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Altaic etymology :

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Proto-Altaic: *č`ŏk`i
Nostratic: Nostratic
Meaning: to incline, sink
Russian meaning: погружаться, склоняться
Turkic: *čök-
Mongolian: *čökü-
Tungus-Manchu: *čoK[i]-
Korean: *čùk-
Japanese: *tuku-(m)pap-
Comments: VEWT 117, KW 431 (without the Korean form), EAS 64, SKE 43, АПиПЯЯ 286. Despite Doerfer's (TMN 3, 122) criticism, the root is certainly common Altaic. In Mong. cf. also reduplicated forms: Khalkha cogcojǯ sū-, Bur. sogsojžo hū- 'to squat', sogsogono- 'to curtsey'. The original meaning must have been 'squat', 'kneel down' - whence 'incline, sink', and further metaphorical developments: 'lose hope', 'die'.
altet-prnum,altet-meaning,altet-rusmean,altet-turc,altet-mong,altet-tung,altet-kor,altet-jap,altet-reference,

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Turkic etymology :

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Proto-Turkic: *čök-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to kneel down 2 to sink 3 to sit
Russian meaning: 1 опускаться на колени 2 оседать, тонуть 3 присесть, сесть на корточки
Old Turkic: čök- 2 (OUygh.)
Karakhanid: čök- 1 (MK)
Turkish: čök- 1
Tatar: čük- 1
Middle Turkic: čök- 1 (Sangl.)
Uzbek: čụk- 1, 2
Uighur: čök- 1, 2
Sary-Yughur: čoGe- 3
Azerbaidzhan: čök- 2
Turkmen: čök- 1, 2
Shor: šök- 2
Oyrat: čögö-dö- 1
Chuvash: śъk- 'to fall', śъʷg-ъʷn- 1
Yakut: sügürüj- 1
Kirghiz: čök- 1, 2
Kazakh: šök/g- 1, 2
Noghai: šök/g- 1, 2
Bashkir: sük/g- 1, 2
Balkar: čök/g- 1, 2, 3
Gagauz: čök- 1, 2, 3
Karaim: čök-, cok- 1
Karakalpak: šök/g- 1, 2
Salar: čök-, čöx- 1 (ССЯ)
Kumyk: čök/g- 1, 2, 3
Comments: VEWT 117, TMN 3, 120-122, EDT 413-4, Егоров 205, Федотов 2, 90-91. Turk. > WMong. čökü(le)-, Kalm. čökl- (KW 444; TMN 2, 121, Щербак 1997, 113).
turcet-prnum,turcet-meaning,turcet-rusmean,turcet-atu,turcet-krh,turcet-trk,turcet-tat,turcet-chg,turcet-uzb,turcet-uig,turcet-sjg,turcet-azb,turcet-trm,turcet-shr,turcet-alt,turcet-chv,turcet-jak,turcet-krg,turcet-kaz,turcet-nogx,turcet-bas,turcet-blkx,turcet-gagx,turcet-krmx,turcet-klpx,turcet-sal,turcet-qum,turcet-reference,

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Mongolian etymology :

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Proto-Mongolian: *čökü-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to lose all hope, to be a beggar
Russian meaning: терять надежду, быть нищим
Written Mongolian: čökü-, čöküre- (L 201)
Khalkha: cöxö-, cöxrö-
Buriat: süxer-
Kalmuck: cökǝ-, cökṛ-
Ordos: ǯöχörölči-
Dagur: čakaral 'утомление, усталость' (Тод. Даг. 180)
Monguor: ćugo 'eclipse'
Comments: KW 431, 432.
monget-prnum,monget-meaning,monget-rusmean,monget-wmo,monget-hal,monget-bur,monget-kal,monget-ord,monget-dag,monget-mgr,monget-reference,

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Tungus etymology :

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Proto-Tungus-Manchu: *čoK[i]-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to incline, bow 2 to squat
Russian meaning: 1 наклоняться, кланяться 2 сидеть на корточках
Evenki: čoko- 2
Negidal: čoxịtịn- 'свернуться клубком'
Literary Manchu: čuqu- 1
Nanai: čoqčojgan 'squatting' (Он.)
Comments: ТМС 2, 411, 404. Cf. also *čūči- 'to squat' (ТМС 2, 418) < *čUk-či- (?).
tunget-prnum,tunget-meaning,tunget-rusmean,tunget-evk,tunget-neg,tunget-man,tunget-nan,tunget-reference,

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Korean etymology :

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Proto-Korean: *čùk-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: 1 to die 2 to kill (*čùk-jo-) 3 to bow, incline 4 to squat
Russian meaning: 1 умирать 2 убивать (*čùk-jo-) 3 наклоняться 4 сидеть на корточках
Modern Korean: čuk- 1, čugi- 2, k:ul(h)- 3, č:ugɨri- 3, 4
Middle Korean: čùk- 1, skúr- 3, čùskɨ̀rí- 4, čùkjó-m 'killing'
Comments: Nam 433, 434, 63, KED 1503, 1504, 219, 1470, 1494.
koret-prnum,koret-meaning,koret-rusmean,koret-phn,koret-ako,koret-reference,

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Japanese etymology :

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Proto-Japanese: *tuku-(m)pap-
Altaic etymology: Altaic etymology
Meaning: to squat
Russian meaning: сидеть на корточках
Middle Japanese: tuku-baf-
Tokyo: tsukuba-
japet-prnum,japet-meaning,japet-rusmean,japet-mjp,japet-tok,

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Nostratic etymology :

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Eurasiatic: *cVḳV
Meaning: to bow, bend
Borean: Borean
Altaic: *č`ŏk`i
Uralic: *ćukkV- (ćokkV-)
Kartvelian: ? *c̣q̇w-
Eskimo-Aleut: *cikǝ-
Comments: Cf. 827.
References: ND 477 *ĉ̣oKʕE 'sink to a kneeling/squatting/lying position' compares Alt. with SH.
nostret-meaning,nostret-prnum,nostret-alt,nostret-ura,nostret-kart,nostret-esk,nostret-notes,nostret-reference,

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Uralic etymology :

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Number: 76
Proto: *ćukkV- (ćokkV-)
> Nostratic: > Nostratic
English meaning: to curve, bend
German meaning: sich krümmen, sich zusammenziehen
Mari (Cheremis): cǝ̑ɣǝ̑rɣe- (KB) 'sich krümmen, sich werfen' ?
Udmurt (Votyak): ćukges (G) 'gebogen' ?
Khanty (Ostyak): t́ȯ̆ken (Trj.), t́ŏkanǝ (DN), śŭkanĭ (Kaz.) 'Krümmung (eines Baumes)' ?
Hungarian: csukorod- (dial.) 'sich zusammenziehen, niederhocken, sich kauern', sukorodott (dial. SzegSz.) 'geronnene (Milch)' ?
References: КЭСКЯ; MSzFgrE; TESz
uralet-proto,uralet-prnum,uralet-meaning,uralet-germmean,uralet-mar,uralet-udm,uralet-khn,uralet-ugr,uralet-lit,

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Kartvelian etymology :

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Proto-Kartvelian: *c̣q̇w-
Nostratic: Nostratic
Russian meaning: уничтожать
English meaning: to destroy
Georgian: c̣q̇v-
Megrel: (n)c̣q̇(v)-
Svan: nc̣q̇w-
Notes and references: EWK 516. Ср. алт. *č`ok`i 'погружаться; умирать'.
kartet-prnum,kartet-rusmean,kartet-meaning,kartet-gru,kartet-meg,kartet-sva,kartet-notes,

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Eskimo etymology :

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Proto-Eskimo: *cikǝ-
Nostratic etymology: Nostratic etymology
Meaning: to bend down, to lower
Russian meaning: наклонять, опускать
Proto-Yupik: *cikǝ- ~ *cǝkǝ-
Proto-Inupik: *cikǝ-
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 77
esqet-prnum,esqet-meaning,esqet-rmean,esqet-yup,esqet-inup,esqet-refer,

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Yupik etymology :

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Proto-Yupik: *cikǝ- ~ *cǝkǝ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to put down, to bend down
Russian Meaning: нагибать
Sirenik: síkcǝχ 'putting down'
Chaplino: sikmúxtaqā, sǝkǝ́taqā
Naukan: sǝkǝ́sitāqa, sǝkǝ́tǝkǝŋáq part. pass.
Alutiiq Alaskan Yupik: ciktǝ- 'to lower head, to dive, to bow'
Central Alaskan Yupik: cikǝtǝ- 'to bend over, to bow'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 77
yupet-prnum,yupet-mean,yupet-rmean,yupet-sir,yupet-chap,yupet-nauk,yupet-aay,yupet-cay,yupet-ced,

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Inupik etymology :

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Proto-Inupik: *cikǝ-
Eskimo etymology: Eskimo etymology
Meaning: to bow, to lover head, to bend over
Russian meaning: нагибаться, сгибать голову
Seward Peninsula Inupik: siɣit-
SPI Dialects: Imaq sɨ́ɣɨtaq 'inclined', sɨ́ɣɨtáqtoq
North Alaskan Inupik: sikɨ-
Western Canadian Inupik: siki-
Eastern Canadian Inupik: siki- 'to drink from surface of water'
Greenlandic Inupik: siki- 'to stand in bending position'
Comparative Eskimo Dictionary: 77
inupet-prnum,inupet-meaning,inupet-rmean,inupet-spi,inupet-spis,inupet-nai,inupet-wci,inupet-eci,inupet-gri,inupet-ced,

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Long-range etymologies :

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Borean (approx.) : CVKV
Meaning : to bend
Eurasiatic : *cVḳV
Afroasiatic : *ĉ̣VkVʕ- 'squat', lie down (Sem., Chad.)
Sino-Caucasian : NC *č̣ü̆kwV / *č̣ü̆ḳwV 'be hooked, curved'
Reference : ND 477.
globet-meaning,globet-nostr,globet-afas,globet-scc,globet-reference,

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