из СК источника.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-laz,kartet-notes,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : HVCV
Meaning : early
Eurasiatic : *ʔVCV
Sino-Caucasian : *HV́c̣V
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-scc,

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Afroasiatic etymology :

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Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *(ʔa-)na/if-
Meaning: breath, blowing
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Semitic: *ʔanp- (<*ʔa-nVp-) 'nose'
Berber: *-naf- 'fresh humid wind'
Egyptian: nf.t (OK) 'fan', nf (NK) 'breath; wind'
Central Chadic: *nip/f- 'breathe' 1, 'life' 2
Beḍauye (Beja): nifi 'to blow (wind)'
Saho-Afar: *naf- 'breath, soul' 1, 'face' 2
Low East Cushitic: *na/ēf- 'breath' 1, soul' 2, 'life' 3
Omotic: *nap- 'blow, swell'
Notes: Cf. EDE 126-7. Cf. HSED, 1828 *naf- 'breath' (Eg.; Saho 'breath' and Afar 'face', which is semantically doubtful; Som. 'breath, soul' and Oromo and Arbore 'body' which is very philosophical to relate with 'soul', though wrong, as 'soul' comes from 'breath' and it is hard to imagine the reconstructed term giving rise to 'breath' in some daughter languages and 'body', in others) and 1865 *nif- 'smell, breathe' (Sem. *nVpaḥ- supposedly "secondary formation based on *nap-", which is impossible to prove or disprove; Eg. nfy; CCh. *nif-, with *-f -prompted only by Eg. as both examples quoted have -p). Considering CCh. *-i-, Saho -a-, and Som. -a-/-ē (the other examples in both entries are irrelevant for semantical, and Eg., for phonetical reasons), there is not a least ground to reconstruct two roots.
afaset-meaning,afaset-prnum,afaset-sem,afaset-brb,afaset-egy,afaset-cch,afaset-bed,afaset-sho,afaset-lec,afaset-omo,afaset-notes,

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Semitic etymology :

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Number: 1996
Proto-Semitic: *ʔanp-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: nose
Akkadian: appu OAkk on [CAD a2 184], [AHw 60]
Eblaitic: a-bù /ʔappu(m)/ [Kr 9-10; Con 91; Bl E No. 2]
Ugaritic: ʔap [Aist 31], /ʔappu/ [Huehner 108]
Hebrew: ʔap [KB 76]
Aramaic: OLD, PLM ʔp, OFF ʔnp 'face, front side' [HJ 83]
Biblical Aramaic: BIB ʔanpṓhī (du. suff.) 'Gesicht' [KB deutsch 1669] 'face'
Judaic Aramaic: ʔappā, ʔanpā (also 'face') [Ja 186, 99]; ʔp 'nose' [Sok 69]
Syrian Aramaic: ʔappē, ʔappayyā (pl.) 'facies' [Brock 39]
Mandaic Aramaic: anpia 'face, forehead' [DM 27]; not to confuse with aputa, puta 'forehead, face' [ibid. 30] (see in *piʔ-at- 'face, front', No. )
Arabic: ʔanf- [BK 1 62]
Modern Arabic: ʔanf, ʔinf, ʔunf, all three forms attested, e.g. in NYEM [Behnstedt 43]
Geʕez (Ethiopian): ʔanf (also 'nostril') [LGz 28]
Tigre: ʔanǝf [LH 375]
Tigrai (Tigriñña): ʔanfi 'punta di penna; naso (in Hamasien)' [Bass 582]
Gafat: ãfʷä [LGaf 172]
Harari: ūf 'nose' [LHar 19]
Notes: Cf. SOD afunna, CHA ENN GYE END ãfuna, EZ̆A MUH MSQ GOG ãfunna 'nose' [LGur 21]; all <*ʔanf- + *funa <*pan- 'face' (see No. )?

    Note CAN: MOAB ʔnp 'to be angry' [HJ 83] which, together with HBR ʔnp do. [KB 72], may represent a semantic shift from 'nose' (see Introduction). Other types of semantic development can be observed in ARM ('nose' > 'face'); SAB ʔf (pl. ʔʔnf) 'fronts, near sides ?' [Biella 23] (quoted in [SD 6] without translation), MIN ʔnf 'fac̣ade' [LM 6]; and in JIB ʔɛ́nfí 'first, ancient', ʔɛ́nfɛ̄t 'a while ago' [JJ 4].

    There are derived verbal forms in ETH: TGR ʔǝf bälä 'to blow, to puff' [LH 375], AMH ǝnf alä 'to blow the nose' [K 1253].

    [Fron 44]: (*ʔanp- /GEZ,ARB,SYR,HBR,UGR,AKK/); [DRS 26]: *ʔanp-: AKK, UGR, HBR, ARM, ARB, ESA, ETH (incl. AMH afǝnč̣a, which is improbable, see [LGz 28]), JIB, MHR anūf 'avoir la colère tenace' (not found in [JM]); [KB 76]: HBR, UGR, AKK, ARM, ARB, ESA, GEZ; [Holma 18]: AKK, HBR, ABR, GEZ, ARM

semet-proto,semet-prnum,semet-meaning,semet-akk,semet-ebl,semet-uga,semet-hbr,semet-arm,semet-bib,semet-jud,semet-syr,semet-mnd,semet-ara,semet-dial,semet-gzz,semet-tgr,semet-tgy,semet-gaf,semet-hrr,semet-notes,

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Berber etymology :

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Proto-Berber: *-naf-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'fresh humid wind'
Ayr: a-năfo Aloj 141
Tawllemmet: a-năfo
brbet-prnum,brbet-meaning,brbet-ayr,brbet-twl,

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Egyptian etymology :

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Old Egyptian: nf.t (OK) 1, nf (NK) 2
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'fan' 1, 'breath; wind' 2
Notes: nfy (n) 'breathe'
egyet-prnum,egyet-meaning,egyet-notes,

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Central Chadic etymology :

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Proto-CChadic: *nip/f-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breathe' 1, 'life' 2
Tera: nifi 2 [Kr]
Daba: nìp [Li] 1
cchet-prnum,cchet-meaning,cchet-ter,cchet-dab,

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Bedauye (Beja) etymology :

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Bedauye: nifi
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'to blow (wind)'
Notes: Bla Review after Roper
bedet-prnum,bedet-meaning,bedet-notes,

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Saho-Afar etymology :

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Proto-Saho-Afar: *naf-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breath, soul'1 , 'face' 2
Saho: naf 1
Afar (Danakil): neef 2
shoet-prnum,shoet-meaning,shoet-saho,shoet-afar,

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Low East Cushitic etymology :

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Proto-Low East Cushitic: *na/ēf-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'breath' 1, soul' 2, 'life' 3
Somali: naf 2, 3, neef 1
Boni: nêf 1 SAM 1978, 70
Baiso: neefo 1, 2 (Hab-Lamb 1998, 133)
Notes: Cf. Oromo nafa 'haste, urgency' Gr 298 (<'heavy breathing'?)
lecet-prnum,lecet-meaning,lecet-som,lecet-bon,lecet-bay,lecet-notes,

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Omotic etymology :

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Proto-Omotic: *nap-
Afroasiatic etymology: Afroasiatic etymology
Meaning: 'blow, swell'
Kafa (Kaficho): naf
Mocha: nàṗiyé
omoet-prnum,omoet-meaning,omoet-kaf,omoet-mch,

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Sino-Caucasian etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Caucasian: *HV́c̣V
Meaning: soon, early
Borean etymology: Borean etymology
Sino-Tibetan: *cǝ̄wH (~ʒ-)
Yenisseian: *ʔäʔc
sccet-meaning,sccet-prnum,sccet-stib,sccet-yen,

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Sino-Tibetan etymology :

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Proto-Sino-Tibetan: *cɨ̄wH (~ʒ-)
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: early
Chinese: *cūʔ early.
Burmese: ćawh early, premature.
Kachin: ǯau1 be early.
Comments: Trung u1-dzu2 early. Sh. 54; Mat. 178.
stibet-prnum,stibet-meaning,stibet-chin,stibet-burm,stibet-kach,stibet-comments,

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Chinese characters :

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Character:
Modern (Beijing) reading: zǎo
Preclassic Old Chinese: cūʔ
Classic Old Chinese: cū́
Western Han Chinese: cǝ̄́w
Eastern Han Chinese: cǝ̄́w
Early Postclassic Chinese: cǝ̄́w
Middle Postclassic Chinese: cā́w
Late Postclassic Chinese: cā́w
Middle Chinese: cấw
English meaning : early
Russian meaning[s]: 1) утро; утренний; рано; 2) заранее; 3) прежде; давно
Comments: PST *cǝ̄w, cf. Burm. ćawh 'early', Kach. ǯau33 id. (see IST 54).
Sino-Tibetan etymology: Sino-Tibetan etymology
Dialectal data: Dialectal data
Radical: 72
Four-angle index: 2238
Karlgren code: 1049 a
Jianchuan Bai: cu1
Dali Bai: cu1
Bijiang Bai: cui1
bigchina-reading,bigchina-ochn,bigchina-cchn,bigchina-wchn,bigchina-echn,bigchina-epchn,bigchina-mpchn,bigchina-lpchn,bigchina-mchn,bigchina-meaning,bigchina-oshanin,bigchina-comment,bigchina-stibet,bigchina-doc,bigchina-radical,bigchina-oshval,bigchina-karlgren,bigchina-jianchuan,bigchina-dali,bigchina-bijiang,

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Chinese Dialects :

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Number: 274
Chinese etymology: Chinese etymology
Character:
MC description : 效開一上皓精
ZIHUI: 2483 1333
Beijing: cau 2
Jinan: cɔ 2
Xi'an: cau 2
Taiyuan: cau 2
Hankou: cau 2
Chengdu: cau 2
Yangzhou: cɔ 2
Suzhou: cä 2
Wenzhou: cз 21
Changsha: cau 2
Shuangfeng: cǝ 2
Nanchang: cau 2
Meixian: cau 2
Guangzhou: čou 21
Xiamen: co 2
Chaozhou: ca 21
Fuzhou: cɔ 2 (lit.); chau 2
Shanghai: cɔ 3
Zhongyuan yinyun: cau 2
doc-charref,doc-character,doc-mcinfo,doc-zihui,doc-beijing,doc-jinan,doc-xian,doc-taiyuan,doc-hankou,doc-chengdu,doc-yangzhou,doc-suzhou,doc-wenzhou,doc-changsha,doc-shuangfeng,doc-nanchang,doc-meixian,doc-guangzhou,doc-xiamen,doc-chaozhou,doc-fuzhou,doc-shanghai,doc-zhongyuan,

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Yenisseian etymology :

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Proto-Yenisseian: *ʔäʔc
Sino-Caucasian etymology: Sino-Caucasian etymology
Meaning: soon
Ket: aʔt (South.)
Yug: aʔt́
Kottish: et-paŋ
Arin: atɨ (Лоск.)
Comments: ССЕ 186. Werner 1, 80, 81, 271, comparing the Ket and Arin forms (but without reconstruction), and leaving out the Kottish form - evidently because the correspondence (formulated in КС 151) does not fit his system.
yenet-prnum,yenet-meaning,yenet-ket,yenet-sym,yenet-kot,yenet-ari,yenet-notes,

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